FACTOID # 25: If you're tired of sitting in traffic on your way to work, move to North Dakota.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Western Electric
Western Electric Co., Inc.
Fate voracious consumption
Successor AT&T Technologies
Founded 1872
Defunct 1984
Location New York, NY, USA
Industry Customer Premises Equipment, Central Office Switches, Wire, and all other telecommunications related products supplied to Bell Operating Companies
Products Telephones
Parent AT&T
Company Masthead Logo
Company Masthead Logo
Logo until circa 1969, also current logo on company web site
Logo 1969–1983
Logo 1969–1983

Hi Dan! Western Electric (sometimes abbreviated WE and WECo) was an American electrical engineering company, the manufacturing arm of AT&T from 1881 to 1995. It was the scene of a number of technological innovations and also some seminal developments in industrial management. It also served as the primary memory reconstruction center for the member companies of the Bell System. Image File history File links Weco. ... AT&T Technologies, Inc. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the year. ... New York, New York redirects here. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... A telephone operator manually connecting calls with patch cables at a telephone switchboard. ... Bell System trademark used by AT&T and affiliated companies from 1921 to 1939 The Bell System was a trademark and service mark used by the US telecommunications company American Telephone & Telegraph Company (AT&T) and its affiliated companies to co-brand their extensive circuit-switched telephone network and their... A telephone handset A touch-tone telephone dial Telephone The telephone or phone (Greek: tele = far away and phone = voice) is a telecommunications device that transmits speech by means of electric signals. ... This article describes the former AT&T Corp. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Weco. ... Image File history File links Weco. ... Image File history File links WET.jpg Summary Western Electric logo, 1969-1984 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems… … and complex electronic circuits. ... This article is about the current AT&T. For the 1885-2005 company, see American Telephone & Telegraph. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... The Bell System was a trademark and service mark used by the United States telecommunications company American Telephone & Telegraph Company (AT&T) and its affiliated companies to co-brand their extensive circuit-switched telephone network and their affiliations with each other. ...

Contents

History

In 1856, George Shawk purchased an electrical engineering business in Cleveland, Ohio. In 1869, he became partners with Enos M. Barton and, later the same year, sold his share to inventor Elisha Gray. In 1872 Barton and Gray moved the business to Clinton Street, Chicago, Illinois and incorporated it as the Western Electric Manufacturing Company. They manufactured a variety of electrical products including typewriters, alarms and lighting and had a close relationship with the telegraph company Western Union to whom they supplied relays and other equipment. 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Electrical Engineers design power systems… … and complex electronic circuits. ... Cleveland redirects here. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Elisha Gray (August 2, 1835 – January 21, 1901) was an electrical engineer and is best known for his development of a telephone prototype in 1876 in Highland Park, Illinois, independently of Alexander Graham Bell. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... Mechanical desktop typewriters, such as this Underwood Five, were long time standards of government agencies, newsrooms, and sales offices. ... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ... Western Union (NYSE: WU) is a financial services and communications company based in the United States. ...


In 1875, Gray sold his interests to Western Union, including the caveat that he had filed against Alexander Graham Bell's patent application for the telephone. The ensuing legal battle over patent rights, between Western Union and the Bell Telephone Company, ended in 1879 with Western Union withdrawing from the telephone market and Bell acquiring Western Electric in 1881. 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Caveat, the third-person singular present subjunctive of the Latin cavere, means warning (or more literally, let him beware); it can be shorthand for Latin phrases such as Caveat lector Caveat emptor Caveat venditor More narrowly, caveat can also refer to CAVEAT, a Canadian lobby group; The Paulette Caveat about... Alexander Graham Bell (3 March 1847 - 2 August 1922) was a Scottish-born American scientist, inventor and innovator. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... Bell Telephone Company can refer to: The Bell System, a name and trademark formerly given to AT&T. Bell Canada Bell Telephone Manufacturing Company, a former company in Antwerp (Belgium), now part of Alcatel The original Bell Telephone Company was founded in 1878 by Alexander Graham Bells father in... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Western Electric Company was the first company to join in a Japanese joint venture with foreign capital. It invested in Nippon Electric Company, Ltd. in 1899. Western Electric held 54% of NEC at the time. Their representative in Japan was Walter Tenney Carleton. NEC Corporation (Jp. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Walter Tenney Carleton Walter Tenney Carleton (24 December 1867 - 6 July 1900) was a U.S. businessman. ...


