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Encyclopedia > Western painting

See also Western art, History of painting, History of art, Art history, Painting, Outline of painting history Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... // The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all cultures. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the academic discipline of art history. ... For building painting, see painter and decorator. ... // Pre-historic art Cave painting Art of Ancient Egypt Knossos Mycenaean Greece Pottery of ancient Greece Roman art Pompeian Styles Fayum mummy portraits Byzantine art Insular art Carolingian art Ottonian art Romanesque art Gothic art Early Netherlandish painting Illuminated manuscript Panel painting Early Renaissance painting Renaissance Classicism Italian Renaissance painting...

Jan Vermeer, Girl with a Pearl Earring, known as the "Mona Lisa of the North" 1665-1667
Édouard Manet, The Balcony 1868
Art history
series
Pre-historic art
Ancient art history
Western art history
Eastern art history
Islamic art history
Western painting
History of painting

The history of Western painting represents a continuous, though disrupted, tradition from Antiquity. Until the early 20th century it relied primarily on representational and Classical motifs, after which time more purely abstract and conceptual modes gained favor. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2536x3071, 737 KB) Description: Title: nl: Het meisje met de parel de: Das Mädchen mit der Perle en: The Girl with a Pearl Earring Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 46,5 × 40 cm Country of origin: de: Niederlande... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2536x3071, 737 KB) Description: Title: nl: Het meisje met de parel de: Das Mädchen mit der Perle en: The Girl with a Pearl Earring Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 46,5 × 40 cm Country of origin: de: Niederlande... View of Delft, 1660-1661 Johannes Vermeer (1632 - December 15, 1675) was a Dutch painter. ... The Girl with a Pearl Earring (Dutch:Het meisje met de parel) is one of Dutch painter Johannes Vermeers masterworks and as the name implies, uses a pearl earring for a focal point. ... Year 1665 (MDCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 427 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 2838 pixel, file size: 602 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 427 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 2838 pixel, file size: 602 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Articles with similar titles include Claude Monet, another painter of the same era. ... Media:Example. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... In the history of art, prehistoric art is all art produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory), beginning somewhere in very late geological history. ... Arts of the ancient world refers to the many types of art that were in the cultures of ancient societies, such as those of ancient China, India, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Rome // The earliest figurine the Venus of Tan-Tan discovered to date originated somewhere between 500,000 and 300... Clio, muse of heroic poetry and history // Main article: Medieval art Saint Matthew from the Lindisfarne Gospels. ... Eastern art history, devoted to the arts of the Far East includes a vast range of influences from various cultures and religions. ... The term Islamic art denotes the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally Islamic populations. ... // The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all cultures. ... Antiquity means different things: Generally it means ancient history, and may be used of any period before the Middle Ages. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The word classical has several meanings: Pertaining to the societies of the classical antiquity, ancient Greece or Rome. ... Black square by Kazimir Malevich Abstract art is now generally understood to mean art that does not depict objects in the natural world, but instead uses colour and form in a non-representational way. ... Joseph Kosuth, One and Three Chairs (1965) Conceptual art is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. ...


Developments in Western painting historically parallel those in Eastern painting, in general a few centuries later. African art, Islamic art, Indian art, Chinese art, and Japanese art each had significant influence on Western art, and, eventually, vice-versa. Yoruba bronze head sculpture, Ife, Nigeria c. ... The term Islamic art denotes the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally Islamic populations. ... A miniature, Kishengarh, Jaipur, Rajasthan Indian cave art at Bhimbetka The vast scope of the art of India intertwines with the cultural history, religions and philosophies which place art production and patronage in social and cultural contexts. ... Chinese Art (Simplified Chinese: ) has varied throughout its ancient history, divided into periods by the ruling dynasties of China and changing technology. ... Bronze statue of Amida Buddha at Kotokuin in Kamakura (1252 CE) Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including ancient pottery, sculpture in wood and bronze, ink painting on silk and paper, and a myriad of other types of works of art. ...


Initially serving religious patronage, Western painting later found audiences in the aristocracy and the middle class. From the Middle Ages through the Renaissance painters worked for the church and a wealthy aristocracy. Beginning with the Baroque era artists received private commissions from a more educated and prosperous middle class. By the 19th century painters became liberated from the demands of their patronage to only depict scenes from religion, mythology, portraiture or history. The idea "art for art's sake" began to find expression in the work of painters like Francisco de Goya, John Constable, and J.M.W. Turner. Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The term aristocracy refers to a form of government where power is hereditary, and split between a small number of families. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Art for arts sake is the usual English rendition of a French slogan, lart pour lart, which is credited to Théophile Gautier (1811–1872). ... This article is about Francisco Goya, a Spanish painter. ... A self portrait by John Constable John Constable (11 June 1776 – 31 March 1837) was an English Romantic painter. ... J. M. W. Turner, English landscape painter The fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up, painted 1839. ...


Western painting's zenith takes place in Europe, during the Renaissance in conjunction with the refinement of drawing, use of perspective, ambitious architecture, tapestry, stained glass, sculpture, and the period before and after the advent of the printing press. Following the depth of discovery and the complex of innovations of the Renaissance the rich heritage of Western painting (from the Baroque to Contemporary art) continues into the 21st century. World map showing the location of Europe. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Drawing is a visual art which makes use of any number of drawing instruments to mark a two-dimensional medium. ... A cube in two-point perspective. ... Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, a master builder, from αρχι- chiefs, leader , builder, carpenter)[1] is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ... This article is about tapestry the textile. ... Strictly speaking, stained glass is glass that has been painted with silver stain and then fired. ... A sculpture is a three-dimensional object, which for the purposes of this article is man-made and selected for special recognition as art. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...

Contents

Pre-history

See also: Pre-historic art

The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all cultures. The oldest known paintings are at the Grotte Chauvet in France, claimed by some historians to be about 32,000 years old. They are engraved and painted using red ochre and black pigment and show horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffalo, mammoth, or humans often hunting. There are examples of cave paintings all over the world—in France, India, Spain, Portugal, China, Australia etc. There are many common themes throughout the many different places that the paintings have been found; implying the universality of purpose and similarity of the impulses that might have created the imagery. Various conjectures have been made as to the meaning these paintings had to the people who made them. Prehistoric men may have painted animals to "catch" their soul or spirit in order to hunt them more easily, or the paintings may represent an animistic vision and homage to surrounding nature, or they may be the result of a basic need of expression that is innate to human beings, or they may be recordings of the life experiences of the artists and related stories from the members of their circle. // The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all cultures. ... The Chauvet Cave or Chauvet-Pont-dArc Cave is a cave located near Vallon-Pont-dArc, in the Ardèche département, in southern France. ... Red ochre and yellow ochre (pronounced //, from the Greek ochros, yellow) are pigments made from naturally tinted clay. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The soul, according to many religious and philosophical traditions, is the self-aware essence unique to a particular living being. ... The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus (breath). Spirit- also the name of a popular musical group (rock genre) from the sixties. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Galunggung in 1982, showing a combination of natural events. ... Expression may refer to: (in the vernacular) the act or particular way of expressing something (including an emotion through a facial expression or configuration) (in mathematics) a mathematical expression (in computing) a programming language expression (in computing) a vector graphics software Microsoft Expression (in genetics) the effect produced by a... Look up innate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Western painting

Main article: History of painting

// The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all cultures. ...

Egypt, Greece and Rome

Ancient Egypt, a civilization with strong traditions of architecture and sculpture (both originally painted in bright colours), had many mural paintings in temples and buildings, and painted illustrations to papyrus manuscripts. Egyptian wall painting and decorative painting is often graphic, sometimes more symbolic than realistic. Egyptian painting depicts figures in bold outline and flat silhouette, in which symmetry is a constant characteristic. Egyptian painting has close connection with its written language - called Egyptian hieroglyphs. The Egyptians also painted on linen, remnants of which survive today. Painted symbols are found amongst the first forms of written language. Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, a master builder, from αρχι- chiefs, leader , builder, carpenter)[1] is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ... A sculpture is a three-dimensional object, which for the purposes of this article is man-made and selected for special recognition as art. ... Papyrus plant Cyperus papyrus at Kew Gardens, London Papyrus is an early form of paper produced from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge that was once abundant in the Nile Delta of Egypt. ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... For other uses, see Silhouette (disambiguation). ... This article has been tagged since January 2007. ... A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ...


To the north of Egypt was the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete. The wall paintings found in the palace of Knossos are similar to those of the Egyptians but much more free in style. The Minoan Civilisation was a pre-Hellenic Bronze Age civilization which arose on Crete, a Greek island in the Aegean Sea. ... For the famous World War II battle, see: Battle of Crete For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... A portion of Arthur Evans reconstruction of the Minoan palace at Knossos. ...


Around 1100 B.C., tribes from the north of Greece conquered Greece and its art took a new direction. The culture of Ancient Greece is noteworthy for its outstanding contributions to the visual arts. Painting on pottery of Ancient Greece and ceramics gives a particularly informative glimpse into the way society in Ancient Greece functioned. Many fine examples of Black-figure vase painting and Red-figure vase painting still exist. Some famous Greek painters who worked on wood panels and are mentioned in texts are Apelles, Zeuxis and Parrhasius; however, no examples of Ancient Greek panel painting survive, only written descriptions by their contemporaries or later Romans. Zeuxis lived in 5-6 BC and was said to be the first to use sfumato. According to Pliny the Elder, the realism of his paintings was such that birds tried to eat the painted grapes. Apelles is described as the greatest painter of Antiquity, and is noted for perfect technique in drawing, brilliant color, and modeling. The Temple to Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around three thousand years. ... Bilingual amphora by the Andokides Painter, ca. ... Ceramics can refer to: Ceramic, a type of material Ceramics (art), a fine art. ... Athena wearing the aegis, Attic black-figured hydria by the potter Panphaios (signed) and the Euphiletos Painter, c. ... Woman officiating at an altar, Attic red-figure kylix by Chairias, c. ... Another Apelles was the founder of a Gnostic sect in the 2nd century; Apelles (theologian). ... Zeuxis and Parrhasius, painters of Ephesus in the 5th century BC, are reported four hundred years later in the Naturalis Historia of Pliny the Elder to have staged a contest to determine which of the two was the greater artist. ... Detail of the face of Mona Lisa showing the use of sfumato, particularly in the shading around the eyes. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD...


Roman art was influenced by Greece and can in part be taken as descendant from ancient Greek painting. However, Roman painting does have important unique characteristics. The only surviving Roman works are wall paintings, many from villas in Campania, in Southern Italy. Such painting can be grouped into 4 main "styles" or periods[1] and may contain the first examples of trompe-l'oeil, psuedo-perspective, and pure landscape.[2] Almost the only painted portraits surviving from the Ancient world are a large number of coffin-portraits of bust form found in the Late Antique cemetery of Al-Fayum. Although these were neither of the best period nor the highest quality, they are impressive in themselves, and suggest the quality of the finest ancient work. A very small number of miniatures from Late Antique illustrated books also survive, as well as a rather larger number of copies of them from the Early Medieval period. Fresco from the Villa of the Mysteries. ... For other uses, see Campania (disambiguation). ... [[: Le Image:Mural de Narbonne. ... Late Antiquity is a rough periodization used by historians and other scholars to describe the interval between high Classical Antiquity and the Middle Ages in Europe and the Mediterranean world - between the decline of the western Roman Empire from the 3rd century AD onward, to the resurgence of the West... Site of Faiyum on the map of Egypt Faiyum (Arabic: الفيوم; Coptic: ) is a city in Middle Egypt, and the capital of the Faiyum Governorate. ... The word miniature, derived from the Latin minium, red lead, is a picture in an ancient or medieval manuscript; the simple decoration of the early codices having been miniated or delineated with that pigment. ...


