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Encyclopedia > Westernization
This article is about the influence of western culture. For the eye surgery, see Epicanthoplasty.

Westernization is a process whereby non-western societies come under the influence of "Western culture" in such matters as industry, technology, law, politics, economics, lifestyle, diet, language, alphabet, religion or values. Westernization has been a pervasive and accelerating influence across the world in the last few centuries. It is usually a two-sided process, in which western influences and interests themselves are joined by a wish of at least parts of the affected society to change towards a more westernized society, in the hope of attaining western life or some aspects of it. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Epicanthoplasty is a type of eye surgery to reduce appearance of epicanthal folds. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... In nutrition, the diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. ... ABCs redirects here, for the Alien Big Cats, see British big cats. ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ...


Westernization can also be related to the process of acculturation. Acculturation refers to the changes that occur within a society or culture when two different groups come into direct continuous contact. After the contact, changes in cultural patterns within either or both cultures are evident. In popular speech, Westernization can also refer to the effects of Western expansion and colonialism on native societies. Look up acculturation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


For example, natives who have adopted European languages and characteristic Western customs are called acculturated or Westernized. Westernization may be forced or voluntary depending on the situation of the contact. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Different degrees of domination, destruction, resistance, survival, adaptation, and modification of the native culture may follow interethnic contact. In a situation where the native culture experiences destruction as a result of a more powerful outsider, a “shock phase” often is a result from the encounter. This shock phase is especially characteristic during interactions involving expansionist or colonialist eras. During the shock phase, civil repression using military force may lead to a cultural collapse, or ethnocide, which is a culture’s physical extinction. According to Conrad Phillip, the westerners "will attempt to remake the native culture within their own image, ignoring the fact that the models of culture that they have created are inappropriate for settings outside of western civilization" (Phillip, Conrad. (2005). Window on Humanity. New York: McGraw-Hill). Ethnocide is a concept related to genocide; unlike genocide, which has entered into international law, ethnocide remains primarily the province of ethnologists, who have not yet settled on a single cohesive meaning for the term. ...

Contents

Definition of the West

Main article: Western civilization

For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ...

Territorial

Several Definitions of the West:      Developed countries of North America, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, (always considered Western) as well as EU members.      Developed countries in east asia and Oceania, sometimes considered western      Latin America, settled by European countries (Portugal, Spain, and others) which have ties to European culture.      Eastern Europe, Balkans, Caucasus      Other states sometimes considered western      Not usually considered western

The West was originally defined as [[Western Euro??????????????????]. Ancient Romans distinguished between Oriental (Eastern) cultures that inhabited present day Egypt and Turkey and Occidental Cultures that lived in the West. A thousand years later, the East-West Schism separated the Catholic Church from the Eastern Orthodox Church. The definition of Western changed as the West was influenced by and spread to other nations. Islamic and Byzantine scholars added to the Western canon when their stores of Greek and Roman literature jump started the Renaissance. The West expanded to include Russia when Peter the Great brought back ideas from France. Today, most modern uses of the term refer to the societies of Western and Central Europe and their close genealogical, linguistic, and philosophical descendants, typically included are those countries whose ethnic identity and dominant culture are derived from European culture. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 30 KB)Several definitions of the West File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 30 KB)Several definitions of the West File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For the... Genealogy is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ... Broadly conceived, linguistics is the study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. ... Philosophy (from the Greek words philos and sophia meaning love of wisdom) is understood in different ways historically and by different philosophers. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Western civilization can be defined as at least North America, West and Central Europe, Australia and New Zealand. North America includes the U.S.A., Canada and Greenland (as part of Denmark). Widening this definition however invites controversy. This widened definition can include these countries, or a combination of these countries: For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ...

  • Isreli. Some people[citation needed] add Israel to the Western civilization, as about 1/2 of all Jews worldwide live in the West[citation needed], as the Western culture is rooted in a Jewish-Christian tradition,[dubious ] because the Jewish community has historical and cultural ties with Europe, and because of Israeli membership of European organizations (like UEFA and the Eurovision song contest). However, about half of Israel’s Jews come from Judeo-Islamic traditions, making classification difficult.
  • South Africa. South Africa is most of the time considered Western because of its languages (English, Afrikaans) and because of its religion (Christianity). It also has a similar economic system. Furthermore, about 12% of the South African population are of European origin (White).
  • Former Communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Some people[citation needed] add these countries to the definition of the West, as they have in many ways the same roots as Western Europe. This view has increasingly gained support, especially since the disintegration of communism (through money) and the current European integration process that is a direct result of that disintegration. Others, however, like the American political scientist Samuel P. Huntington, consider the majority-Orthodox Christian part of Europe as different from the West.
  • The Philippines. The Philippines are sometimes considered Western because of their Spanish-influenced languages and due to the fact that most of the people are Roman Catholic. The Filipinos' culture has been influenced by Spain and the United States. Furthermore, about 3.6% of the Filipino population are of European origin.
  • Japan (and the original East Asian Tigers). Japan is sometimes considered Western, as this country supported the West during the Cold War, has a similar economic system and welfare, is a stable democracy, protects human rights, is member of typical Western organizations (like the OECD), etc. Furthermore South Korea, the Republic of China (Taiwan), Hong Kong, Macau and Singapore can be regarded as Western for the same reasons.