A few years later WECO secretly purchased controlling interest in Kellogg Switchboard & Supply company, a principal competitor, but was forced by a lawsuit to sell. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Despite the existence of 1,300 independent telephone companies, the Bell System, popularly known as "Ma Bell," had a near-monopoly on long-distance service in the United States from 1881 until nearly the time of its break-up in 1984, and monopolies in local service for most American regions during that same period. AT&T secured all U.S. urban areas in the early 20th century. The independent companies were left to serve less-profitable outlying areas and vast stretches of rural America. The Bell System was a trademark and service mark used by the United States telecommunications company American Telephone & Telegraph Company (AT&T) and its affiliated companies to co-brand their extensive circuit-switched telephone network and their affiliations with each other. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The bulk of AT&T revenue came from the Bell System — regional Bell operating companies (RBOCs), such as The New York Telephone Co., The Pacific Telephone and Telegraph Co. and Southwestern Bell Telephone Co. Other divisions of AT&T and parts of the Bell System included Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. (Bell Labs), AT&T Long Lines and Western Electric, the manufacturing arm. Map of the original and current companies. ... The New York Telephone Company (NYTel) was organized in 1896, taking over the New York City operations of the American Bell Telephone Company. ... Categories: Corporation stubs | Communications companies of the United States | Defunct companies | Telephone companies | Public Utilities ... For information on holding company Southwestern Bell Corporation, later SBC Communications, Inc. ... The Bell System was a trademark and service mark used by the United States telecommunications company American Telephone & Telegraph Company (AT&T) and its affiliated companies to co-brand their extensive circuit-switched telephone network and their affiliations with each other. ... Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) was the main research and development arm of the United States Bell System. ... AT&T Long Lines logo, 1969-1983 The AT&T Long Lines microwave relay network provided long-distance transport services to AT&T and its customers from the late 1940s to the early 1980s. ...


Development of a monopoly

All telephones in areas where AT&T subsidiaries provided local service, all components of the public switched telephone network (PSTN), and all devices connected to the network were made by Western Electric and no other devices were allowed to be connected to AT&T's network. To enforce their monopoly, AT&T and Bell System companies employed small armies of inspectors to check household line voltage levels to determine if non-leased phones were in use by consumers. The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the network of the worlds public circuit-switched telephone networks, in much the same way that the Internet is the network of the worlds public IP-based packet-switched networks. ...


AT&T and the Bell System used its leasing arrangements for telephones and telephone equipment made by its subsidiary, Western Electric to increase its control over telephone manufacturing in the United States and Canada. Western Electric-made phones were owned not by individual customers, but by local Bell System telephone companies — all of which were in turn owned by AT&T, which also owned Western Electric itself. Instead, each phone was leased from AT&T on a monthly basis by customers, who generally paid for their phone and its connection many times over in cumulative lease fees. This monopoly made millions of extra dollars for AT&T and Western Electric, which had the secondary effect of greatly limiting phone choices and styles. Many phones made by Western Electric carried the following disclaimer permanently molded into their housings: "BELL SYSTEM PROPERTY—NOT FOR SALE." Telephones also labeled with a sticker marking the Bell Operating Company that owned the telephone. To increase revenues, the Bell System sometimes remodelled older-design returned phones with new housings, then leased them for use in new installations. The longevity of Western Electric phone models and the limited number of new designs was a direct result of AT&T and Bell System control of new phone sales in a monopolistic system. The Bell System was a trademark and service mark used by the United States telecommunications company American Telephone & Telegraph Company (AT&T) and its affiliated companies to co-brand their extensive circuit-switched telephone network and their affiliations with each other. ... The Bell System was a trademark and service mark used by the United States telecommunications company American Telephone & Telegraph Company (AT&T) and its affiliated companies to co-brand their extensive circuit-switched telephone network and their affiliations with each other. ...


AT&T and the Bell System also strictly enforced policies against buying and using phones by other manufacturers. A customer who insisted on using a phone not supplied by the Bell System had to first transfer the phone to the local Bell monopoly, who leased the purchased phone back to the customer for a monthly charge plus a 're-wiring' fee. In the 1980s, after some consumers began buying phones from other manufacturers anyway, AT&T changed its policy for its Design Line telephone series by selling customers the phone's housing, retaining ownership of the mechanical components — which still required paying AT&T a monthly leasing fee. Design Line is a brand that AT&T has used on several of its telephones. ...