Middle Ages

The rise of Christianity imparted a different spirit and aim to painting styles. Byzantine art, once its style was established by the 6th century, placed great emphasis on retaining traditional iconography and style, and has changed relatively little through the thousand years of the Byzantine Empire and the continuing traditions of Greek and Russian Othodox icon-painting. Byzantine painting has a particularly hieratic feeling and icons were and still are seen as a reflection of the divine. There were also many wall-paintings in fresco, but fewer of these have survived than Byzantine mosaics. In general Byzantium art borders on abstraction, in its flatness and highly stylised depictions of figures and landscape. However there are periods, especially in the so-called Macedonian art of around the 10th century, when Byzantine art became more flexible in approach. The most famous of the surviving Byzantine mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople - the image of Christ Pantocrator on the walls of the upper southern gallery. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Fresco by Dionisius representing Saint Nicholas. ... This article is about a decorative art. ... abstraction in general. ... An example of Macedonian ivorywork: the Harbaville Tryptych, now in the Louvre, Paris. ...


In post-Antique Catholic Europe the first distinctive artistic style to emerge that included painting was the Insular art of the British Isles, where the only surviving examples (and quite likely the only medium in which painting was used) are miniatures in Illuminated manuscripts such as the Book of Kells. These are most famous for their abstract decoration, although figures, and sometimes scenes, were also depicted, especially in Evangelist portraits. Carolingian and Ottonian art also survives mostly in manuscripts, although some wall-painting remain, and more are documented. The art of this period combines Insular and "barbarian" influences with a strong Byzantine influence and an aspiration to recover classical monumentality and poise. This page (folio 292r) of the Book of Kells contains the lavishly decorated text that opens the Gospel of John. ... In the strictest definition of illuminated manuscript, only manuscripts decorated with gold or silver, like this miniature of Christ in Majesty from the Aberdeen Bestiary (folio 4v), would be considered illuminated. ... This page (folio 292r) contains the lavishly decorated text that opens the Gospel of John. ... Evangelist portraits are a specific type of picture included in ancient and mediæval Bibles. ... Lorsch Gospels 778-820. ...


Walls of Romanesque and Gothic churches were decorated with frescoes as well as sculpture and many of the few remaining murals have great intensity, and combine the decorative energy of Insular art with a new monumentality in the treatment of figures. Far more miniatures in Illuminated manuscripts survive from the period, showing the same characteristics, which continue into the Gothic period. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Western (Royal) Portal at Chartres Cathedral ( 1145). ... A XIV Century fresco featuring Saint Sebastian Note: Fresco is the NATO reporting name of the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17. ... A mural is a painting on a wall, ceiling, or other large permanent surface. ... In the strictest definition of illuminated manuscript, only manuscripts decorated with gold or silver, like this miniature of Christ in Majesty from the Aberdeen Bestiary (folio 4v), would be considered illuminated. ... The Western (Royal) Portal at Chartres Cathedral ( 1145). ...


Panel painting becomes more common during the Romanesque period, under the heavy influence of Byzantine icons. Towards the middle of the 13th century, Medieval art and Gothic painting became more realistic, with the beginnings of interest in the depiction of volume and perspective in Italy with Cimabue and then his pupil Giotto. From Giotto on, the treatment of composition by the best painters also became much more free and innovative. They are considered to be the two great medieval masters of painting in western culture. Cimabue, within the Byzantine tradition, used a more realistic and dramatic approach to his art. His pupil, Giotto, took these innovations to a higher level which in turn set the foundations for the western painting tradition. Both artists were pioneers in the move towards naturalism. Interior of the Saint-Saturnin church St-Sernin, Toulouse, 1080 – 1120: elevation of the east end Romanesque sculpture, cloister of St. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Byzantine monumental Church mosaics are a crowning glory of Medieval Art. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Crucifix (1287-88) Panel, 448 x 390 cm Basilica di Santa Croce, Florence. ... There are several things that have been named Giotto: Giotto di Bondone an Italian painter. ...


Churches were built with more and more windows and the use of colorful stained glass become a staple in decoration. One of the most famous examples of this is found in the cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris. By the 14th century Western societies were both richer and more cultivated and painters found new patrons in the nobility and even the bourgeoisie. Illuminated manuscripts took on a new character and slim, fashionably dressed court women were shown in their landscapes. This style soon became known as International style and tempera panel paintings and altarpieces gained importance. Strictly speaking, stained glass is glass that has been painted with silver stain and then fired. ... A cathedral is a religious building for worship, specifically of a denomination with an episcopal hierarchy, such as the Roman Catholic, Anglican and some Lutheran churches, which serves as a bishops seat, and thus as the central church of a diocese. ... Notre Dame de Paris: Western Facade For the novel by Victor Hugo, see The Hunchback of Notre Dame. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A 1367 tempera on wood by Niccolò Semitecolo. ...


Renaissance and Mannerism

The Renaissance (French for 'rebirth'), a cultural movement roughly spanning the 14th through the mid 17th century, heralded the study of classical sources, as well as advances in science which profoundly influenced European intellectual and artistic life. In Italy artists like Paolo Uccello, Fra Angelico, Masaccio, Piero della Francesca, Andrea Mantegna, Filippo Lippi, Giorgione, Tintoretto, Sandro Botticelli, Leonardo Da Vinci, Michelangelo Buonarroti, Raphael, Giovanni Bellini and Titian took painting to a higher level through the use of perspective, the study of human anatomy and proportion, and through their development of an unprecedented refinement in drawing and painting techniques. The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Paolo Uccello (born Paolo di Dono, 1397 – December 10, 1475) was an Italian painter who was notable for his pioneering work on visual perspective in art. ... The Blessed Fra Angelico, (c. ... The Holy Trinity / Trinity with the Virgin, Saint John the Evangelist, and Donors (1425-27/28) - Fresco, Santa Maria Novella, Florence Masaccio (born Tommaso Cassai or in some accounts Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Mone; December 21, 1401 – autumn 1428), was the first great painter of the Italian Renaissance. ... The Baptism of Christ, 1450 (National Gallery, London). ... The Agony in the Garden (1455) is the pinnacle of Mantegnas early style. ... Madonna and Child 1440-45, tempera on panel National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. Fra Filippo Lippi (1406 October 8? – 1469), also called Lippo Lippi, is a well-known Florentine painter of the Italian 15th century school. ... A purported self-portrait of Giorgione, represented in the guise of David. ... Tintoretto (real name Jacopo Comin) September 29, 1518 - May 31, 1594) was one of the greatest painters of the Venetian school and probably the last great painter of the Italian Renaissance. ... Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli (little barrel) (March 1, 1445 – May 17, 1510) was an Italian painter of the Florentine school during the Early Renaissance (Quattrocento). ... The Mona Lisa Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519) was an Italian polymath: scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, painter, sculptor, architect, musician, and writer. ... Michelangelo (full name Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni) (March 6, 1475 - February 18, 1564) was a Renaissance sculptor, architect, painter, and poet. ... Raphael Sanzio or Raffaello (April 6, 1483 – April 6, 1520) was an Italian master painter and architect of the Florentine school in High Renaissance, celebrated for the perfection and grace of his paintings. ... Giovanni Bellini painted his first female nude when he was about 85 years old. ... Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c. ... A cube in two-point perspective. ... List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ...


Flemish, Dutch and German painters of the Renaissance such as Hans Holbein the Younger, Albrecht Dürer, Lucas Cranach, Matthias Grünewald, Hieronymous Bosch, and Pieter Brueghel represent a different approach from their Italian colleagues, one that is more realistic and less idealized. The adoption of oil painting whose invention was traditionally, but erroneously, credited to Jan Van Eyck, (an important transitional figure who bridges painting in the Middle Ages with painting of the early Renaissance), made possible a new verisimilitude in depicting reality. Unlike the Italians, whose work drew heavily from the art of ancient Greece and Rome, the northerners retained a stylistic residue of the sculpture and illuminated manuscripts of the Middle Ages. A 1543 portrait miniature of Hans Holbein the Younger by Lucas Horenbout Holbeins 1533 painting The Ambassadors Hans Holbein the Younger (c. ... Albrecht Dürer (pronounced /al. ... Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553) Lucas Cranach the Younger (1515-1586) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Crucifixion, central panel of the Isenheim Altarpiece Matthias Grünewald (1470-1528) is a highly regarded figure from the German Renaissance. ... Hieronymus Bosch; alleged portrait (around 1560) Hieronymus Bosch, also Jeroen Bosch, ( 1450 – August, 1516) was a prolific Dutch painter of the 15th and 16th century. ... Pieter Brueghel may be: Pieter Brueghel the Elder Pieter Brueghel the Younger, his son This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Mona Lisa, Oil on wood panel painting by Leonardo da Vinci. ... Portrait of a Man in a Turban (actually a chaperon), probably a self-portrait, painted 1433 Jan van Eyck or Johannes de Eyck (c. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... For other uses, see Verisimilitude (disambiguation). ... An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript, often of a religious nature, in which the text is supplemented by the addition of colourful ornamentation, such as decorated initials, borders and the like. ...


Renaissance painting reflects the revolution of ideas and science (astronomy, geography) that occurred in this period, the Reformation, and the invention of the printing press. Dürer, considered one of the greatest of printmakers, states that painters are not mere artisans but thinkers as well. With the development of easel painting in the Renaissance, painting gained independence from architecture. Following centuries dominated by religious imagery, secular subject matter slowly returned to Western painting. Artists included visions of the world around them, or the products of their own imaginations in their paintings. Those who could afford the expense could become patrons and commission portraits of themselves or their family. A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant Astronomy is the science of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as auroras and cosmic background radiation). ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... An artisan, also called a craftsman,[1] is a skilled manual worker who uses tools and machinery in a particular craft. ... The Thinker The Thinker ( French: Le Penseur) is one of Auguste Rodins famous bronze sculptures. ... Two examples of H-frame easels. ...


In the 16th century, movable pictures which could be hung easily on walls, rather than paintings affixed to permanent structures, came into popular demand .[3]


The High Renaissance gave rise to a stylized art known as Mannerism. In place of the balanced compositions and rational approach to perspective that characterized art at the dawn of the sixteenth century, the Mannerists sought instability, artifice, and doubt. The unperturbed faces and gestures of Piero della Francesca and the calm Virgins of Raphael are replaced by the troubled expressions of Pontormo and the emotional intensity of El Greco. The Creation of Adam, Michelangelos fresco from the . ... In Parmigianinos Madonna with the Long Neck (1534-40), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, affected poses, and unclear perspective. ... The Baptism of Christ, 1450 (National Gallery, London). ... Jacopo Carrucci (Pontormo, near Empoli, May 24, 1494 - January 2, 1557), usually known as Jacopo da Pontormo, or simply Pontormo, was a Florentine Mannerist painter and portraitist. ... El Greco (The Greek, 1541 – April 7, 1614) was a painter, sculptor, and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. ...


Baroque and Rococo

During the period beginning around 1600 and continuing throughout the 17th century, painting is characterized as Baroque. Among the greatest painters of the Baroque are Caravaggio, Rembrandt, Rubens, Velazquez, Poussin, and Vermeer. Caravaggio is an heir of the humanist painting of the High Renaissance. His realistic approach to the human figure, painted directly from life and dramatically spotlit against a dark background, shocked his contemporaries and opened a new chapter in the history of painting. Baroque painting often dramatizes scenes using chiaroscuro light effects; this can be seen in works by Rembrandt, Vermeer, Le Nain and La Tour. The Flemish painter Antony Van Dyck developed a graceful but imposing portrait syle that was very influential, especially in England. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (29 September 1571 – 18 July 1610) was an Italian artist active in Rome, Naples, Malta and Sicily between 1593 and 1610. ... This article is about the Dutch painter. ... Peter Paul Rubens (June 28, 1577 – May 30, 1640) was a prolific seventeenth-century Flemish and European painter, and a proponent of an exuberant Baroque style that emphasized movement, color, and sensuality. ... Las Meninas, painted in 1656. ... Les Bergers d’Arcadie, set in Ancient Greece. ... View of Delft, 1660-1661 Johannes Vermeer (1632 - December 15, 1675) was a Dutch painter. ... Humanism[1] is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities—particularly rationality. ... The Creation of Adam, Michelangelos fresco from the . ... Realism is a style of painting that depicts the actuality of what the eyes can see. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Tenebrism. ... Antoine, Louis, and Mathieu Le Nain were painters in early 17th century France. ... St Joseph, 1642, Louvre Georges de La Tour (March 13, 1593–1652) was a painter from the Duchy of Lorraine, now in France. ... Sir Anthony van Dyck (many variant spellings [1] See Van Dyke for other uses of all spellings), (22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish artist who became the leading court painter in England. ...