Jacob wrestling an angel, by Gustave Doré (1832-1883), a shared Judeo-Christian story. ... Jewish leadership: Since 70 AD and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem there has been no single body that has a leadership position over the entire Jewish community. ... The Union Européenne de Football Association or Union of European Football Associations in English, almost always referred to by the acronym UEFA (pronounced (you-AY-fuh) or (oo-Ay-fuh) or ), is the administrative and controlling body for European football. ... Eurovision redirects here. ... The term Judeo-Islamic refers to the mutual and interacting cultural influences that existed between the predominantly Muslim society of the Middle East, North Africa, and to some degree, India, and the Jewish minority that lived within that society. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... See also: Political Science Notable political scientists Kenneth Arrow - Nobel Memorial Prize winning economist who published influential paper on his widely cited Arrows Impossibility Theorem Robert Axelrod Duncan Black - Responsible for unearthing the work of many early political scientists, including Charles Dodgson Jean-Charles de Borda - 18th century mathematician... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... A number of Creole languages are based on the Spanish language. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The British historian Arnold J. Toynbee once asserted in one of his works that the Philippines is a Latin American country that was transported to the Orient by a gigantic marine wave. While it’s impossible to deny the many Hispanic contributions made to the culture of the Philippines, Toynbee... Map of East Asian Tigers  Hong Kong  Singapore South Korea  Taiwan, Republic of China Skyline of Hong Kong Island, taken from Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong The skyline of Singapores Central Business District (CBD) seen here at dusk Taipei is Taiwans largest city and financial center. ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... For American state, see: U.S. state Organization of American States Category: ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ...

Personal

A different view on the Western world is not defining it by its territory, but by its people, as these tend to differ in an increasingly globalized world. This view highlights the non-Western population in countries with a Western majority, or vice versa. The Boers for instance can be regarded as Western inhabitants of South Africa. Afrikaners are white South Africans of predominantly Calvinist Dutch, German, French Huguenot, Friesian and Walloon descent who speak Afrikaans. ...


Differences

It would be incorrect to regard the Western world as a monolithic bloc, as there exist many cultural, linguistic, religious, political, and economical differences between Western countries and populations. The western world itself is changing over time as it has in the past.


Process of Westernization

Colonization (1492-1960s)

Main article: Colonialism

It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ...

Europeanisation

From 1492 onward, Europeanisation and colonialism spread gradually over much of the world, colonising major portions of the globe. During this period a strong influence was exercised on the indigenous cultures, which resulted in many colonies' indigenous populations assimilating certain elements of European culture willingly or by force, such as the language of the European motherland or the Christian religion. In many cases the indigenous population was supplanted or marginalised by European and African immigrants. Also film, 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ...


The two World Wars weakened the European powers to such extent that many colonies strove for independence, often inspired by nationalistic movements. A period of decolonisation started. At the end of the 1960s, most colonies were autonomous. Those new states often adopted some aspects of Western politics such as the adoption of a constitution, while frequently reacting against western culture. A world war is a war affecting the majority of the worlds major nations. ... Decolonization generally refers to a movement following the Second World War in which the various European colonies of the world were granted independence. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ...


Reactions

Asia

A reaction to Westernization can include fundamentalism and protectionism. Countries such as Korea, Japan, and China tried to adopt isolationism, but they have been unable to resist the adoption of many aspects of Western culture. For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Look up fundamentalism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between nations, through methods such as high tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, a variety of restrictive government regulations designed to discourage imports, and anti-dumping laws in an attempt to protect domestic industries in a particular nation from foreign take-over... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Isolationism is a foreign policy which combines a non-interventionist military policy and a political policy of economic nationalism (protectionism). ...


Globalization (1960s-now)

Westernization is often regarded as a part of the ongoing process of globalization. This theory proposes that western thought has led to globalization, and that globalization propagates western culture, leading to a cycle of westernization. The rise of multinational corporations and outsourcing have played a crucial part in globalization. ... The rise of multinational corporations and outsourcing have played a crucial part in globalization. ...


