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Encyclopedia > Wetland
A subtropical wetland in Florida, USA, with an endangered American Crocodile.

In physical geography, a wetland is an environment "at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and aquatic systems making them inherently different from each other yet highly dependent on both" (Mitsch & Gosselink, 1986). In essence, wetlands are ecotones. Wetlands often host considerable biodiversity and endemism. In many locations such as the United Kingdom and USA they are the subject of conservation efforts and Biodiversity Action Plans. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Ding Darling reserve, Sanibel Island, Florida, with an American Crocodile. ... Ding Darling reserve, Sanibel Island, Florida, with an American Crocodile. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Binomial name (Cuvier, 1807) The American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) is one of the four species of New World crocodile and the most wide-spread in range. ... Geography - (from the Greek words Geo (γη) or Gaea (γαία), both meaning Earth, and graphein (γράφειν) meaning to describe or to writeor to map) is the study of the earth and its features, inhabitants, and phenomena. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In ecology, an ecosystem is a community of organisms (plant, animal and other living organisms - also referred as biocenose) together with their environment (or biotope), functioning as a unit. ... Marine biology is the study of animal and plant life within waterbound ecosystems. ... For other uses, see Ecotone (disambiguation). ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Endemic, in a broad sense, can mean belonging or native to, characteristic of, or prevalent in a particular geography, race, field, area, or environment; Native to an area or scope. ... The conservation movement is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future. ... Diademed Sifaka, an endangered primate of Madagascar Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) is a an internationally recognized programme addressing threatened species or habitats, which is designed to protect and restore biological systems. ...


The United States Army Corps of Engineers and the United States Environmental Protection Agency jointly define wetlands as: Those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or ground water at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas. [1] The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is a federal agency made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ... EPA redirects here. ...

Contents

Characteristics of Wetlands

Soils

Wetlands are found under a wide range of hydrological conditions, but at least some of the time water saturates the soil. The result is a hydric soil, one characterized by an absence of free oxygen some or all of the time, and therefore called a "reducing environment." Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... Soil composition Water content or moisture content is the quantity of water contained in a material, such as soil (called soil moisture), rock, ceramics, or wood on a volumetric or gravimetric basis. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Soil is a complex mixture of materials, principally ground up rock and water. ... Dude, they should have something on hydric soil if they mention it. ... A reducing environment is one chacterized by little or no free oxygen (dissolved or as a gas). ...


Vegetation

Plants (called hydrophytes or just wetland plants) specifically adapted to the reducing conditions presented by such soils can survive in wetlands, whereas species intolerant of the absence of soil oxygen (called "upland" plants) cannot survive. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species. u fuck in ua ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


There are many types of vegetation in wetlands. There are plants such as Cattails, bulrushes, Sedges, Arrowhead, Water Lilies, Blue Flag, and Floaters like common duckweed. Pondweed is also another type of plant that grows in wetlands, but it is not easily seen. Peatland can be dominated by red maple, silver maple, and Elm trees. Some types of trees in peatland can exhibit lower trunks and roots that have adapted to the wet surroundings by forming buttresses,like the cypress, enlarged root bases to better support the trees in the mucky soil. Trees can also form knees, raised roots that allow for gas exchange. Swamps can also have white Cedar, Tamarack, and White Pine. Below the canopy, there are often limited amounts of shrubs such as speckled Alder, Winterberry, and Sweet Gale.


Mangroves are a species of plant which typically thrive in coastal wetlands (called marine or estuarine environments). They are a special tree taxon that can survive in salty wetland water. Mangroves also provide the base for the wetland food chain. They are the producers in the wetland environment. Because mangroves add sulfur to the wetlands, it makes the water more acidic, therefor allowing decomposed matter in the water to biodegrade faster than it normally would, which in turn, provides more food for the organisms in the wetland ecosystem.