The prosperity of seventeenth century Holland led to an enormous production of art by large numbers of painters who were mostly highly specialised and painted only genre scenes, landscapes, Still-lifes, portraits or History paintings. Technical standards were very high, and Dutch Golden Age painting established a new repertoire of subjects that was very influential until the arrival of Modernism. Genre painting, also called genre scene or petit genre, attempts to depict aspects of everyday life, via portraits of ordinary people engaged in common activities. ... Landscape art depicts scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests. ... A still life is a work of art depicting inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which may be either natural (food, plants and natural substances like rocks) or man-made (drinking glasses, cigarettes, pipes, hotdogs and so on). ... Roman-Egyptian funeral portrait of a young boy A portrait is a painting (portrait painting), photograph (portrait photography), or other artistic representation of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant. ... Categories: Art stubs | Painting ... Johannes Vermeer Milkmaid 1658-1660 The Dutch Golden Age was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. ... For Modernism in an American context, see American modernism. ...


During the 18th century, Rococo followed as a lighter extension of Baroque, often frivolous and erotic. The French masters Watteau, Boucher and Fragonard represent the style, as do Giovanni Battista Tiepolo and Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin who was considered by some as the best French painter of the 18th century - the Anti-Rococo. Portraiture was an important component of painting in all countries, but especially in England, where the leaders were William Hogarth in a blunt realist style, and Thomas Gainsborough and Joshua Reynolds in more flattering styles influenced by Van Dyck. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... North side of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo - carriage courtyard: all the stucco details sparkled with gold until 1773, when Catherine II had gilding replaced with olive drab paint. ... Jean-Antoine Watteau (October 10, 1684 - July 18, 1721) was a French painter. ... The Toilet of Venus (1751) typifies the superficially pleasing elegance of Bouchers mature style. ... Jean-Honoré Fragonard (April 5, 1732 – August 22, 1806) was a French painter. ... Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, c. ... Self portrait. ... Roman-Egyptian funeral portrait of a young boy A portrait is a painting (portrait painting), photograph (portrait photography), or other artistic representation of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant. ... William Hogarth (November 10, 1697 – October 26, 1764) was a major English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, and editorial cartoonist who has been credited as a pioneer in western sequential art. ... Thomas Gainsborough (14 May 1727 (baptised) – 2 August 1788) was one of the most famous portrait and landscape painters of 18th century Britain. ... Sir Joshua Reynolds in a self-portrait Colonel Acland and Lord Sydney, The Archers, 1769. ...


19th century: Neo-classicism, Romanticism, Impressionism, Hudson River School

also see main articles Impressionism, Post Impressionism, Hudson River School Impressionism was a 19th century art movement that began as a loose association of Paris-based artists, who began exhibiting their art publicly in the 1860s. ... Self-Portrait with sister, by Victor Borisov-Musatov 1898 Post-Impressionism is the term coined by the British artist and art critic Roger Fry in 1914, to describe the development of European art since Monet (Impressionism). ... Thomas Coles View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm, or The Oxbow, 1836 The Hudson River School was a mid-19th century American art movement by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism. ...

After Rococo there arose in the late 18th century, in architecture, and then in painting severe neo-classicism, best represented by such artists as David and his heir Ingres. Ingres' work already contains much of the sensuality, but none of the spontaneity, that was to characterize Romanticism. This movement turned its attention toward landscape and nature as well as the human figure and the supremacy of natural order above mankind's will. There is a pantheist philosophy (see Spinoza and Hegel) within this conception that opposes Enlightenment ideals by seeing mankind's destiny in a more tragic or pessimistic light. The idea that human beings are not above the forces of Nature is in contradiction to Ancient Greek and Renaissance ideals where mankind was above all things and owned his fate. This thinking led romantic artists to depict the sublime, ruined churches, shipwrecks, massacres and madness. North side of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo - carriage courtyard: all the stucco details sparkled with gold until 1773, when Catherine II had gilding replaced with olive drab paint. ... Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, a master builder, from αρχι- chiefs, leader , builder, carpenter)[1] is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ... Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture. ... Self portrait Jacques-Louis David (August 30, 1748 - December 29, 1825), most usually known as David (pronounced Dah-veed rather than Day-vid), was a French painter. ... Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (pronounced (Ang, rhymes with bang, with a hint of the r, but the final es is not pronounced) (August 29, 1780 - January 14, 1867) was a French Neoclassical painter. ... Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romanticism is an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe during the Industrial Revolution. ... Pantheism literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... Baruch Spinoza Benedictus de Spinoza (November 24, 1632 - February 21, 1677), named Baruch Spinoza by his synagogue elders and known as Bento de Spinoza or Bento dEspiñoza in the community in which he grew up. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; German: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ... Galunggung in 1982, showing a combination of natural events. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... For the band, see Sublime (band), or their third album Sublime (album). ...


Romantic painters turned landscape painting into a major genre, considered until then as a minor genre or as a decorative background for figure compositions. Some of the major painters of this period are Eugene Delacroix, Théodore Géricault, J. M. W. Turner, Caspar David Friedrich and John Constable. Francisco de Goya's late work demonstrates the Romantic interest in the irrational, while the work of Arnold Böcklin evokes mystery and the paintings of Aesthetic movement artist James McNeill Whistler evoke both sophistication and decadence. In the United States the Romantic tradition of landscape painting was known as the Hudson River School. Important painters of that school include Thomas Cole, Frederick Church, Albert Bierstadt, Thomas Moran, and John Frederick Kensett among others. Luminism was another important movement in American landscape painting related to the Hudson River School. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Eugène Delacroix (portrait by Nadar) Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 - August 13, 1863) was an important painter from the French romantic period. ... Monument at Gericaults tomb. ... Joseph Mallord William Turner (April 23, 1775 (exact date disputed) – December 19, 1851) was an English Romantic landscape painter, watercolourist and printmaker, whose style can be said to have laid the foundation for Impressionism. ... Self-portrait in chalk, 1810 by fellow artist Georg Friedrich Kersting, 1812 Caspar David Friedrich (September 5, 1774 – May 7, 1840) was a 19th century German romantic painter, considered by many critics to be one of the finest representatives of the movement. ... A self portrait by John Constable John Constable (11 June 1776 – 31 March 1837) was an English Romantic painter. ... This article is about Francisco Goya, a Spanish painter. ... Self-portrait, oil on canvas, 1872 Arnold Böcklin (16 October 1827 – 16 January 1901) was a symbolist Swiss painter. ... The Aesthetic movement is a loosely defined movement in art and literature in later nineteenth century Britain. ... Self portrait James Abbott McNeill Whistler (July 14, 1834 – July 17, 1903) was an American-born, British-based painter and etcher. ... In 19th century European and especially French literature, decadence was the name given, first by hostile critics, and then triumphantly adopted by some writers themselves, to a number of late nineteenth century fin de siècle writers who were associated with Symbolism or the Aesthetic movement and who relished artifice... Thomas Coles View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm, or The Oxbow, 1836 The Hudson River School was a mid-19th century American art movement by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism. ... Thomas Cole, ca. ... Frederic Edwin Church (May 4, 1826 - April 7, 1900) was an American landscape painter born in Hartford, Connecticut. ... Albert Bierstadt, by Napoleon Sarony. ... Thomas Moran. ... John Frederick Kensett b. ... Luminism is an American landscape painting style of the 1850s – 1870s, characterized by effects of light in landscapes, through the use of aerial perspective, and the hiding of visible brushstrokes. ...


The leading Barbizon School painter Camille Corot painted in both a romantic and a realistic vein; his work prefigures Impressionism, as does the paintings of Eugène Boudin who was one of the first French landscape painters to paint outdoors. Boudin was also an important influence on the young Claude Monet, whom in 1857 he introduced to Plein air painting. A major force in the turn towards Realism at mid-century was Gustave Courbet. In the latter third of the century Impressionists like Édouard Manet, Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Camille Pissarro, Alfred Sisley, Berthe Morisot, Mary Cassatt, and Edgar Degas worked in a more direct approach than had previously been exhibited publicly. They eschewed allegory and narrative in favor of individualized responses to the modern world, sometimes painted with little or no preparatory study, relying on deftness of drawing and a highly chromatic pallette. Manet, Degas, Renoir, Morisot, and Cassatt concentrated primarily on the human subject. Both Manet and Degas reinterpreted classical figurative canons within contemporary situations; in Manet's case the re-imaginings met with hostile public reception. Renoir, Morisot, and Cassatt turned to domestic life for inspiration, with Renoir focusing on the female nude. Monet, Pissarro, and Sisley used the landscape as their primary motif, the transience of light and weather playing a major role in their work. While Sisley most closely adhered to the original principals of the impressionist perception of the landscape, Monet sought challenges in increasingly chromatic and changeable conditions, culminating in series of monumental works, and Pissarro adopted some of the experiments of Post-Impressionism. Slightly younger Post-Impressionists like Vincent Van Gogh, Paul Gauguin, Georges Seurat, and Paul Cezanne led art to the edge of modernism; for Gauguin impressionism gave way to a personal symbolism; Seurat transformed impressionism's broken color into a scientific optical study, structured on frieze-like compositions; Van Gogh's turbulent method of paint application, coupled with a sonorous use of color, predicted Expressionism and Fauvism, and Cezanne, desiring to unite classical composition with a revolutionary abstraction of natural forms, would come to be seen as a precursor of 20th century art. The Gleaners. ... Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot (portrait by Nadar) Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot (July 26, 1796 – February 22, French landscape painter. ... Realism is a style of painting that depicts the actuality of what the eyes can see. ... Impressionism was a 19th century art movement that began as a loose association of Paris-based artists, who began exhibiting their art publicly in the 1860s. ... Rivage de Portrieux, Cotes-du-Nord by Eugène Boudin. ... Claude Monet also known as Oscar-Claude Monet or Claude Oscar Monet (November 14, 1840 – December 5, 1926)[1] was a founder of French impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movements philosophy of expressing ones perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein... Plein air is French for outdoors or outside, open air and is a term applied to painting outside, transfer to a picture of all riches of changes of the color caused by influence of a sunlight and the surrounding atmosphere. ... Realism is a style of painting that depicts the actuality of what the eyes can see. ... Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet (10 June 1819 – 31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realist movement in 19th-century French painting. ... Articles with similar titles include Claude Monet, another painter of the same era. ... Claude Monet also known as Oscar-Claude Monet or Claude Oscar Monet (November 14, 1840 – December 5, 1926)[1] was a founder of French impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movements philosophy of expressing ones perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein... Pierre-Auguste Renoir (February 25, 1841–December 3, 1919) was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. ... The garden of Pontoise, painted 1875. ... Alfred Sisley. ... Berthe Morisot in a portrait by Édouard Manet, 1872 Berthe Morisot (January 14, 1841 – March 2, 1895) was an Impressionist painter. ... Self-portrait (1878) by painter Mary Cassatt Mary Stevenson Cassatt (May 22, 1844 – June 14, 1926) was an American painter and printmaker. ... Edgar Degas (19 July 1834 – 27 September 1917), born Hilaire-Germain-Edgar Degas (IPA ), was a French artist famous for his work in painting, sculpture, printmaking and drawing. ... Self-Portrait with sister, by Victor Borisov-Musatov 1898 Post-Impressionism is the term coined by the British artist and art critic Roger Fry in 1914, to describe the development of European art since Monet (Impressionism). ... Vincent Willem van Gogh (Dutch pronunciation: ) (March 30, 1853 – July 29, 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist artist. ... Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin (June 7, 1848 – May 9, 1903) was a leading Post-Impressionist artist. ... Le Chahut was painted by Seurat from 1889 to 1890. ... Categories: 1839 births | 1906 deaths | French painters | Post-impressionism | Artist stubs ... For Modernism in an American context, see American modernism. ... The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc Elbe Bridge I by Rolf Nesch On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... The Dessert: Harmony in Red (1908) by Henri Matisse Les Fauves (French for The Wild Beasts) were a short-lived and loose grouping of early Modern artists whose works emphasized painterly qualities, and the use of deep color over the representational values retained by Impressionism. ...