Until 1983, Western Electric telephones and/or their inner mechanical components continued to be leased by subscribers and never sold, and so had to be repaired at no charge if they failed. This led Western Electric to pursue extreme reliability and durability in design in hopes of minimizing service calls. In particular, the work of Walter A. Shewhart, who developed new techniques for statistical quality control in the 1920s, helped lead to the legendary quality of manufacture of Western Electric telephones. In 1983, Western Electric telephones began being sold to the public through the newly created American Bell subsidiary of AT&T, under the American Bell brand name. Prior to Judge Greene prohibiting AT&T from using the Bell name after January 1, 1984 the plan was to market products and services under the American Bell name, accompanied by the now familiar AT&T globe logo. Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Walter Andrew Shewhart (March 18, 1891 - March 11, 1967) was a physicist, engineer and statistician, sometimes known as the father of statistical quality control. ... The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


AT&T's only serious competitor in providing phone service was General Telephone and Electronics (GTE), which operated its own manufacturing arm, Automatic Electric. Categories: Corporation stubs | Communications companies of the United States | Defunct companies | Telephone companies | Public Utilities ... Automatic Electric Company was a telephone equipment supplier for independent phone companies similar in many ways to the Bell Systems Western Electric. ...


In 1905 AT&T began construction of the Hawthorne Works on the outskirts of Chicago and which, by 1914 had absorbed all manufacturing work from Clinton Street and Western Electric's other plant in New York. For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... The Hawthorne Works, in Cicero, Illinois, was a large factory complex built by Western Electric starting in 1905 and operating until 1983. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the state. ...


In addition to being a supplier for AT&T, Western Electric also played a major role in the development and production of professional sound recording and reproducing equipment, notably the Vitaphone system which brought sound to the movies, the Westrex optical sound that succeeded it, and the Westrex cutter and system for recording stereophonic sound in a single-groove gramophone record that was compatible with monophonic equipment. Sound is a disturbance of mechanical energy that propagates through matter as a wave. ... The Warner Brothers Vitaphone logo. ... Company Masthead Logo Logo until circa 1969, also current logo on company web site Logo 1969-1983 Western Electric (sometimes abbreviated WE and WECo) was a U.S. electrical engineering company, the manufacturing arm of AT&T from 1881 to 1995 . ... Company Masthead Logo Logo until circa 1969, also current logo on company web site Logo 1969-1983 Western Electric (sometimes abbreviated WE and WECo) was a U.S. electrical engineering company, the manufacturing arm of AT&T from 1881 to 1995 . ... Stereophonic means having two channels of audio. ... A 12-inch record (left), a 7-inch record (right), and a CD (above) Two 7 singles (left), two colored 7 singles (middle), and two 7 singles with large spindle holes (right). ...


Technological innovations

In 1928, Western Electric issued the first american telephone with a single handset, having both the transmitter and receiver placed thereon (previous telephones had been of the "candlestick" type). This telephone was known as the "102" phone, and had a round base; it was succeeded in 1930 by the "202" phone, which was identical except for the shape of the base, which was oval. Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Model 102 telephone was Western Electrics first widely distributed telephone set to feature the transmitter and receiver in a common handset. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Model 202 telephone was produced by Western Electric from 1930 through 1936. ...


The next significant upgrade came in 1937 with the introduction of the "302" phone. Designed by the noted industrial designer Henry Dreyfuss, this telephone included the ringer within its rectangular housing; previous models (including the candlestick) had required a separate "bell box." The 302 was followed by the "500" phone; initially released in 1949 and continually updated over time, reflecting new materials and manufacturing processes, such as quieter and smoother dial gearing and a printed circuit board in the "network" (the phone's circuit module). It was discontinued in 1986, in favor of a Touch-Tone version that also electronically emulated a rotary dial, the Western Electric Model 500 Phone, which would become the most extensively-produced telephone model in the industry's history. Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Model 302 telephone was produced by Western Electric from 1937 through 1948. ... Henry Dreyfuss (1904 Brooklyn, New York - 1972 South Pasadena, California), American industrial designer. ... The Western Electric Model 500 telephone was the standard desk-style telephone set used by AT&T (the Bell System) in North America from the late 1940s through the divestiture of AT&T in 1984. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ...