Hydrology

Generally, the hydrology of a wetland is such that the area is permanently or periodically inundated or saturated at the soil surface for a period of time during the growing season. The presence (or absence) of water is not necessarily a good method for identifying wetlands because the amount of water generally fluctuates depending on such things as rainfall patterns, snow melt, dry seasons, and longer droughts. The three water sources that contribute to wetlands are:

  • precipitation falling within the wetland
  • groundwater moving up or out from the subsurface of the wetland
  • surface flow from the surrounding watershed or nearby water bodies (lakes, streams, oceans, etc.)

Location determines which of these sources will be contributing water to a wetland.


Topography

Generally, wetlands are located within topographic features that are lower in elevation that the surrounding landscape such as depressions, valleys, and flat areas. Topography plays an important role in determining the size and shape of a wetland by controlling where the water goes and how long it stays there.


Classification

Below are terms used for various types of wetlands:

  • A bog or muskeg is acidic peat land (peat bog).
  • A moor was originally the same as a bog but has come to be associated with this soil type on hill-tops.
  • A moss is a raised bog in Scotland
  • A fen is a freshwater peat land with chemically basic (which roughly means alkaline) ground water. This means that it contains a moderate or high proportion of hydroxyl ions (pH value greater than 7).
  • A carr is a fen which has developed to the point where it supports trees. It is a European term, mainly applied in the north of the UK.
  • A fresh-water marsh's main feature is its openness, with only low-growing or "emergent" plants. It may feature grasses, rushes, reeds, typhas, sedges, and other herbaceous plants (possibly with low-growing woody plants) in a context of shallow water. It is an open form of fen.
  • A coastal salt marsh may be associated with estuaries and along waterways between coastal barrier islands and the inner coast. The plants may extend from reed in mildly brackish water to salicornia on otherwise bare marine mud. It may be converted to human use as pasture (salting) or for salt production (saltern).
  • A swamp is wetland with more open water surface and deeper water than a marsh. In North America, it is used for wetlands dominated by trees and woody bushes rather than grasses and low herbs, but this distinction does not necessarily apply in other areas, for instance in Africa where swamps may be dominated by papyrus.
  • A dambo is a shallow, grass-covered depression of the central and southern African plateau which is waterlogged in the rainy season, and usually forms the headwaters of a stream or river. It is marshy at the edges and at the headwater, but maybe swampy in the centre and downstream.
  • A mangrove swamp or mangal is a salt or brackish water environment dominated by the mangrove species of tree, such as Sonneratia. Species
  • A paperbark wetland is a fresh or brackish water environment dominated by the Melaleuca tree.
  • A bayou or slough are southern United States terms for a creek amongst swamp. In an Indian mangrove swamp, it would be called a creek.
  • A constructed wetland is artificially contrived wetland, intended to absorb flash floods, clean sewage, enhance wildlife or for some other human reason.
  • A pocosin is a bog-like wetland dominated by fire-adapted shrubs and trees, found mainly in the southeastern United States on the Atlantic Coastal Plain.
  • Seasonally flooded basins or flats
  • Inland fresh meadows
  • Inland shallow fresh water