The spell of Impressionism was felt throughout the world, and nowhere more profoundly than in the United States, where it became integral to the painting of American Impressionists such as Childe Hassam, John Twachtman, and Theodore Robinson. It also exerted influence on painters who were not primarily impressionistic in theory, like the portrait and landscape painter John Singer Sargent. At the same time in America there existed a native and nearly insular realism, as richly embodied in the figurative work of Thomas Eakins and the landscapes and seascapes of Winslow Homer, both of whose paintings were deeply invested in the solidity of natural forms. The visionary landscape, a motive largely dependent on the ambiguity of the nocturne, found its advocates in Albert Pinkham Ryder and Ralph Blakelock. Eleanor Holding a Shell, 1902, by Frank W. Benson Impressionism, a style of painting characterized by loose brushwork and vivid colors, was practiced widely among American artists in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Frederick Childe Hassam (October 17, 1859 - August 27, 1935) was an American Impressionist painter. ... The White Bridge, ca. ... Theodore Robinson (July 3, 1852 – April 2, 1896) was an American Impressionist painter. ... Self Portrait, oil painting, 1907 John Singer Sargent (January 12, 1856 – April 14, 1925) was the most successful portrait painter of his era, as well as a gifted landscape painter and watercolorist. ... Self portrait (1902), National Academy of Design, New York. ... Winslow Homer Winslow Homer (February 24, 1836 – September 29, 1910) was an American landscape painter and printmaker, most famous for his marine subjects. ... The Race Track (Death on a Pale Horse) (1895 - 1910), Cleveland Museum of Art Albert Pinkham Ryder (March 19, 1847 - March 28, 1917) was an American painter best known for his poetic and moody allegorical works and seascapes, as well as his eccentric personality. ... Moonlight, 1885. ...


20th century

Also see: Modern Art, Modernism, Contemporary art. Dejeuner sur lHerbe by Pablo Picasso At the Moulin Rouge: Two Women Waltzing by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1892 The Scream by Edvard Munch, 1893 I and the Village by Marc Chagall, 1911 Fountain by Marcel Duchamp, 1917 Campbells Soup Cans 1962 Synthetic polymer paint on thirty-two... For Modernism in an American context, see American modernism. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...

The heritage of painters like Van Gogh, Cézanne, Gauguin, and Seurat was essential for the development of modern art. At the beginning of the 20th century Henri Matisse and several other young artists including André Derain, Raoul Dufy and Maurice de Vlaminck revolutionized the Paris art world with "wild," multi-colored, expressive, landscapes and figure paintings that the critics called Fauvism - (as seen in the gallery above). Pablo Picasso made his first cubist paintings based on Cézanne's idea that all depiction of nature can be reduced to three solids: cube, sphere and cone. With the painting Les Demoiselles d'Avignon 1907, (see gallery) Picasso dramatically created a new and radical picture depicting a raw and primitive brothel scene with five prostitutes, violently painted women, reminiscent of African tribal masks and his own new Cubist inventions. Analytic cubism (see gallery) was jointly developed by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque from about 1908 through 1912. Analytic cubism, the first clear manifestation of cubism, was followed by Synthetic cubism, practised by Braque, Picasso, Fernand Léger, Juan Gris, Albert Gleizes, Marcel Duchamp and countless other artists into the 1920s. Synthetic cubism is characterized by the introduction of different textures, surfaces, collage elements, papier collé and a large variety of merged subject matter. van gogh is a piece of shit Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890), Netherlands artist. ... Vase of Flowers (1876) Oil on canvas Paul Cézanne (January 19, 1839 – October 22, 1906) was a French painter who represents the bridge from impressionism to cubism. ... Paul Gauguin (June 7, 1848 - May 9, 1903) was a leading Post-Impressionist painter. ... --68. ... The Dessert: Harmony In Red (1908), one of Matisses most famous paintings. ... Charing Cross Bridge, London (1906). ... Raoul Dufy (June 3, 1877 – March 23, 1953) was a French Fauvist painter. ... Maurice de Vlaminck (April 4, 1876 - October 11, 1958) was a French painter, print-maker and author. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... The Dessert: Harmony in Red (1908) by Henri Matisse Les Fauves (French for The Wild Beasts) were a short-lived and loose grouping of early Modern artists whose works emphasized painterly qualities, and the use of deep color over the representational values retained by Impressionism. ... Pablo Ruiz Picasso (October 25, 1881 – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A cube[1] is a three-dimensional solid object bounded by six square faces, facets or sides, with three meeting at each vertex. ... A sphere is a perfectly symmetrical geometrical object. ... This article is about the geometric object, for other uses see Cone. ... Les Demoiselles dAvignon (The Young Ladies of Avignon in English) is a celebrated painting by Pablo Picasso that depicts five prostitutes in a brothel, in the Avignon Street of Barcelona. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mask. ... Woman with a guitar by Georges Braque, 1913 Cubism was an avant-garde art movement that revolutionised European painting and sculpture in the early 20th century. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Cubism. ... Violin and Candlestick, Paris, spring 1910, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art Georges Braque (May 13, 1882 – August 31, 1963) was a major 20th century French painter and sculptor who, along with Pablo Picasso, developed the art movement known as cubism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Cubism. ... Still Life with a Beer Mug, 1921. ... The Sunblind, 1914, Tate Gallery. ... Albert Gleizes, born December 8, 1881 _ died June 23, 1953 was a French painter. ... Marcel Duchamp. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Cubism. ... A collage composed of magazine articles and pictures Collage (From the French: , to stick) is regarded as a work of visual arts made from an assemblage of different forms, thus creating a new whole. ... Papier collé (French: pasted paper) is a painting technique and type of collage. ...


During the years between 1910 and the end of World War I and after the heyday of cubism, several movements emerged in Paris. Giorgio De Chirico moved to Paris in July 1911, where he joined his brother Andrea (the poet and painter known as Alberto Savinio). Through his brother he met Pierre Laprade a member of the jury at the Salon d’Automne, where he exhibited three of his dreamlike works: Enigma of the Oracle, Enigma of an Afternoon and Self-Portrait. During 1913 he exhibited his work at the Salon des Indépendants and Salon d’Automne, his work was noticed by Pablo Picasso and Guillaume Apollinaire and several others. His compelling and mysterious paintings are considered instrumental to the early beginnings of Surrealism. (see gallery) “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Giorgio de Chirico in 1936 photographed by Carl Van Vechten. ... Alberto Savinio, real name Andrea De Chirico, (Athens, August 25, 1891 - Florence, May 5, 1952) was an Italian writer and painter, brother of the more famous Giorgio De Chirico. ... Salon des Indépendants is an exhibition of art held annually since 1884 in Paris, France. ... Pablo Ruiz Picasso (October 25, 1881 – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. ... Guillaume Apollinaire Guillaume Apollinaire (August 26, 1880 – November 9, 1918) was a poet, writer, and art critic. ... Yves Tanguy Indefinite Divisibility 1942 Surrealism[1] is a cultural movement that began in the mid-1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members. ...


In the first two decades of the 20th century and after cubism, several other important movements emerged; Futurism (Balla), Abstract art (Kandinsky), Der Blaue Reiter), Bauhaus, (Kandinsky) and (Klee), Orphism, (Robert Delaunay and František Kupka), Synchromism (Morgan Russell), De Stijl (Mondrian), Suprematism (Malevich), Constructivism (Tatlin), Dadaism (Duchamp, Picabia, Arp) and Surrealism (De Chirico, André Breton, Miró, Magritte, Dalí, Ernst). Modern painting influenced all the visual arts, from Modernist architecture and design, to avant-garde film, theatre and modern dance and became an experimental laboratory for the expression of visual experience, from photography and concrete poetry to advertising art and fashion. Van Gogh's painting exerted great influence upon 20th century Expressionism, as can be seen in the work of the Fauves, Die Brücke (a group led by German painter Ernst Kirchner), and the Expressionism of Edvard Munch, Egon Schiele, Marc Chagall, Amedeo Modigliani, Chaim Soutine and others.. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Futurism was a 20th century art movement. ... Giacomo Balla (July 24, 1871 - March 1, 1958) was an Italian painter. ... Black square by Kazimir Malevich Abstract art is now generally understood to mean art that does not depict objects in the natural world, but instead uses colour and form in a non-representational way. ... On White II (Kandinsky 1923) Wassily Kandinsky (Russian: Василий Кандинский, first name sometimes spelled as Vasily, Vassily or Vasilii) (December 16, 1866 - December 13, 1944) was a Russian-born painter and art theorist. ... Cover of Der Blaue Reiter almanac. ... Typography by Herbert Bayer above the entrance to the workshop block of the Bauhaus, Dessau, 2005. ... On White II (Kandinsky 1923) Wassily Kandinsky (Russian: Василий Кандинский, first name sometimes spelled as Vasily, Vassily or Vasilii) (December 16, 1866 - December 13, 1944) was a Russian-born painter and art theorist. ... Paul Klee (IPA: kleː) (December 18, 1879 to June 29, 1940) was a Swiss painter of German nationality. ... Orphism or Orphic cubism, is a term coined in 1912 France by the poet Guillaume Apollinaire. ... Image:300px-Delaunay ChampDeMars. ... FrantiÅ¡ek Kupka (September 23, 1871 - June 24, 1957) was a Czech painter. ... Airplane Synchromy in Yellow-Orange. ... Morgan Russell (1886 - 1953) was a U.S. abstract painter. ... De Stijl redirects here. ... Piet Mondrian in his studio in 1941 photographed by Arnold Newman Pieter Cornelis (Piet) Mondriaan, after 1912 Mondrian, (pronounced: Pete Mon-dree-on, IPA: ) (b. ... This term is not to be confused with supremacism. ... Self-portrait, 1933 Kazimir Severinovich Malevich (Казимир Северинович Малевич, Polish Malewicz, Ukrainian transliteration Malevych, German Kasimir Malewitsch), (February 12, 1878 – May 15, 1935) was a painter and... Tatlin Tower. ... Vladimir Yevgrafovich Tatlin (Владимир Евграфович Татлин) (December 28 [O.S. December 16] 1885 – May 31, 1953) worked as a painter and architect. ... Cover of the first edition of the publication, Dada. ... Marcel Duchamp (July 28, 1887 - October 2, 1968) was a French/American artist. ... Francis Picabia, Self-Portrait, c. ... Hans (Jean) Arp (September 16, 1886 – June 7, 1966) was a German-French sculptor, painter, and poet. ... Yves Tanguy Indefinite Divisibility 1942 Surrealism[1] is a cultural movement that began in the mid-1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members. ... Giorgio de Chirico in 1936 photographed by Carl Van Vechten. ... André Breton André Breton (French IPA: ) (February 19, 1896 – September 28, 1966) was a French writer, poet, and surrealist theorist, and is best known as the main founder of surrealism. ... Joan Miró photo taken by Carl Van Vechten, June, 1935 Joan Miró i Ferrà (April 20, 1893 – December 25, 1983) was a Catalan painter, sculptor, and ceramist born in Catalonia, Spain. ... This is not a pipe. ... Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, Marquis of Pubol (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), was a Spanish surrealist painter. ... Max Ernst and Dorothea Tanning in 1948. ... This article focuses on the cultural movement labeled modernism or the modern movement. See also: Modernism (Roman Catholicism) or Modernist Christianity; Modernismo for specific art movement(s) in Spain and Catalonia. ... Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, a master builder, from αρχι- chiefs, leader , builder, carpenter)[1] is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ... All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... Film is a term that encompasses individual motion pictures, the field of film as an art form, and the motion picture industry. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... Modern dance is a dance form developed in the early 20th century. ... Photography [fÓ™tÉ‘grÓ™fi:],[foÊŠtÉ‘grÓ™fi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or sensor. ... Concrete poetry, pattern poetry or shape poetry is poetry in which the typographical arrangement of words is as important in conveying the intended effect as the conventional elements of the poem, such as meaning of words, rhythm, rhyme and so on. ... Commercialism redirects here. ... Fashion illustration by George Barbier of a gown by Jeanne Paquin, 1912, from La Gazette du bon ton, the most influential fashion magazine of its era. ... The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc Elbe Bridge I by Rolf Nesch On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... Fauve may refer to: the French word for wild beast or big cat The Fauves, an Australian rock band Fauvism, a short-lived movement of early Modernist art This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Die Brücke (The Bridge) was a group of German expressionist artists formed in Dresden in 1905. ... Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (May 6, 1880-June 15, 1938) was a German expressionist painter and one of the founders of the artists group Die Brücke or The Bridge. ... The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc Elbe Bridge I by Rolf Nesch On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... Edvard Munchs Tomb, Oslo, Norway Edvard Munch (IPA: , December 12, 1863 – January 23, 1944) was a Norwegian Symbolist painter, printmaker, and an important forerunner of Expressionistic art. ... Photograph by Anton Josef Trčka Egon Schiele (June 12, 1890 – October 31, 1918) (pronounced approximately SHEE-luh) was an Austrian painter, a protege of Gustav Klimt, and a major figurative painter of the early 20th century. ... Marc Chagall as photographed in 1941 by Carl Van Vechten. ... Amedeo Clemente Modigliani (July 12, 1884 – January 24, 1920) was an Italian artist, practicing both painting and sculpture, who pursued his career for the most part in France. ... Chaim Soutine (1893 – August 9, 1943) was an expressionist painter. ...