The main characteristics are economic liberalization (free trade) and democratization, combined with the spread of an individualised culture. Often it was also regarded of the opposite of the worldwide influence of communism. After the break up of the USSR in 1991, many of its component states and allies nevertheless underwent westernization, including privatization of hitherto state-controlled industry. Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Westernization as globalization is seen by many as progress, as democracy and free trade spread gradually throughout the world. Others view westernization as a disadvantage. Some have protested that Asian cultures who have traditionally existed on a primarily plant-based diet might lose this healthy lifestyle as more people in Asia switch to a Western-style diet that is rich in animal-based foods. (Cornell Times, 2001[1]) The rise of multinational corporations and outsourcing have played a crucial part in globalization. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... Asian people[1] is a demonym for people from Asia. ...


Consequences

Due to the colonization of the Americas and Oceania by Europeans, the cultural, ethnic and linguistic makeup of the Americas and Oceania has been irreversibly changed. This is most visible in settler colonies such as the United States of America, Australia, Canada, Argentina, New Zealand and Uruguay, where the traditional indigenous population has been overtaken demographically by non-indigenous settlers. This demographic takeover in settler countries has often resulted in the linguistic, social, and cultural marginalization of indigenous peoples. However, even in countries where large populations of indigenous peoples remain or the indigenous peoples have mixed considerably with European settlers, such as Bolivia, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru and Ecuador, marginalization still exists. Due to colonization, the prevalent languages in the Americas, Australia and New Zealand are now: Portuguese (Brazil), Spanish (the rest of Latin America), French (Quebec in Canada, French Guiana), and English (USA, Canada, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand). Many indigenous languages are on the verge of becoming extinct. However, some settler countries have gone to great lengths to preserve and expand indigenous languages, for example, in New Zealand the Maori language is official. Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Te Puni, Māori Chief Māori is the name of the indigenous people of New Zealand, and their language. ...


Further reading

  • Ankerl, Guy: Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva: INUPRESS, 2000. ISBN 1881550045

See also

The West

This article very generally discusses the customs and culture of the United States; for the culture of the United States, see arts and entertainment in the United States. ... The Culture of Europe might better be described as a series of overlapping cultures of Europe. ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ...

Cultural influence

Europe and USA

  • Americanization is the term used for the influence the United States of America has on other cultures.
  • Anglicisation is the process of making something English.
  • Europeanisation can either mean the process of transforming a society into a more European society or the process of growth towards an European identity in Europe.
  • Francisation is the process of giving a French character to something or someone.
  • Germanisation is defined as either the spread of the German language and culture, or the adaptation of a word to the German language.
  • Hellenisation, the spread of Greek culture and language.
  • Latinisation is a system for representing a word or language with the Latin alphabet, or the traditions of the Latin Rite into Eastern Catholic Church Liturgies and practices.
  • Romanisation, the spread of Roman culture and language.
             
  • Korenisation or Korenizatsiya was the early Soviet ethnicity policy.
  • Magyarisation or Magyarisation refers to spreading the Hungarian language and culture in general.
  • Polonisation is the assumption or assimilation of the Polish language or another Polish attribute.
  • Russification is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute by non-Russian communities.
  • de-Russification is a process in the post-Soviet countries to overcome the consequences of the Russification.
  • Slovakisation refers to the policies of Czechoslovakia then Slovakia against the ethnic Hungarians there.
  • Turkification is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something or someone who is not a Turk becomes one, voluntarily or by force.
  • Ukrainisation was the policy conducted by the Bolshevik party and the Government of the Ukrainian SSR during 1920s and 1930s to increase the presence of Ukraine.

This does not cite any references or sources. ... Initially conceived as the process by which the political and buraucratic élites of the member-states of the European Union become more pro-European by virtue of their frequent interactions with European institutions and the élites of the other member-states. ... Francization is the process of giving a French character to something (a word, an organization) or someone. ... Hellenization (or Hellenisation) is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something non-Greek becomes Greek (Hellenistic civilization). ... A romanization or latinization is a system for representing a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, where the original word or language used a different writing system. ... The Latin Rite is one of the 23 sui iuris particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ... Ancient Roman culture evolved throughout the thousand-year history of that civilization. ... Korenizatsiya (коренизация, sometimes called korenization), meaning nativization or indigenization, was the early Soviet ethnicity policy. ... Magyarisation was the official effort of the Hungarian government and institutions to linguistically and nationally unify the Kingdom of Hungary in 19th century. ... Polonization (in Polish: polonizacja) is the assumption, voluntary or involuntary, complete or partial, of the Polish language or another real or supposed Polish attribute. ... Russification is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily or not) by non-Russian communities. ... Derussification is the policy of the Goverments and the efforts of NGOs in the post-Soviet countries directed to overcome the consequencies of the Russification. ... Approximate area in south Slovakia inhabited by ethnic Hungarians Hungarians or Magyars are the largest ethnic minority of Slovakia, numbering 520,528 people or 9. ... Turkification is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something or someone non-Turkish is made to become Turkish. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