Other innovations included the Princess telephones of the 1950s and Trimline telephones of the 1960s, and the development of touch-tone dialing as a replacement for rotary dialing. The Princess telephone was introduced by AT&T in 1959. ... the first thing that was invented was the automatic DILDO. Education grew explosively because of a very strong demand for high school and college education. ... A 220 Trimline rotary desk phone, showing the innovative dial with moving thumbstop The Western Electric Trimline telephone, aka The Manhattan, is a variety of telephone set designed by Henry Dreyfuss Associates for the Bell System (AT&T). ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... Dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF), also known as Touch Tone® is used for telephone signaling over the line in the voice frequency band to the call switching center. ...


In 1929, Western Electric was also a big player in early cinema sound systems. It created the Western Electric Universal Base, a device by which early silent cinema projectors could be adapted to screen sound films. It also designed a wide-audio-range horn speaker for cinemas. This was estimated to be nearly 50% efficient, thus allowing a cinema to be filled with sound from a 3-watt amplifier. This was an important breakthrough in 1929 because high-powered audio valves were not generally available back then.


Management innovations

Scientific management, also called Taylorism or the Classical Perspective, is a method in management theory that determines changes to improve labour productivity. ... Frederick Winslow Taylor Frederick Winslow Taylor (March 20, 1856 to March 21, 1915) was an American mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. ... Walter Andrew Shewhart (March 18, 1891 - March 11, 1967) was a physicist, engineer and statistician, sometimes known as the father of statistical quality control. ... In statistical process control, the control chart, also known as the Shewhart chart or process-behaviour chart is a tool to determine whether a manufacturing or business process is in a state of statistical control or not. ... The Hawthorne Works, in Cicero, Illinois, was a large factory complex built by Western Electric starting in 1905 and operating until 1983. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... This article or section should be merged with Hawthorne effect The Hawthorne Studies, conducted at Western Electrics Hawthorne plant outside Chicago, starting in 1924 and running through 1936, were intended to bring about a greater understanding of the effects of working conditions on worker productivity. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...

The end of Western Electric

See also: AT&T Technologies

On January 1, 1984, Western Electric Co. was assumed under the corporate charter of the new AT&T Technologies, Inc. Western Electric was then split up into several divisions, each focusing on a particular type of customer (e.g. AT&T Technology Systems, AT&T Network Systems). Telephones made by Western Electric prior to the breakup continued to be manufactured and continued to be marked "Western Electric", with the Bell logo absent, or "hidden" by metal filler inside of all telephone housings and most components, including new electronic integrated circuits with the famous "WE" initials. AT&T Technologies, Inc. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... AT&T Technologies, Inc. ... An integrated circuit (IC) is a thin chip consisting of at least two interconnected semiconductor devices, mainly transistors, as well as passive components like resistors. ...


Cost-cutting measures resulted in the consumer telephones, including the Trimline being redesigned and "modernized" in 1985, as well as more plastic being used in place of metal on the 500 & 2500 series phones, as well as the Princess. In 1986, the Indianapolis Works telephone plant closed, and US production of AT&T single line home phones ended. Business telephones and systems continued production in the Shreveport Works plant until 2001. Home telephones were redesigned and production was moved overseas to Hong Kong, Singapore, and Bangkok. Western Electric no longer marked housings of telephones with "WE", but continued to mark the modular plugs of telephone cords with "WE". A 220 Trimline rotary desk phone, showing the innovative dial with moving thumbstop The Western Electric Trimline telephone, aka The Manhattan, is a variety of telephone set designed by Henry Dreyfuss Associates for the Bell System (AT&T). ... This article is about the year. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... The Indianapolis skyline Indianapolis is the capital of the U.S. state of Indiana. ... Shreveport, Louisiana is the third largest metropolitan city in the state of Louisiana, USA. It is located in Caddo Parish, and as of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 200,145. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Location within in Thailand Coordinates: , Country Settled Ayutthaya Period Founded as capital 21 April 1782 Government  - Type Special administrative area  - Governer Apirak Kosayothin Area  - City 1,568. ...