Pioneers of abstraction

Wassily Kandinsky a Russian painter, printmaker and art theorist, one of the most famous 20th-century artists is generally considered the first important painter of modern abstract art. As an early modernist, in search of new modes of visual expression, and spiritual expression, he theorized as did contemporary occultists and theosophists, that pure visual abstraction had corollary vibrations with sound and music. They posited that pure abstraction could express pure spirituality. . His earliest abstractions were generally titled as the example in the (above gallery) Composition VII, making connection to the work of the composers of music. Kandinsky included many of his theories about abstract art in his book Concerning the Spiritual in Art. Piet Mondrian's art was also related to his spiritual and philosophical studies. In 1908 he became interested in the theosophical movement launched by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky in the late 19th century. Blavatsky believed that it was possible to attain a knowledge of nature more profound than that provided by empirical means, and much of Mondrian's work for the rest of his life was inspired by his search for that spiritual knowledge. Other major pioneers of early abstraction include Russian painter Kasimir Malevich, and Swiss painter Paul Klee. Robert Delaunay was a French artist who is associated with Orphism, (reminiscent of a link between pure abstraction and cubism). His later works were more abstract, reminiscent of Paul Klee. His key contributions to abstract painting refer to his bold use of color, and a clear love of experimentation of both depth and tone. At the invitation of Wassily Kandinsky, Delaunay and his wife the artist Sonia Delaunay, joined The Blue Rider (Der Blaue Reiter), a Munich-based group of abstract artists, in 1911, and his art took a turn to the abstract. Still other important pioneers of abstract painting include Czech painter, František Kupka and Synchromism, an art movement founded in 1912 by American artists Stanton MacDonald-Wright and Morgan Russell that closely resembles Orphism. Wassily Kandinsky (Russian: Василий Кандинский, first name pronounced as [vassi:li]) (December 16 [O.S. December 4] 1866 – December 13, 1944) was a Russian painter, printmaker and art theorist. ... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... Printmaking is a process for producing a work of art in ink; the work (called a print) is created indirectly, through the transfer of ink from the surface upon which the work was originally drawn or otherwise composed. ... In mathematics, theory is used informally to refer to a body of knowledge about mathematics. ... It has been suggested that Survey of the twentieth century, The 20th century in review be merged into this article or section. ... Dejeuner sur lHerbe by Pablo Picasso At the Moulin Rouge: Two Women Waltzing by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1892 The Scream by Edvard Munch, 1893 I and the Village by Marc Chagall, 1911 Fountain by Marcel Duchamp, 1917 Campbells Soup Cans 1962 Synthetic polymer paint on thirty-two... Black square by Kazimir Malevich Abstract art is now generally understood to mean art that does not depict objects in the natural world, but instead uses colour and form in a non-representational way. ... This article focuses on the cultural movement labeled modernism or the modern movement. See also: Modernism (Roman Catholicism) or Modernist Christianity; Modernismo for specific art movement(s) in Spain and Catalonia. ... List of notable occultists and mystics. ... Seal of the Theosophical Society Theosophy is a body of belief which holds that all religions are attempts by man to ascertain the Divine, and as such each religion has a portion of the truth. ... Piet Mondrian in his studio in 1941 photographed by Arnold Newman Pieter Cornelis (Piet) Mondriaan, after 1912 Mondrian, (pronounced: Pete Mon-dree-on, IPA: ) (b. ... Theosophy, literally god-wisdom (Greek: θεοσοφία theosophia), designates several bodies of ideas. ... Helena Blavatsky Helena Petrovna Hahn (also Hélène) (July 31, 1831 (O.S.) (August 12, 1831 (N.S.)) - May 8, 1891 London), better known as Helena Blavatsky (Russian: ) or Madame Blavatsky, born Helena von Hahn, was a founder of the Theosophical Society. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... Self-portrait, 1933 Kazimir Severinovich Malevich (Казимир Северинович Малевич, Polish Malewicz, Ukrainian transliteration Malevych, German Kasimir Malewitsch), (February 12, 1878 – May 15, 1935) was a painter and... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... Paul Klee (IPA: kleː) (December 18, 1879 to June 29, 1940) was a Swiss painter of German nationality. ... Image:300px-Delaunay ChampDeMars. ... Orphism or Orphic cubism, is a term coined in 1912 France by the poet Guillaume Apollinaire. ... Paul Klee (IPA: kleː) (December 18, 1879 to June 29, 1940) was a Swiss painter of German nationality. ... Wassily Kandinsky (Russian: Василий Кандинский, first name pronounced as [vassi:li]) (December 16 [O.S. December 4] 1866 – December 13, 1944) was a Russian painter, printmaker and art theorist. ... Sonia Delaunay (née Terk) (1885–1979) was a Ukrainian painter, born in Odessa, Ukraine, as Sonia Terk to a Jewish family. ... Cover of Der Blaue Reiter almanac. ... Munich (German: , pronounced  ; Austro-Bavarian: Minga[2]) is the capital of the German Federal State of Bavaria. ... Look up abstract, abstraction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An artist is someone who employs creative talent to produce works of art. ... FrantiÅ¡ek Kupka (September 23, 1871 - June 24, 1957) was a Czech painter. ... Airplane Synchromy in Yellow-Orange. ... An artist is someone who employs creative talent to produce works of art. ... Stanton Macdonald-Wright (1890-1973) was an American artist, specifically a painter. ... Morgan Russell (1886 - 1953) was a U.S. abstract painter. ... Orphism or Orphic cubism, is a term coined in 1912 France by the poet Guillaume Apollinaire. ...


Fauvism, Der Blaue Reiter

Les Fauves (French for The Wild Beasts) were early 20th century painters, experimenting with freedom of expression through color. The name was given, humourously and not as a compliment, to the group by art critic Louis Vauxcelles. Fauvism was a short-lived and loose grouping of early 20th century artists whose works emphasized painterly qualities, and the imaginative use of deep color over the representational values. Fauvists made the subject of the painting easy to read, exaggerated perspectives and an interesting prescient prediction of the Fauves was expressed in 1888 by Paul Gauguin to Paul Sérusier, Louis Vauxcelles (1870-?) was an influential French art critic. ... The Dessert: Harmony in Red (1908) by Henri Matisse Les Fauves (French for The Wild Beasts) were a short-lived and loose grouping of early Modern artists whose works emphasized painterly qualities, and the use of deep color over the representational values retained by Impressionism. ... Painterly is a literal translation of German Mälerisch, hence malerisch, one of the opposed categories popularized by the art historian Heinrich Wölfflin (1864 - 1945) in order to help focus, enrich and standardize the terms being used by art historians of his time to characterize works of art. ... Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin (June 7, 1848 – May 9, 1903) was a leading Post-Impressionist artist. ... Photo of Paul Sérusier Paul Sérusier (1864, Paris – 1927, Morlaix) was a post-impressionist French painter associated with the les Nabis artists. ...


"How do you see these trees? They are yellow. So, put in yellow; this shadow, rather blue, paint it with pure ultramarine; these red leaves? Put in vermilion." Natural ultramarine. ... Vermilion, also spelled vermillion, when found naturally-occurring, is an opaque reddish orange pigment, used since antiquity, originally derived from the powdered mineral cinnabar. ...


The leaders of the movement were Henri Matisse and André Derain — friendly rivals of a sort, each with his own followers. Ultimately Matisse became the yang to Picasso's yin in the 20th century. Fauvist painters included Albert Marquet, Charles Camoin, Maurice de Vlaminck, Raoul Dufy, Othon Friesz, the Dutch painter Kees van Dongen, and Picasso's partner in Cubism, Georges Braque amongst others. The Dessert: Harmony In Red (1908), one of Matisses most famous paintings. ... Charing Cross Bridge, London (1906). ... Self-Portrait in a Striped T-shirt (1906). ... A young Pablo Picasso Pablo Picasso, formally Pablo Ruiz Picasso, (October 25, 1881 - April 8, 1973) was one of the recognized masters of 20th century art. ... Albert Marquet (27 March 1875, Bordeaux – 13 June 1947, Paris) was a French painter, associated with the Fauvism current. ... Charles Camoin was born in Marseilles, France in 1879. ... Maurice de Vlaminck (April 4, 1876 - October 11, 1958) was a French painter, print-maker and author. ... Raoul Dufy (June 3, 1877 – March 23, 1953) was a French Fauvist painter. ... Othon Friesz was a French artist of the Fauvist movement. ... Cornelis Theodorus Maria van Dongen (January 26, 1877 – May 28, 1968), was a Dutch painter born in Delfshaven, in the suburbs of Rotterdam, and is generally known as Kees van Dongen or just van Dongen. He was one of the les Fauves and gained a reputation for his sensuous, at... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Violin and Candlestick, Paris, spring 1910, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art Georges Braque (May 13, 1882 – August 31, 1963) was a major 20th century French painter and sculptor who, along with Pablo Picasso, developed the art movement known as cubism. ...


Fauvism, as a movement, had no concrete theories, and was short lived, beginning in 1905 and ending in 1907, they only had three exhibitions. Matisse was seen as the leader of the movement, due to his seniority in age and prior self-establishment in the academic art world. He said he wanted to create art to delight; art as a decoration was his purpose and it can be said that his use of bright colors tries to maintain serenity of composition.


Der Blaue Reiter was a German movement lasting from 1911 to 1914, fundamental to Expressionism, along with Die Brücke which was founded the previous decade in 1905. Wassily Kandinsky, Franz Marc, August Macke, Alexej von Jawlensky, Marianne von Werefkin, Lyonel Feininger and others founded the group in response to the rejection of Kandinsky's painting Last Judgement from an exhibition. Der Blaue Reiter lacked a central artistic manifesto, but was centered around Kandinsky and Marc. Artists Gabriele Münter and Paul Klee were also involved. The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc Elbe Bridge I by Rolf Nesch On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... Die Brücke (The Bridge) was a group of German expressionist artists formed in Dresden in 1905. ... Wassily Kandinsky (Russian: Василий Кандинский, first name pronounced as [vassi:li]) (December 16 [O.S. December 4] 1866 – December 13, 1944) was a Russian painter, printmaker and art theorist. ... August Macke. ... August Macke. ... Artists in Munich 1914: (from left) Alexej von Jawlensky, Clotilde von Derp, Marianne von Werefkin, Alexander Sacharoff Alexej Georgewitsch von Jawlensky (?March 13, 1864 – March 15, 1941) was a Russian expressionist painter active in Germany. ... Image:Jawlensky-Derp-Werefkin. ... Lyonel Charles Feininger (July 17, 1871 - January 13, 1956); was a German-American painter and caricaturist. ... Gabriele Münter was a German painter who lived from 1877 to 1962. ... Paul Klee (IPA: kleː) (December 18, 1879 to June 29, 1940) was a Swiss painter of German nationality. ...


