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Encyclopedia > Westphalia

Westphalia (German: Westfalen [vɛstˈfaːlən]) is a region in Germany, centred on the cities of Bielefeld, Bochum, Dortmund, Gelsenkirchen, Münster, and Osnabrück and included in the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony. Westphalia can refer to any of the following places worldwide: Westphalia, a region in Germany, known as Westfalen in German Kingdom of Westphalia Province of Westphalia North Rhine-Westphalia Westphalia, Kansas, a city in the U.S. state of Kansas Westphalia, Michigan, a village in the U.S. state of... Bielefeld is a district-free town in the Regierungsbezirk Detmold in the north-east of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Bochum is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Dortmund is a city in Germany, located in the Bundesland of North Rhine-Westphalia, in the Ruhr area. ... , Gelsenkirchen-Buer looking south towards downtown Gelsenkirchen, 1955. ... For other places with the same or similar names, and other uses of the word, see Munster (disambiguation) Münster is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... , Osnabrück (IPA: ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, some 80 km NNE of Dortmund, 45 km NE of Münster, and some 100 km due west of Hanover. ... Coat of arms Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEA Capital Düsseldorf Prime Minister Jürgen Rüttgers (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  34,084 km² (13,160 sq mi) Population 18,033,000... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ...

Three entities known (or partly-known) as Westphalia, superimposed upon the modern state borders of Germany: Green: Kingdom of Westphalia (1807-1813) Red: Province of Westphalia (1815-1946) Dark grey: North Rhine-Westphalia (1946-)
Three entities known (or partly-known) as Westphalia, superimposed upon the modern state borders of Germany:
Green: Kingdom of Westphalia (1807-1813)
Red: Province of Westphalia (1815-1946)
Dark grey: North Rhine-Westphalia (1946-)

The name "West-phalia" probably means "West-Plain". The second word, "Falen", is related to the Germanic words "Field", "Flat", and "Floor" (all of which are related to the Latin "planus" through a common Proto-Indo-European root, *pele, meaning "flat, (to) spread"). Image File history File links Westphalia_x3. ... Image File history File links Westphalia_x3. ... The Kingdom of Westphalia is a historical state in present-day Germany that existed from 1807-1813. ... Westphalia and the other Provinces of Prussia in the German Empire. ... Coat of arms Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEA Capital Düsseldorf Prime Minister Jürgen Rüttgers (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  34,084 km² (13,160 sq mi) Population 18,033,000... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ...


Westphalia is roughly the region between the rivers Rhine and Weser, located north of the Ruhr River. No exact definition of borders can be given, because the name "Westphalia" was applied to several different entities in history. For this reason specifications of area and population are greatly differing. They range between 16,000 and 22,000 km² in land area, and between 4.3 million and 8 million inhabitants. There is however consent that both Münster and Osnabrück as well as Bielefeld and Dortmund are part of Westphalia. It has been suggested that River Rhine Pollution: November 1986 be merged into this article or section. ... Weser watershed The Weser is a river of north-western Germany. ... For the conurbation see Ruhr Area. ...

Contents

History

Roman Incursion

Around 0 A.D. there were numerous incursions through Westphalia and maybe even some permanent Roman or Romanized settlements. The Battle of Teutoburg Forest took place near Osnabrück (there is, as mentioned controversy if this is Westphalia) and some of the tribes who fought at this battle came from the area of Westphalia. Battle of the Teutoburg Forest Conflict Roman-Germanic wars Date 9 Place Teutoburg Forest Result German victory In the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest (AD 9) an alliance of Germanic tribes led by Arminius (also known in German as Hermann), the son of Segimerus of the Cherusci, ambushed and wiped...


Charlemagne

Charlemagne is thought to have considerable time in Paderborn and nearby parts. His war against the Saxons also took place (partly) in what is thought of as westphalia today. Popular legends link his adversary Widukind to places near Detmold, Bielefeld, Lemgo, Osnabrück and lots of other places in Westphalia. Widukind was buried in Enger, which is also a subject of a legend.


Middle Ages

Originally Westphalia was a part of the Duchy of Saxony, until it was elevated to the rank of a duchy by Emperor Barbarossa in 1180. The Duchy of Westphalia comprised only a small area south of the Lippe River. The Duchy of Saxony was a medieval Duchy covering the greater part of Northern Germany. ... Frederick Barbarossa in a 13th century chronicle. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... Arms of Westphalia. ... The Lippe is a river in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ...


There is no dominant religion in Westphalia. Roman Catholicism and Lutheranism are on relatively equal footing. Lutheranism is strong in the eastern and northern parts with numerous free churches. Münster and especially Paderborn are thought of as Catholic. Osnabrück is divided almost equally between Catholicism and Protestantism. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ...


Prussia

Parts of Westphalia came under Prussian control during the 1600 and 1700 but most of it stayed divided little duchies and other feudal areas of power.