Western Electric came to a total end in 1995 when AT&T changed the name of AT&T Technologies to Lucent Technologies, in preparation for its spinoff. All modular telephone plugs were now marked with "HHE" enclosed in an oval. Lucent would become independent in 1996, and sold/spun off more assets into Advanced American Telephones, Agere Systems, Avaya, and Consumer Phone Services. Lucent itself merged with Alcatel, forming Alcatel-Lucent. Western Electric's Structured Cabling unit, once known as AT&T Network Systems or SYSTIMAX, was spun off from Avaya and is now part of CommScope. Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... AT&T (formerly an abbreviation for American Telephone and Telegraph) Corporation (NYSE: T) is an American telecommunications company. ... On September 30, 1996, AT&T spun off its Systems and Technology units (AT&T Technologies, Inc. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Advanced American Telephones is the name of the consumer telephone division of VTech. ... Agere Systems Inc. ... Avaya Inc. ... Consumer Phone Services LLC, doing business as AT&T Consumer Lease Services, is a New York City-based company managed by Lucent Technologies. ... Alcatel SA is a global company, headquartered in France that provides hardware, software and services to telecommunications service providers and enterprises. ... Alcatel Lucent (or Alcatel-Lucent according to some sources) is the name of the new company formed after the merge agreement signed by Alcatel and Lucent Technologies. ... Avaya Inc. ...


The assets once part of one Western Electric Co. now are in the hands of more than five companies.


Legacy

Since the demise of Western Electric, telephones and telephone equipment have been made by numerous manufacturers. As a result of increased competition, modern telephones are now made in Asia, generally using less expensive components. Competition is the act of striving against others for the purpose of achieving gain, such as income, pride, amusement, or dominance. ...


Some people never purchased telephones after the AT&T breakup and continue to lease their existing Western Electric models from AT&T Consumer Lease Services. Such people have paid for their telephones ten or more times over, but the phones are perceived by some users to be superior to telephones commonly made today in aspects of durability and sound quality. Today many of these Western Electric telephones have become collector's items, renowned for their reliability. AT&T Consumer Lease Services is the d/b/a name of New York City-based Consumer Phone Services LLC, managed by Lucent Technologies. ...


References

  • Adams, Stephen B., and Orville R. Butler. Manufacturing the Future: A History of Western Electric. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-521-65118-2.
  • Fagen, M. D., ed. A History of Engineering and Science in the Bell System: Volume 1 The Early Years (1875-1925). New York: The [Bell Telephone] Laboratories, 1975. ISBN ?.
  • Fagen, M. D., ed. A History of Engineering and Science in the Bell System: Volume 2 National Service in War and Peace (1925-1975). New York: The [Bell Telephone] Laboratories, 1978. ISBN 0-932764-00-2.

See also

This article is about the current AT&T. For the 1885-2005 company, see American Telephone & Telegraph. ... On September 30, 1996, AT&T spun off its Systems and Technology units (AT&T Technologies, Inc. ... The Bell System was a trademark and service mark used by the United States telecommunications company American Telephone & Telegraph Company (AT&T) and its affiliated companies to co-brand their extensive circuit-switched telephone network and their affiliations with each other. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Western Electric - Rosetta Stone for Triodes (2243 words)
A similar parallel-feed circuit is found in the Western Electric 32A, which appears to predate the WE 92A by at least a decade.
Before we go off the deep end on Western Electric, keep in mind the original WE amplifiers were designed in an era when all musical sources (movies, records, and AM radio) were restricted to 40 Hz to 12 kHz bandwidth at most, with 100 Hz to 5 kHz being much more common.
The long-lost ideas and concepts from Western Electric are finally being brought to light by members of the K&K Audio Forum and the Bay Area enthusiasts.
Manufacturing the Future: A History of Western Electric | Book Reviews | EH.Net (0 words)
Indeed, Western Electric and Bell Laboratories (formed as a joint venture between Western and AT&T in 1925) proved capable of tremendous innovation in science, manufacturing, and human relations.
Yet Western Electric was often unable to reap the returns from its own innovations, and in many ways Western Electric's story is a spectacular tale of paths not taken.
The question of Western's efficiency and AT&T's use or abuse of its captive relationship leads to many of the issues at the heart of regulatory politics and antitrust activity in the United States.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m