The name of the movement comes from a painting by Kandinsky created in 1903 (see illustration). It is also claimed that the name could have derived from Marc's enthusiasm for horses and Kandinsky's love of the colour blue. For Kandinsky, blue is the colour of spirituality: the darker the blue, the more it awakens human desire for the eternal. YOU SUCK!!!!! ...


Dada and Surrealism

Marcel Duchamp, came to international prominence in the wake of his notorious success at the New York City Armory Show in 1913, (soon after he denounced artmaking for chess). Duchamp became closely associated with the Dada movement that began in neutral Zürich, Switzerland, during World War I and peaked from 1916 to 1920. The movement primarily involved visual arts, literature (poetry, art manifestoes, art theory), theatre, and graphic design, and concentrated its anti war politic through a rejection of the prevailing standards in art through anti-art cultural works. Francis Picabia (see above), Man Ray, Kurt Schwitters, Tristan Tzara, Hans Richter, Jean Arp, Sophie Taeuber-Arp, along with Duchamp and many others are associated with the Dadaist movement. Duchamp and several Dadaists are also associated with Surrealism, the movement that dominated European painting in the 1920s and 1930s. Marcel Duchamp. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Armory Show poster. ... Chess is a recreational and competitive game for two players. ... Cover of the first edition of the publication, Dada. ... Zürich IPA (in English often Zurich, which is also the standard French form of the name) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 364,558 in 2002; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Bath, a painting by Mary Cassatt (1844-1926). ... Anti art is a work that is exhibited or delivered in a conventional context but makes fun of serious art or challenges the nature of art. ... Francis Picabia in his studio. ... Man Ray, photographed at Gaite-Montparnasse exhibition in Paris by Carl Van Vechten on June 16, 1934 Man Ray (August 27, 1890–November 18, 1976) was an American artist who spent most of his career in Paris, France. ... Kurt Schwitters (June 20, 1887 - January 8, 1948) was a German painter who was born in Hanover, Germany. ... Tristan Tzara () (April 16, 1896 – December 25, 1963) was a -Romanian poet and essayist. ... Hans Richter was a Dadaist artist, filmmaker and writer. ... Hans (Jean) Arp (September 16, 1886 – June 7, 1966) was a German-French sculptor, painter, and poet. ... Taeuber-Arp on the 50 Swiss Francs note Sophie Taeuber-Arp (19 January 1889 - 13 January 1943) was a Swiss artist, painter, and sculptor. ... Dadaism or Dada is a post-World War I cultural movement in visual art as well as literature (mainly poetry), theatre and graphic design. ... Yves Tanguy Indefinite Divisibility 1942 Surrealism[1] is a cultural movement that began in the mid-1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members. ... A European is primarily a person who was born into one of the countries within the continent of Europe. ...


In 1924 André Breton published the Surrealist Manifesto. The Surrealist movement in painting became synonymous with the avant-garde and which featured artists whose works varied from the abstract to the super-realist. René Magritte and Salvador Dalí are particularly known for their realistic depictions of dream imagery and fantastic manifestations of the imagination. The more abstract Joan Miró, Jean Arp, André Masson, and Max Ernst were very influential, especially in the United States during the 1940s. André Breton André Breton (French IPA: ) (February 19, 1896 – September 28, 1966) was a French writer, poet, and surrealist theorist, and is best known as the main founder of surrealism. ... The Surrealist Manifesto was written by the French writer André Breton and published in 1924. ... Surrealism is an artistic movement and an aesthetic philosophy that aims for the liberation of the mind by emphasizing the critical and imaginative powers of the subconscious. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... This is not a pipe. ... Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, Marquis of Pubol (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), was a Spanish surrealist painter. ... Joan Miró photo taken by Carl Van Vechten, June, 1935 Joan Miró i Ferrà (April 20, 1893 – December 25, 1983) was a Catalan painter, sculptor, and ceramist born in Catalonia, Spain. ... Hans (Jean) Arp (September 16, 1886 – June 7, 1966) was a German-French sculptor, painter, and poet. ... Pedestal Table in the Studio, (1922) André-Aimé-René Masson (January 4, 1896 – October 28, 1987) was a French artist. ... Max Ernst and Dorothea Tanning in 1948. ...


Throughout the 1930s, Surrealism continued to become more visible to the public at large. A Surrealist group developed in Britain and, according to Breton, their 1936 London International Surrealist Exhibition was a high water mark of the period and became the model for international exhibitions. Surrealist groups in Japan, and especially in Latin America, the Caribbean and in Mexico produced innovative and original works. Eileen Agar (1899-1991) Emmy Bridgwater (1906-1999) David Gascoyne (1916-2001) Humphrey Jennings (1907-1950) Conroy Maddox (1912-2005) ELT Mesens (1903-1971) Roland Penrose (1900-1984) Toni del Renzio Julian Trevelyan (1910-1988) John Tunnard (1900-1971) Simon Watson Taylor (1923-2005) The Group was involved in the... The International Surrealist Exhibition was held from 11 June to 4 July 1936 at the New Burlington Galleries in London. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... “West Indian” redirects here. ...


Dalí and Magritte created some of the most widely recognized images of the movement. Dalí joined the group in 1929, and participated in the rapid establishment of the visual style between 1930 and 1935. Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, Marquis of Pubol (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), was a Spanish surrealist painter. ... This is not a pipe. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ...


Surrealism as a visual movement had found a method: to expose psychological truth by stripping ordinary objects of their normal significance, in order to create a compelling image that was beyond ordinary formal organization, and perception, sometimes evoking empathy from the viewer, sometimes laughter and sometimes outrage and bewilderment.


1931 marked a year when several Surrealist painters produced works which marked turning points in their stylistic evolution: in one example (see gallery above) liquid shapes become the trademark of Dalí, particularly in his The Persistence of Memory, which features the image of watches that sag as if they are melting. Evocations of time and its compelling mystery and absurdity. Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... La persistencia de la memoria (1931) or The Persistence of Memory is quite possibly the most famous painting by artist Salvador Dalí. The painting has also been popularly known as Soft Watches, Droopy Watches, or Melting Clocks. ...


The characteristics of this style - a combination of the depictive, the abstract, and the psychological - came to stand for the alienation which many people felt in the modernist period, combined with the sense of reaching more deeply into the psyche, to be "made whole with one's individuality". For Modernism in an American context, see American modernism. ...


Long after personal, political and professional tensions have fragmented the Surrealist group into thin air and ether, Magritte, Miro, Dalí and the other Surrealists continue to define a visual program in the arts.


Expressionism, Symbolism, American Modernism

In the USA during the period between World War I and World War II painters tended to go to Europe for recognition. Modernist artists like Marsden Hartley, Patrick Henry Bruce, Gerald Murphy and Stuart Davis, created reputations abroad. While Patrick Henry Bruce, created cubist related paintings in Europe, both Stuart Davis and Gerald Murphy made paintings that were early inspirations for American pop art and Marsden Hartley experimented with expressionism. During the 1920s photographer Alfred Stieglitz exhibited Georgia O'Keeffe, Arthur Dove, Alfred Henry Maurer, Charles Demuth, John Marin and other artists including European Masters Henri Matisse, Auguste Rodin, Henri Rousseau, Paul Cezanne, and Pablo Picasso, at his New York City gallery the 291. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article focuses on the cultural movement labeled modernism or the modern movement. See also: Modernism (Roman Catholicism) or Modernist Christianity; Modernismo for specific art movement(s) in Spain and Catalonia. ... Marsden Hartley (January 4, 1877 - September 2, 1943) was an American painter and poet in the early 20th century. ... Patrick Henry Bruce (1881 – November 12, 1936) was an American modernist painter who practiced a form of cubism. ... Gerald Clery Murphy, born in Boston, Massachusetts on March 25, 1888, was heir to the family who owned Mark Cross Company, sellers of fine leather goods. ... Photograph of Stuart Davis, 1940 Stuart Davis (December 7, 1894 - June 24, 1964), American painter, was born in Philadelphia to Edward Wyatt Davies and Helen Stuart Davies. ... Patrick Henry Bruce (1881 – November 12, 1936) was an American modernist painter who practiced a form of cubism. ... Woman with a guitar by Georges Braque, 1913 Cubism was an avant-garde art movement that revolutionised European painting and sculpture in the early 20th century. ... There are two well-known artists named Stuart Davis. ... Gerald Clery Murphy, born in Boston, Massachusetts on March 25, 1888, was heir to the family who owned Mark Cross Company, sellers of fine leather goods. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Marsden Hartley (January 4, 1877 - September 2, 1943) was an American painter and poet in the early 20th century. ... The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc Elbe Bridge I by Rolf Nesch On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... Alfred Stieglitz (January 1, 1864 – July 13, 1946) was an American-born photographer who was instrumental over his fifty-year career in making photography an acceptable art form alongside painting and sculpture. ... Georgia Totto OKeeffe (November 15, 1887—March 6, 1986) was an American artist. ... It has been suggested that Arthur Doves Cottage be merged into this article or section. ... An Arrangement, oil on cardboard Alfred Henry Maurer (1868 – August 4, 1932) was an American painter born in New York City. ... Charles Demuth (November 9, 1883 - October 23, 1935) was an American precisionist painter. ... John Marin (December 23, 1870 - October 2, 1953) was an early American modernist artist. ... The Dessert: Harmony In Red (1908), one of Matisses most famous paintings. ... Auguste Rodin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Dream, 1910 MoMA. Henri Julien Félix Rousseau (May 21, 1844 – September 2, 1910) was a French Post-Impressionist painter in the Naive or Primitive manner. ... Categories: 1839 births | 1906 deaths | French painters | Post-impressionism | Artist stubs ... Pablo Ruiz Picasso (October 25, 1881 – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession (later known as 291) was a tiny fine art photography gallery in New York City created and run by Alfred Stieglitz and Edward Steichen from November 1905 to 1917. ...