After the Defeat of the Prussia Army at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt and the Treaties of Tilsit those parts where lost and became part of the Kingdom of Westphalia from 1807 to 1813. It was founded by Napoleon and was a French vassal state. This state only shared the name with the historical region; it contained only a relatively small part of Westphalia, consisting instead mostly of Hessian and Eastphalian regions. The Kingdom of Westphalia is a historical state in present-day Germany that existed from 1807-1813. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE7 Capital Wiesbaden Largest city Frankfurt Minister-President Roland Koch (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 5 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  21,100 km² (8,147 sq mi) Population 6,077,000 (08/2006)[1]  - Density... ...


After the Congress of Vienna, the Kingdom of Prussia received a large amount of territory in the Westphalian region and created the province of Westphalia in 1815. The northernmost portions of the former Westphalia, including the town of Osnabrück, had become part of the states of Hanover and Oldenburg. The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors from the major powers in Europe that was chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held in Vienna, Austria, from late September, 1814, to June 9, 1815. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Westphalia and the other Provinces of Prussia in the German Empire. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... , Osnabrück (IPA: ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, some 80 km NNE of Dortmund, 45 km NE of Münster, and some 100 km due west of Hanover. ... Capital Hanover Head of State King of Hanover Hanover (German: ) was a historical territory in todays Germany, at various times a principality, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, a kingdom and a province of Prussia and of Germany. ... Oldenburg is a historical state in todays Germany named for its capital, Oldenburg. ...


The present state of North Rhine-Westphalia is composed of the former Prussian province of Westphalia, the northern half of the former Prussian Rhine Province, and the former state of Lippe. Coat of arms Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEA Capital Düsseldorf Prime Minister Jürgen Rüttgers (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  34,084 km² (13,160 sq mi) Population 18,033,000... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... This article is about the district Lippe. ...


Westphalia is known for the 1648 Peace of Westphalia (in fact the two treaties of Münster and Osnabrück), which ended the Thirty Years' War. 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ratification of the Treaty of Münster. ... Combatants Sweden  Bohemia Denmark-Norway (Until 1643) Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire ( Catholic League) Spain Austria Bavaria Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I of...


A linguistic definition of Westphalia includes the former Prussian province (except Siegen-Wittgenstein), Lippe and the region around Osnabrück. Present-day common use, however, restricts the notion to the present part of North Rhine-Westphalia, because of the name. Siegen-Wittgenstein is a Kreis (district) in the south-east of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... , Osnabrück (IPA: ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, some 80 km NNE of Dortmund, 45 km NE of Münster, and some 100 km due west of Hanover. ... Coat of arms Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEA Capital Düsseldorf Prime Minister Jürgen Rüttgers (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  34,084 km² (13,160 sq mi) Population 18,033,000...


Westphalia is also the location of Baron Thunder-Ten-Tronckh's castle in Voltaire's novella Candide, from which place Candide began his voyage. For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ... For the Bernstein operetta based on the book, see Candide (operetta). ...


Volkswagen released a model of their Type 2 van named the "Westfalia". Volkswagen AG (ISIN: DE0007664005), or VW, is an automobile manufacturer based in Wolfsburg, Germany. ... The Volkswagen Type 2 (aka Transporter) was the second automotive line introduced by German automaker Volkswagen. ... Volkswagen Camper at Texas Auto Show Volkswagen began subcontracting to the Westfalia-werke in Rheda-Wiedenbrück, or more typically Westfalia, to build the official Volkswagen Camper cars sold in the early 1950s through 2003. ...


Points of interest

The biggest culture cave of Europe is located in Balve. Sir Peter Lely, appointed Principal Painter to Charles II of England in 1662 was born Pieter van der Faes in Westphalia in 1618. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Map of Germany showing Balve Balve is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Sir Peter Lely (14 September 1618 - 30 November 1680) was a painter of Dutch origin. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ...


External links

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Westphalia (3419 words)
Westphalia (Wittgenstein and Nassau-Siegen), while the flourishing cities of Soest, Lippstadt, Herford, Bielefeld, and Dortmund held to the Lutheran faith, the stronghold and pattern of Lutheranism being Soest.
Westphalia (1648) established as the basis of ecclesiastical affairs the
Westphalia the Diocese of Minden, in 1702 the Countship of Lingen by inheritance from the line of Orange, and in 1707 the Countship of Tecklenburg by purchase.
Westphalia Ranch - Breeders of Foundation Quarter Horses located near Fredericksburg Virginia (516 words)
Westphalia Ranch is dedicated to the breeding and preservation of the "true and original" quarter horse; now commonly known as the "Foundation Quarter Horse".
Westphalia is nestled near the banks of the historic Rappahannock River 25 miles east of Fredericksburg Virginia.
Westphalia Ranch was featured in the Special Breeding and Foaling Issue, March 2003, of this international publication in an article "It Takes Two" by Audrey Pavia, which describes the processes for "breeding for the foal of your dreams".
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