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) produces and provides information on the characteristics, extent, and status of U.S. wetlands and deepwater habitats and other wildlife habitats. The NWI also produces periodic reports on the status and trends of wetlands in the conterminous U.S. The NWI website includes a Wetlands Mapper in which users can view, download, or print maps of digital wetlands information. Lütt-Witt Moor, a bog in Henstedt-Ulzburg in northern Germany. ... Muskeg is a soil type (also a peatland or wetland type called a bog) common in arctic and boreal areas. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... Moorland in the Pennines (England); Coarse grasses and bracken tend to dominate especially in high rainfall areas. ... This article is about the country. ... A fen is a sere, a phase in the natural ecological succession from the open water of a lake to (for example) woodland. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... Alkaline redirects here. ... // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... This article is about marsh, a type of wetland. ... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... Genera Andesia Distichia Juncus - Rush Luzula - Woodrush Marsippospermum Oxychloë Prionium Rostkovia The Juncaceae, or the Rush Family, is a rather small monocot flowering plant family. ... Binomial name Phragmites australis (Cav. ... Species See text Typha is a genus of about eleven species of monocotyledonous flowering plants in the monogeneric family, Typhaceae. ... Cyperales is an order comprising monocot flowering plants of a single family, the Cyperaceae, known as sedges. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... An Atlantic coastal salt marsh in Connecticut. ... For other meanings, see Estuary (disambiguation) Rio de la Plata estuary An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ... In geography, a bar is a linear shoaling landform feature within a body of water. ... Species See text. ... Pastureland Pasture is land with lush herbaceous vegetation cover used for grazing of ungulates as part of a farm or ranch. ... Salting is the preparation of food with salt. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Dambo is a word used for a class of complex shallow wetlands in central and southern Africa, particularly in Zambia and Zimbabwe. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ... Species 236; see List of Melaleuca species Melaleuca is a genus of plants in the myrtle family Myrtaceae. ... Species 236; see List of Melaleuca species Melaleuca is a genus of plants in the myrtle family Myrtaceae. ... Big Cypress Bayou in Jefferson, Texas off of U.S. Route 59. ... The term slough (in the UK, pronounced to rhyme with cow; In the US, pronounced slew) has several meanings related to wetland or aquatic features that seem to derive from local experience. ... In United Kingdom usage, the term creek refers exclusively to a tidal water channel. ... // A constructed wetland is an artificial marsh or swamp, created for anthropogenic discharge such as wastewater, stormwater runoff or sewage treatment, and as habitat for wildlife, or for land reclamation after mining or other disturbance. ... Lower Antelope Canyon was carved out of sandstone by flash floods A Flash Flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas (washes), rivers and streams, caused by the intense rainfall associated with a thunderstorm, or multiple training thunderstorms. ... Sewage is the mainly liquid waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water, faeces, urine, laundry waste and other material which goes down drains and toilets from households and industry. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pocosin is a Native American term for a type of palustrine wetland with deep, acidic, sandy, peat soils. ... The Atlantic Coastal Plain is the rather flat stretch of land that borders the Atlantic Ocean (including the Gulf of Mexico). ... The USFWS logo The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is a unit of the United States Department of the Interior that is dedicated to managing and preserving wildlife. ...


Hydrogeomorphic Classes

The Hydrogeomorphic (HGM) Approach is a system developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers to classify all wetlands based on three factors that influence how they function: position in the landscape (geomorphic setting), water source (hydrology), and the flow and fluctuation of the water once in the wetland (hydrodynamics). There are seven classes (types) of wetlands in this system:

  • riverine
  • depressional
  • slope
  • mineral soil flats
  • organic soil flats
  • estuarine fringe
  • lacustrine fringe

This approach also intends to develop subclasses of wetlands to account for specific conditions of various regions.

Time lapsed animation of basin from 1956 to 1993.
Time lapsed animation of basin from 1956 to 1993.
Marsh in Point Pelee, Ontario, Canada
Marsh in Point Pelee, Ontario, Canada

Image File history File links Atchafalaya_basin. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x515, 205 KB) Summary Panorama stitch of Point Pelee (Ontario, Canada) Marsh Boardwalk in Spring. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x515, 205 KB) Summary Panorama stitch of Point Pelee (Ontario, Canada) Marsh Boardwalk in Spring. ... Point Pelee National Park is a park in Essex County in southwestern Ontario, Canada. ...

Wetlands in drylands

In contrast to wetlands in other biomes (usually permanent and fresh water), wetlands in drylands are more diverse in their composition, depending on the local climate and other particularities of the surroundings. They can be fresh or saline, permanent, seasonal or temporary, filling intermittently or regularly.
Wetlands in drylands can be attributed all values and uses of wetlands found in other biomes. However, given the stark contrast to their dry surroundings, many of these values are enhanced. This applies to the water balance where gradual release and storage of rainwater by wetlands amid drylands is crucial due to the unpredictability and incalculability of rain. During dry seasons, wetlands in drylands are also pivotal as refugia for wildlife, livestock and people. Moreover, biodiversity levels are higher than in wetlands in other major biomes, in particular because of the accessibility of water amid an otherwise very dry environment. In Ecology, a biome is a major regional group of distinctive plant and animal communities well adapted to the regions physical environment. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ...