Expressionism and Symbolism are broad rubrics that describes several important and related movements in 20th century painting that dominated much of the avant-garde art being made in Western, Eastern and Northern Europe. Expressionism was painted largely between World War I and World War II, mostly in France, Germany, Norway, Russia, Belgium, and Austria. Expressionist artists are related to both Surrealism and Symbolism and are each uniquely and somewhat eccentrically personal. Fauvism, Die Brücke, and Der Blaue Reiter are three of the best known groups of Expressionist and Symbolist painters. Artists as interesting and diverse as Marc Chagall, Gustav Klimt, Egon Schiele, Edvard Munch, Emil Nolde, Chaim Soutine, James Ensor, Oskar Kokoschka, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Max Beckmann, Franz Marc, Käthe Schmidt Kollwitz, Georges Rouault, Amedeo Modigliani and some of the Americans abroad like Marsden Hartley, and Stuart Davis, were considered influential expressionist painters. The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc Elbe Bridge I by Rolf Nesch On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc Elbe Bridge I by Rolf Nesch On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Yves Tanguy Indefinite Divisibility 1942 Surrealism[1] is a cultural movement that began in the mid-1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members. ... The Dessert: Harmony in Red (1908) by Henri Matisse Les Fauves (French for The Wild Beasts) were a short-lived and loose grouping of early Modern artists whose works emphasized painterly qualities, and the use of deep color over the representational values retained by Impressionism. ... Die Brücke (The Bridge) was a group of German expressionist artists formed in Dresden in 1905. ... Cover of Der Blaue Reiter almanac. ... On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Marc Chagall as photographed in 1941 by Carl Van Vechten. ... Gustav Klimt, 1902 Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian Symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Art Nouveau (Vienna Secession) movement. ... Photograph by Anton Josef Trčka Egon Schiele (June 12, 1890 – October 31, 1918) (pronounced approximately SHEE-luh) was an Austrian painter, a protege of Gustav Klimt, and a major figurative painter of the early 20th century. ... Edvard Munchs Tomb, Oslo, Norway Edvard Munch (IPA: , December 12, 1863 – January 23, 1944) was a Norwegian Symbolist painter, printmaker, and an important forerunner of Expressionistic art. ... Maskenstilleben (Masks Still Life), watercolor on paper, 1911. ... Chaim Soutine (1893 – August 9, 1943) was an expressionist painter. ... James Ensor (April 13, 1860 - November 19, 1949) was a Belgian impressionist painter, who lived in Ostend for almost his entire life; his father was English, his mother Belgian. ... Oskar Kokoschka (March 1, 1886-February 22, 1980) was an Austrian artist and poet of Czech origin, best known for his intense expressionistic portraits and landscapes. ... Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (May 6, 1880 – June 15, 1938) was a German expressionist painter and one of the founders of the artists group Die Brücke or The Bridge. ... Max Beckmann (February 12, 1884 – December 28, 1950) was a German painter, draftsman, printmaker, sculptor, and writer. ... August Macke. ... Käthe Schmidt Kollwitz (July 8, 1867 - 22 April 1945) was a German artist. ... Georges Henri Rouault (27 May 1871 – 13 February 1958) was a French Fauvist and Expressionist painter. ... Amedeo Clemente Modigliani (July 12, 1884 – January 24, 1920) was an Italian artist, practicing both painting and sculpture, who pursued his career for the most part in France. ... Marsden Hartley (January 4, 1877 - September 2, 1943) was an American painter and poet in the early 20th century. ... Photograph of Stuart Davis, 1940 Stuart Davis (December 7, 1894 - June 24, 1964), American painter, was born in Philadelphia to Edward Wyatt Davies and Helen Stuart Davies. ...


Social Realism, Regionalism, American Scene painting, Symbolism

During the 1930s and the Great Depression, Surrealism, late Cubism, the Bauhaus, De Stijl, Dada, Expressionism, and modernist and masterful color painters like Henri Matisse and Pierre Bonnard characterized the European art scene. While in America American Scene painting and the Social Realism and Regionalism movements that contained both political and social commentary dominated the art world. Artists like Ben Shahn, Thomas Hart Benton, Grant Wood, George Tooker, John Steuart Curry, Reginald Marsh, and others became prominent. In Latin America the muralist movement with Diego Rivera, David Siqueiros, José Orozco, Pedro Nel Gómez and Santiago Martinez Delgado and the Symbolist paintings by Frida Kahlo was a renaissance of the arts for the region, with a use of color and historic, and political messages. Frida Kahlo's Symbolist works also relate strongly to Surrealism and to the Magic Realism movement in literature. The Great Depression was a time of economic down turn, which started after the stock market crash on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. ... Yves Tanguy Indefinite Divisibility 1942 Surrealism[1] is a cultural movement that began in the mid-1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Typography by Herbert Bayer above the entrance to the workshop block of the Bauhaus, Dessau, 2005. ... De Stijl redirects here. ... Cover of the first edition of the publication, Dada. ... The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc Elbe Bridge I by Rolf Nesch On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... This article focuses on the cultural movement labeled modernism or the modern movement. See also: Modernism (Roman Catholicism) or Modernist Christianity; Modernismo for specific art movement(s) in Spain and Catalonia. ... The Dessert: Harmony In Red (1908), one of Matisses most famous paintings. ... The Dining Room in the Country Pierre Bonnard (October 3, 1867 – January 23, 1947) was a French painter and printmaker. ... American scene painting is a naturalist style of paintings and art of the 1920s though 1940s in the United States. ... A Diego Rivera mural depicting factory workers in Detroit Social Realism is an artistic movement, expressed in the visual and other realist arts, which depicts working class activities as heroic. ... In art, regionalism is a realist modern American art movement wherein artists shunned the city and rapidly developing technological advances to focus on scenes of rural life. ... Sacco & Vanzetti mosaic by Ben Shahn, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY Ben Shahn (September 12, 1898 - March 14, 1969) was a Lithuanian-born American artist and teacher. ... Thomas Hart Benton is a name shared by the following American men: Thomas Hart Benton (senator) (1782-1858) Thomas Hart Benton (painter) (1889-1975) Thomas H. Benton (higher education columnist) (1968-) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... American Gothic (1930) Stained glass window in Cedar Rapids, Iowa 2004 Iowa state quarter Grant Wood, born Grant DeVolson Wood (February 13, 1891 – February 12, 1942) was an American painter, born in Anamosa, Iowa. ... Government Bureau (1956), egg tempera on panel George Claire is harry Tooker (born August 5, 1920) is one of Magic Realisms most prominent visual artists. ... Detail of Currys controversial mural in Kansas Statehouse, illustrating John Brown and the clash of forces in Bleeding Kansas John Steuart Curry (November 14, 1897 - August 29, 1946) was an American painter noted for his pictures depicting life in his home state, Kansas. ... Reginald Marsh (14 March 1898 - 3 July 1954) was an American painter most notable for his detailed depictions of life in New York City in the 1920s. ... Salle des illustres, ceiling painting, by Jean André Rixens. ... Diego Rivera (December 8, 1886 – November 24, 1957), (full name Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez) was a Mexican painter and muralist born in Guanajuato City, Guanajuato. ... David Alfaro Siqueiros (December 29, 1896 in Camargo, Chihuahua, Mexico - January 6, 1974 in Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico) was a painter and muralist known for his social realism work. ... José Clemente Orozco. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Master Santiago Martinez Delgado. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Frida Kahlo (July 6, 1907 – July 13, 1954) was a Mexican painter who depicted the indigenous culture of her country in a style combining Realism, Symbolism and Surrealism. ... Frida Kahlo (July 6, 1907 – July 13, 1954) was a Mexican painter who depicted the indigenous culture of her country in a style combining Realism, Symbolism and Surrealism. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Yves Tanguy Indefinite Divisibility 1942 Surrealism[1] is a cultural movement that began in the mid-1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members. ... Magic realism (or magical realism) is an artistic genre in which magical elements appear in an otherwise realistic setting. ...


Diego Rivera is perhaps best known by the public world for his 1933 mural, "Man at the Crossroads," in the lobby of the RCA Building at Rockefeller Center. When his patron Nelson Rockefeller discovered that the mural included a portrait of Lenin and other communist imagery, he fired Rivera, and the unfinished work was eventually destroyed by Rockefeller's staff. The film Cradle Will Rock includes a dramatization of the controversy. Frida Kahlo (Rivera's wife's) works are often characterized by their stark portrayals of pain. Of her 143 paintings 55 are self-portraits, which frequently incorporate symbolic portrayals of her physical and psychological wounds. Kahlo was deeply influenced by indigenous Mexican culture, which is apparent in her paintings' bright colors and dramatic symbolism. Christian and Jewish themes are often depicted in her work as well; she combined elements of the classic religious Mexican tradition--which were often bloody and violent--with surrealist renderings. While her paintings are not overtly Christian - she was, after all, an avowed communist - they certainly contain elements of the macabre Mexican Christian style of religious paintings. 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Lower Plaza at Rockefeller Center. ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American Vice President, governor of New York State, philanthropist and businessman. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... For the original 1937 musical, see The Cradle Will Rock. ... Frida Kahlo (July 6, 1907 – July 13, 1954) was a Mexican painter who depicted the indigenous culture of her country in a style combining Realism, Symbolism and Surrealism. ... Self-portrait by Vincent Van Gogh A portrait is a painting, photograph, or other artistic representation of a person. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Surrealism is an artistic movement and an aesthetic philosophy that aims for the liberation of the mind by emphasizing the critical and imaginative powers of the subconscious. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


Political activism was an important piece of David Siqueiros' life, and frequently inspired him to set aside his artistic career. His art was deeply rooted in the Mexican Revolution, a violent and chaotic period in Mexican history in which various social and political factions fought for recognition and power. The period from the 1920s to the 1950s is known as the Mexican Renaissance, and Siqueiros was active in the attempt to create an art that was at once Mexican and universal. He briefly gave up painting to focus on organizing miners in Jalisco. He ran a political art workshop in New York City in preparation for the 1936 General Strike for Peace and May Day parade. The young Jackson Pollock attended the workshop and helped build floats for the parade. Between 1937 and 1938 he fought in the Spanish Civil War alongside the Spanish Republican forces, in opposition to Francisco Franco's military coup. He was exiled twice from Mexico , once in 1932 and again in 1940, following his assassination attempt on Leon Trotsky. David Alfaro Siqueiros (December 29, 1896 in Camargo, Chihuahua, Mexico - January 6, 1974 in Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico) was a painter and muralist known for his social realism work. ... A graphical timeline is available here: Timeline of the Mexican Revolution Many portions of this article are translations of excerpts from the article Revolución Mexicana in the Spanish Wikipedia. ... The 1920s is a decade that is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... May Day is May 1, and refers to any of several holidays celebrated on this day. ... United States Marines on parade. ... Controversy swirls over the alleged sale of No. ... A float is a decorated platform, either built on a vehicle or towed behind one, which is a component of many festive parades, such as the Macys Thanksgiving Day Parade and the Tournament of Roses Parade. ... Combatants Spanish Republic With the support of: Soviet Union[1] Nationalist Spain With the support of: Italy Germany Commanders Manuel Azaña Francisco Largo Caballero Juan Negrín Francisco Franco Gonzalo Queipo de Llano Emilio Mola José Sanjurjo Casualties 500,000[2] The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict... General Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892–20 November[1] 1975), commonly abbreviated to Francisco Franco (pron. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...   (Russian: Лёв Давидович Троцкий, Lyov Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Leon Davidovich Bronstein (Лёв Давидович Бронштейн), was a Ukrainian-born Jewish Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ...


Abstract expressionism

Post-Second World War American painting called Abstract expressionism included artists like Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, Arshile Gorky, Mark Rothko, Hans Hofmann, Clyfford Still, Adolph Gottlieb, Philip Guston, Robert Motherwell, and Franz Kline, among others. American Abstract expressionism got its name in 1946 from the art critic Robert Coates. It is seen as combining the emotional intensity and self-denial of the German Expressionists with the anti-figurative aesthetic of the European abstract schools such as Futurism, the Bauhaus and Synthetic Cubism. Abstract expressionism, Action painting, and Color field painting are synonymous with the New York School. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... Controversy swirls over the alleged sale of No. ... Willem de Koonings Woman V (1952-53), National Gallery of Australia Willem de Kooning (April 24, 1904 – March 19, 1997) was an abstract expressionist painter, born in Rotterdam, Netherlands. ... Vostanik Manoog Adoyan, (better known as Arshile Gorky) (April 15, 1904 – July 21, 1948) was an Armenian abstract expressionist painter. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Hans Hofmann (1880 - 1966) was an abstract expressionist painter. ... Clyfford Still (November 30, 1904 – June 23, 1980) was an American painter, one of the leading figures in abstract expressionism. ... Adolph Gottlieb (March 14, 1903 - March 4, 1974) was an American abstract expressionist painter. ... Philip Guston ([Montreal, Canada [July 27]], 1913 - [Woodstock, N.Y.[June 7]], 1980) was one of the most important painters of the New York School, which also numbered many of the Abstract Expressionists, such as Jackson Pollock and Willem De Kooning. ... Robert Motherwell (January 24, 1915 –July 16, 1991) was an American abstract expressionist painter. ... Franz Klines Painting Number 2, 1954 Franz Kline (May 23, 1910 - May 13, 1962) was an American painter mainly associated with the Abstract Expressionist group which was centered, geographically, around New York, and temporally, in the 1940s and 1950s; but not limited to that setting. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... Robert Coates, an art critic for the New Yorker. ... The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc Elbe Bridge I by Rolf Nesch On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... Futurism was a 20th century art movement. ... Typography by Herbert Bayer above the entrance to the workshop block of the Bauhaus, Dessau, 2005. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... Pollocks Galaxy, a part of the Joslyn Art Museums permanent collection. ... Color Field is an art movement characterized by canvases being covered entirely by large fields of solid color. ... The New York School was an informal group of American poets, painters and musicians active in the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s in New York City. ...