Other

             

For the historic phenomenon of colonization and imperialism, see main article colonialism (and also decolonization). ... The rise of multinational corporations and outsourcing have played a crucial part in globalization. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Mundialization is all the ideas and actions expressing the solidarity of populations of the globe and aiming to establish institutions and supranational laws of a federative structure common to them, while respecting the diversity of cultures and peoples. ... Look up acculturation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Colorism is a form of discrimination that is an international phenomenon, where human beings are accorded differing social and/or economic status and treatment based on skin color. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Creole language. ... Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ... Cultural identity is the (feeling of) identity of a group or culture, or of an individual as far as he is influenced by his belonging to a group or culture. ... Colonial mentality refers to institutionalised or systemic feelings of inferiority within some societies or peoples who have been subjected to colonialism, relative to the mores or values of the foreign powers which had previously subjugated them. ... Cultural cringe, in cultural studies and social anthropology, is an internalized inferiority complex which causes people in a country to dismiss their own culture as inferior to the cultures of other countries. ... Cultural cringe, in cultural studies and social anthropology, is an internalized inferiority complex which causes people in a country to dismiss their own culture as inferior to the cultures of other countries. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ethnocide is a concept related to genocide; unlike genocide, which has entered into international law, ethnocide remains primarily the province of ethnologists, who have not yet settled on a single cohesive meaning for the term. ... Intercultural competence is the ability of successful communication with people of other cultures. ... Language shift is the process whereby an entire speech community of a language shifts to speaking another language. ... Alternate meaning: crucible (science) The melting pot is a metaphor for the way in which heterogenous societies develop, in which the ingredients in the pot (iron, tin; people of different backgrounds and religions, etc. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... From 1900 until about 1950 in the larger Black neighborhoods of major American cities paper bag parties are said to have taken place. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... // Even as the idea of race was becoming a powerful organizing principle in many societies, the shortcomings of the concept were apparent. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Africanization, as used in this article, refers to the modification of place names or personal names to better reflect an African identity. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Islamicization is a neologism coined to describe the process of a societys conversion to the religion of Islam, or the increase in observance by an already Muslim society. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... It has been suggested that Arabised-Arabs be merged into this article or section. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Sinicization, or less commonly Sinification, is to make things Chinese. ... Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. ...

Other

  • Anti-Americanism represents a hostility towards the government, culture, or people of the U.S.A.
  • Democratic peace theory is a theory which holds that democracies (almost) never go to war with one another.
  • Diseases of affluence are diseases thought to be a result of increasing wealth.
  • North-South divide is the socio-economic division which exists between the wealthy developed "North" and the poorer developing "South".

Anti-Americanism, often Anti-American sentiment, is defined as being opposed or hostile to the United States of America, its people, its principles, or its policies. ... The democratic peace theory, liberal peace theory,[1] or simply the democratic peace is a theory and related empirical research in international relations, political science, and philosophy which holds that democracies—usually, liberal democracies—never or almost never go to war with one another. ... Diseases of affluence are those diseases which are thought to be a result of increasing wealth in a society. ... The updated view of the north-south divide based on its accurate definition of the north. ...

References

Cover of Volume II, first edition, 1922 The Decline of the West (German: Der Untergang des Abendlandes) is a two-volume work by Oswald Spengler, the first volume of which was published in the summer of 1918. ... Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler (Blankenburg am Harz May 29, 1880 – May 8, 1936, Munich) was a German historian and philosopher, although his studies ranged throughout mathematics, science, philosophy, history, and art. ... The End of History and the Last Man is a 1992 book by Francis Fukuyama, expanding on his 1989 essay The End of History?, published in the international affairs journal The National Interest. ... Francis Fukuyama Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (born October 27, 1952, Chicago, Illinois) is an American philosopher, political economist and author. ... The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order cover The clash of civilizations is a controversial theory in international relations. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... John Morris Roberts (April 14, 1928 - 30 May 2003) was a British historian, with significant published works, well known also as the author and presenter of the BBC TV series The Triumph of the West (1985). ...

External links

  • Global Culture Essays on globalization and its impact on global culture

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