Functions

Home of water birds in wetland near Tuchlovice, Czech Rep.
Home of water birds in wetland near Tuchlovice, Czech Rep.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (576 × 768 pixel, file size: 62 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (576 × 768 pixel, file size: 62 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Motto (Czech) Truth prevails Anthem Czech Republic() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Prague Official languages Czech Demonym Czech Government Republic  -  President Václav Klaus  -  Prime Minister Mirek Topolánek Independence (formed 9th century)   -  October 28, 1918   -  January 1, 1993  EU membership May 1...

Hydrologic

Hydrologic functions include long term and short term water storage, subsurface water storage, energy dissipation, and moderation of groundwater flow or discharge.


Examples

By absorbing the force of strong winds and tides, wetlands protect terrestrial areas adjoining them from storms, floods, and tidal damage. For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... This article is about tides in the Earths oceans. ... For other uses, see Storm (disambiguation). ... A flood (in Old English flod, a word common to Teutonic languages; compare German Flut, Dutch vloed from the same root as is seen in flow, float) is an overflow of water, an expanse of water submerging land, a deluge. ... This article is about tides in the Earths oceans. ...


Biogeochemical

Nutrient cycling, retention of particulates, removal of imported elements and compounds, and the import and export of organic carbon are all biogeochemical functions of wetlands. Wetlands remove nutrients from surface and ground water by filtering and by converting nutrients to unavailable forms. Denitrification is arguably the most important of these reactions because humans have increased nitrate worldwide by applying fertilizers. Increased nitrate availability can cause eutrophication, but denitrification converts biologically available nitrogen back into nitrogen gas, which is biologically unavailable except to nitrogen fixing bacteria. Denitrification can be detected in many soils, but denitrification is fastest in wetlands soils (for an example, see Ullah and Faulkner 2006). This does not cite its references or sources. ... Eutrophication, strictly speaking, means an increase in chemical nutrients -- typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus -- in an ecosystem. ...


Examples

Intertidal wetlands provide an excellent example of invasion, modification and succession. The invasion and succession process is establishment of seagrasses. These help stabilize sediment and increase sediment capture rates. The trapped sediment gradually develops into mud flats. Mud flat organisms become established encouraging other life forms changing the organic composition of the soil.


Wildlife Habitat

Wetland provide a safe and lush environment for many different species of fish, birds, and insects. It includes the mallard duck, the Sickleback fish, mangroves, and water moccasins.


Plant Habitat

Like animals, their are number of plant communites that will only survive in the unique environmental conditions of a wetland. In the continental U.S. wetlands account for only 5 percent of the total land area but over 30 percent of the nation's vascular flora occur in wetlands.


Examples

Mangroves establish themselves in the shallower water upslope from the mudflats. Mangroves further stabilize sediment and over time increase the soil level. This results in less tidal movement and the development of salt marshes. (succession) The salty nature of the soil means it can only be tolerated by special types of grasses e.g. saltbush, rush and sedge. There is also changing species diversity in each succession.


Value to Humans

While many of the functions above are directly or indirectly beneficial to humans and society, wetlands are specifically valuable to people as places for recreational and educational activities such as hunting, fishing, camping, and wildlife observation.

Small wetland in Marshall County, Indiana.
Small wetland in Marshall County, Indiana.

ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1579 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Wetland ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1579 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Wetland ... Marshall County is a county located in the state of Indiana. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ...

Adjustments to natural stress

In intertidal wetlands the majority of natural stress comes from salinity and tidal movements. The intertidal wetlands must be able to survive extreme conditions of mainly salt water at high tide, fresh water at low tide and times of flood and brackish water at other times. The saline water is a very difficult condition for plants to survive in. The grey mangrove accomplishes this by excluding salt in the root system, salt glands in the leaf, and waxy leaves to minimize water loss. However it is vulnerable to changes in salinity levels.


Changes to tidal movements through increased run-off or altered drainage can cause the roots of mangroves to be inundated for longer than normal periods affecting their pneumatophones. It can also be pushed past its threshold level if water quality is changed. Thus even healthy ecosystems are vulnerable to change.


Some species such as oysters and molluscs have been used as indicator species, with any decline in their numbers indicating the ecosystem is under stress. A change in nutrient levels may also affect primary productivity and thus bring about change.


Wetlands are often filled in to be used by humans for everything from agriculture to parking lots, in part because the economic value of wetlands has only been recognized recently: the shrimp and fish that breed in salt water marshes are generally harvested in deeper water, for example. Superfamilies Alpheoidea Atyoidea Bresilioidea Campylonotoidea Crangonoidea Galatheacaridoidea Nematocarcinoidea Oplophoroidea Palaemonoidea Pandaloidea Pasiphaeoidea Procaridoidea Processoidea Psalidopodoidea Stylodactyloidea True shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ...


Humans can maximize the area of healthy, functioning intertidal wetlands by minimising their impacts and by developing management strategies that protect, and where possible rehabilitate those ecosystems at risk.


Protection and rehabilitation

A temperate wetland in Britain, with shallow open water and reedbeds.

Historically, humans have made large-scale efforts to drain wetlands for development or to flood them for use as recreational lakes. Since the 1970s, more focus has been put on preserving wetlands for their natural function—sometimes also at great expense. One example is the project by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to control flooding and enhance development by taming the Everglades, a project which has now been reversed to restore much of the wetlands as a natural habitat and method of flood control. A temperate wetland, my photo released to Wikipedia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A temperate wetland, my photo released to Wikipedia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... United States Army Corps of Engineers logo The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is made up of some 34,600 military men and women. ... Map of the Everglades ecoregion as delineated by the WWF. Satellite image from NASA. The yellow line encloses two ecoregions, the Everglades and the South Florida rocklands. The South Florida rocklands ecoregion includes the Florida Keys and offshore islands and two patches within the Everglades. ...


The creation of the treaty known as the Ramsar Convention (1971), or more properly “The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat”, demonstrates the global concern regarding wetland loss and degradation. The primary purposes of the treaty are to list wetlands of international importance and to promote their wise use, with the ultimate goal of preserving the world’s wetlands. The Ramsar Convention is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands, i. ...

Exclusion
Those responsible for the management of wetland areas often facilitate public access to a small, designated area while restricting access to other areas. Provision of defined boardwalks and walkways is a management strategy used to restrict access to vulnerable areas, as is the issuing of permits whilst visiting.
Education
In the past, wetlands were regarded as wastelands. Education campaigns have helped to change public perceptions and foster public support for the wetlands. Due to their location in the catchment area, education programs need to teach about total catchment management programs. Educational programs include guided tours for the general public, school visits, media liaison, and information centers.

United States

among the Salt Marsh Nature Center, in Brooklyn, NY
among the Salt Marsh Nature Center, in Brooklyn, NY
Wetlands in the state of New Jersey
Wetlands in the state of New Jersey

In the United States, some wetlands are regulated by the federal government under the Clean Water Act. Determining the boundary between regulated wetlands and non-regulated lands therefore can be contentious. In reality, there is no natural boundary between the classes that humans define on these gradients (wetland/upland), and this issue is highlighted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s definition from Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States, which defines wetlands as “lands transitional between terrestrial and aquatic systems.” Regulations to protect water quality and highway safety require that we create arbitrary boundaries within those gradients, but these boundaries are scientifically definable, and consist of areas where three criterion of the presence of hydric soils, the presence of wetland vegetation, and the presence of appropriate hydrology. Such regulations must be predictable, reproducible, and enforced. Otherwise, we will sacrifice clean water for development in the case of wetlands regulation (or vice versa), or sacrifice safe travel for quick travel (or vice versa) in the case of speed limits. Determining which wetlands are regulated under section 404 of the clean water act or section 10 of the rivers and harbors act is termed “jurisdictional determination.” Determining the boundary of wetland, whether jurisdictional under sections 404 or 10, or not jurisdictional but still meeting the technical definition of a wetland, that is having the soils, vegetation and hydrology criterion met is called a "wetland delineation," and generally is performed by college graduates with natural science or biology degrees working for engineering firms or environmental consulting firms who are familiar with the 1987 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Wetland delineation manual. Defining a boundary depends upon soil and vegetation characteristics; it is easier to do where the slope of the land is steeper. Deciding if a wetland is a regulated wetland depends on classifying the water in it as “water of the United States” or not. Classifying water as “of the U.S.” or “not of the U.S.” for purposes of enforcing the Clean Water Act suggests a natural boundary that probably does not exist in nature, and one that was not created regarding air for purposes of enforcing the Clean Air Act. Indiana Wetlands are the focus of the US National Wetlands Coalition, which in turn has become the focus of some controversy over "false fronts," a form of political camouflage. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 167 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) WEtlands near Secaucus, New Jersey File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wetland... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 167 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) WEtlands near Secaucus, New Jersey File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wetland... The Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. Â§ 1251, et seq. ... The USFWS logo The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is a unit of the United States Department of the Interior that is dedicated to managing and preserving wildlife. ... Dude, they should have something on hydric soil if they mention it. ... Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... United States Army Corps of Engineers logo The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Countershaded Ibex are almost invisible in the Israeli desert. ...

See also: National Wetlands Research Center and Wetlands Reserve Program

The National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC) was founded in 1975 as part of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services (USFWS) Office of Biological Services. ... The Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) is a voluntary program offering landowners the opportunity to protect, restore, and enhance wetlands on their property. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Definition from Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual by Environmental Laboratory U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station 3909 Halls Ferry Road Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199 jbhdbbjncibhjbidh

See also

Lütt-Witt Moor, a bog in Henstedt-Ulzburg in northern Germany. ... This article is about marsh, a type of wetland. ... An Atlantic coastal salt marsh in Connecticut. ... The term slough (in the UK, pronounced to rhyme with cow; In the US, pronounced slew) has several meanings related to wetland or aquatic features that seem to derive from local experience. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Flooded grasslands and savannas are a biome, generally located at subtropical and tropical latitudes, where flooding is very frequent. ... Freshwater swamp forests or flooded forests are forests which are inundated with freshwater, either permanently or seasonally. ... Peat swamp forests are areas of land where the peat, created by the leave compost has become a boggy marsh and the forests are resposible for this. ...

References

External links

Mitsch, W.J. and J.G. Gosselink. 2007. Wetlands, 4th ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 582 pp.


  Results from FactBites:
 
University of Hull, Department of Geography (238 words)
In waterlogged conditions, decay processes occur relatively slowly, and therefore many wetlands are characterised by thick deposits of sediment.
These sediments consist of the remains of plants, animals and micro-organisms living in and around the wetland, along with other materials brought in by run-off, floods and streams, carried by wind and rain, or left by animals and people, intentionally or accidentally (a lost shoe or fishhook, the remains of a path or platform...).
WAERC is a highly interdisciplinary regional, national and international centre of research, on the record of past landscapes contained within wetland sedimentary systems, both in using archive to reconstruct past environments, and in advising and studying the threat to and preservation of this often vulnerable resource.
River Corridor and Wetland Restoration | Wetlands | U.S. EPA (127 words)
Wetland restoration is an essential tool in the campaign to protect, improve, and increase wetlands.
Wetlands that have been filled and drained retain their characteristic soil and hydrology, allowing their natural functions to be reclaimed.
It involves renewing natural and historical wetlands that have been lost or degraded and reclaiming their functions and values as vital ecosystems.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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