Technically Surrealism was an important predecessor for Abstract expressionism with its emphasis on spontaneous, automatic or subconscious creation. Jackson Pollock's dripping paint onto a canvas laid on the floor is a technique that has its roots in the work of André Masson. Another important early manifestation of what came to be abstract expressionism is the work of American Northwest artist Mark Tobey, especially his "white writing" canvases, which, though generally not large in scale, anticipate the "all over" look of Pollock's drip paintings. Yves Tanguy Indefinite Divisibility 1942 Surrealism[1] is a cultural movement that began in the mid-1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... Headline text Automatism is a surrealist technique involving spontaneous writing, drawing, or the like practiced without conscious aesthetic or moral self-censorship. ... Controversy swirls over the alleged sale of No. ... Pedestal Table in the Studio, (1922) André-Aimé-René Masson (January 4, 1896 – October 28, 1987) was a French artist. ... Mark Tobey (December 11, 1890 – April 24, 1976) was an American abstract painter. ...


Additionally, Abstract expressionism has an image of being rebellious, anarchic, highly idiosyncratic and, some feel, rather nihilistic. In practice, the term is applied to any number of artists working (mostly) in New York who had quite different styles, and even applied to work which is not especially abstract nor expressionist. Pollock's energetic "action paintings", with their "busy" feel, are different both technically and aesthetically, to the violent and grotesque Women series of Willem de Kooning (which are figurative paintings) and to the serenely shimmering blocks of color in Mark Rothko's work (which is not what would usually be called expressionist and which Rothko denied was abstract), yet all three are classified as abstract expressionists. Jackson Pollock, No. ... Pollocks Galaxy, a part of the Joslyn Art Museums permanent collection. ... Willem de Koonings Woman V (1952-53), National Gallery of Australia Willem de Kooning (April 24, 1904 – March 19, 1997) was an abstract expressionist painter, born in Rotterdam, Netherlands. ... The Creation of Adam, a figurative work by Michelangelo Figurative art describes artwork - particularly paintings - which are clearly derived from real object sources, and are therefore by definition representational. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Abstract Expressionism has many stylistic similarities to the Russian artists of the early twentieth century such as Wassily Kandinsky. Although it is true that spontaneity or of the impression of spontaneity characterized many of the abstract expressionists works, most of these paintings involved careful planning, especially since their large size demanded it. An exception might be the drip paintings of Pollock. Wassily Kandinsky (Russian: Василий Кандинский, first name pronounced as [vassi:li]) (December 16 [O.S. December 4] 1866 – December 13, 1944) was a Russian painter, printmaker and art theorist. ...


Why this style gained mainstream acceptance in the 1950s is a matter of debate. American Social realism had been the mainstream in the 1930s. It had been influenced not only by the Great Depression but also by the Social Realists of Mexico such as David Alfaro Siqueiros and Diego Rivera. The political climate after World War II did not long tolerate the social protests of those painters. Abstract expressionism arose during World War II and began to be showcased during the early 1940s at galleries in New York like The Art of This Century Gallery. The late 1940s through the mid 1950s ushered in the McCarthy era. It was after World War II and a time of political conservatism and extreme artistic censorship in the United States. Some people have conjectured that since the subject matter was often totally abstract, Abstract expressionism became a safe strategy for artists to pursue this style. Abstract art could be seen as apolitical. Or if the art was political, the message was largely for the insiders. However those theorists are in the minority. As the first truly original school of painting in America, Abstract expressionism demonstrated the vitality and creativity of the country in the post-war years, as well as its ability (or need) to develop an aesthetic sense that was not constrained by the European standards of beauty. A Diego Rivera mural depicting factory workers in Detroit Social Realism is an artistic movement, expressed in the visual and other realist arts, which depicts working class activities as heroic. ... The Great Depression was a time of economic down turn, which started after the stock market crash on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. ... Roses for Stalin, Boris Vladimirski, 1949 For other meanings of the term realism, see realism (disambiguation). ... David Alfaro Siquerios (December 29, 1896 in Camargo, Chihuahua, Mexico - January 6, 1974 in Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico) was a painter and muralist known for his social realism work. ... Diego Rivera (December 8, 1886 – November 24, 1957), (full name Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez) was a Mexican painter and muralist born in Guanajuato City, Guanajuato. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Peggy Guggenheim opened The Art of This Century Gallery at 30 W. 57th Street in New York City in October-November 1942. ... McCarthyism, named after Joseph McCarthy, was a period of intense anticommunism, also (popularly) known as the (second) Red Scare, which occurred in the United States from 1948 to about 1956 (or later), when the government of the United States was actively engaged in suppression of the Communist Party USA, its... Censorship is defined as the removal and withholding of information from the public by a controlling group or body. ... Black square by Kazimir Malevich Abstract art is now generally understood to mean art that does not depict objects in the natural world, but instead uses colour and form in a non-representational way. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ...


Although Abstract expressionism spread quickly throughout the United States, the major centers of this style were New York City and California, especially in the New York School, and the San Francisco Bay area. Abstract expressionist paintings share certain characteristics, including the use of large canvases, an "all-over" approach, in which the whole canvas is treated with equal importance (as opposed to the center being of more interest than the edges. The canvas as the arena became a credo of Action painting, while the integrity of the picture plane became a credo of the Color field painters. The New York School was an informal group of American poets, painters and musicians active in the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s in New York City. ... Pollocks Galaxy, a part of the Joslyn Art Museums permanent collection. ... Color Field painting was an abstract style that emerged in the 1950s after Abstract Expressionism and is largely characterized by abstract canvases painted primarily with large areas of solid color. ...


In Europe there was the continuation of Surrealism, Cubism, Dada and the works of Matisse. Also in Europe, Tachisme (the European equivalent to Abstract expressionism) took hold of the newest generation. Serge Poliakoff, Nicolas de Staël, Georges Mathieu, Vieira da Silva, Jean Dubuffet, Yves Klein and Pierre Soulages among others are considered important figures in post-war European painting. Yves Tanguy Indefinite Divisibility 1942 Surrealism[1] is a cultural movement that began in the mid-1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Cover of the first edition of the publication, Dada. ... Self-Portrait in a Striped T-shirt (1906). ... Tachisme (alternative spelling: Tachism, derived from the French word tache - stain) was a French style of abstract painting in the 1940s and 1950s. ... Serge Poliakoff (January 8, 1900 - October 12, 1969) was a Russia-born French modernist painter. ... Nicolas de Staël (January 5, 1914, Saint Petersburg - March 16, 1955, Antibes) (French nationality, of Russian origin) was a painter known for his use of a thick impasto and his highly abstract landscape painting. ... Georges Mathieu (1921 in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France) - the father of lyrical abstraction - is one of the great masters of 20th century. ... Maria Helena Vieira da Silva (1908-1992) is a Portuguese-French abstractionist painter. ... Jean Philippe Arthur Dubuffet (July 31, 1901 - May 12, 1985) was a French artist. ... Yves Klein (28 April 1928 - 6 June 1962) was a French artist and is considered an important figure in post-war European neo-Dadaism. ... Pierre Soulages (born December 24, 1919) is a French painter, engraver and sculptor. ...


Eventually abstract painting in America evolved into movements such as Neo-Dada, color field painting, Post painterly abstraction, Op Art, hard-edge painting, Minimal art, shaped canvas painting, Lyrical Abstraction, Neo-expressionism and the continuation of Abstract expressionism. As a response to the tendency toward abstraction imagery emerged through various new movements, notably Pop Art. Neo-Dada is a label applied primarily to the visual arts describing artwork that has similarities in method or intent to earlier Dada artwork. ... Color Field is an art movement characterized by canvases being covered entirely by large fields of solid color. ... Post-painterly Abstraction is a term created by art critic, Clement Greenberg in the 1960s to distinguish his idea of pure art from the Abstract Expressionism movement of about the same time. ... Op art is a term used to described certain paintings made primarily in the 1960s which exploit the fallibilty of the eye through the use of optical illusions. ... The Hard-edge painting style can be considered a subdivision of Post-Painterly Abstraction, which in turn emerged from Color Field painting. ... Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features. ... Shaped canvas paintings are done on canvas in a shape other than the traditional rectangle. ... Lyrical Abstraction is an important American abstract art movement that emerged in New York City, Los Angeles, Washington DC and then Toronto and London during the 1960s - 1970s. ... Neo-expressionism was a style of modern painting that emerged in the late 1970s and dominated the art market until the mid-1980s. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Pop Art

Pop Art in America was to a large degree initially inspired by the works of Jasper Johns, Larry Rivers, and Robert Rauschenberg. Although the paintings of Gerald Murphy, Stuart Davis and Charles Demuth during the 1920s and 1930s set the table for Pop Art in America. In New York City during the mid 1950s Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns created works of art that at first seemed to be continuations of Abstract expressionist painting. Actually their works and the work of Larry Rivers, were radical departures from abstract expressionism especially in the use of banal and literal imagery and the inclusion and the combining of mundane materials into their work. The innovations of Johns' specific use of various images and objects like chairs, numbers, targets, beer cans and the American Flag; Rivers paintings of subjects drawn from popular culture such as George Washington crossing the Delaware, and his inclusions of images from advertisements like the camel from Camel cigarettes, and Rauschenberg's surprising constructions using inclusions of objects and pictures taken from popular culture, hardware stores, junkyards, the city streets, and taxidermy gave rise to a radical new movement in American art. Eventually by 1963 the movement came to be known worldwide as Pop Art. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jasper Johns, Jr. ... Larry Rivers (August 17, 1923 - August 14, 2002) was a Jewish American musician, artist and actor. ... Robert Rauschenberg (b. ... Gerald Clery Murphy, born in Boston, Massachusetts on March 25, 1888, was heir to the family who owned Mark Cross Company, sellers of fine leather goods. ... Photograph of Stuart Davis, 1940 Stuart Davis (December 7, 1894 - June 24, 1964), American painter, was born in Philadelphia to Edward Wyatt Davies and Helen Stuart Davies. ... Charles Demuth (November 9, 1883 - October 23, 1935) was an American precisionist painter. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // America usually means either: The Americas, the lands and regions of the Western hemisphere, often divided into North America and South America The United States of America. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Robert Rauschenberg (b. ... Jasper Johns, Jr. ... American post-World War II art movement. ... Larry Rivers (August 17, 1923 - August 14, 2002) was a Jewish American musician, artist and actor. ... Flag ratio: 7:12; nicknames: Stars and Stripes, Old Glory The flag of the United States of America consists of thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing 50 small, white, five-pointed stars... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Official language(s) None Capital Dover Largest city Wilmington Area  Ranked 49th  - Total 2,491 sq mi (6,452 km²)  - Width 30 miles (48 km)  - Length 100 miles (161 km)  - % water 21. ... Camel is a brand of cigarettes introduced by R.J. Reynolds Tobacco (RJR) in 1913. ... A taxidermied snow leopard. ... Americas first well-known school of painting—the Hudson River School—appeared in 1820. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Pop-Art is exemplified by artists: Andy Warhol, Claes Oldenburg, Wayne Thiebaud, James Rosenquist, Jim Dine, Tom Wesselmann and Roy Lichtenstein among others. Pop art merges popular and mass culture with fine art, while injecting humor, irony, and recognizable imagery and content into the mix. In October 1962 the Sidney Janis Gallery mounted The New Realists the first major Pop Art group exhibition in an uptown art gallery in New York City. Sidney Janis mounted the exhibition in a 57th Street storefront near his gallery at 15 E. 57th Street. The show sent shockwaves through the New York School and reverberated worldwide. Earlier in the fall of 1962 an historically important and ground-breaking New Painting of Common Objects exhibition of Pop Art, curated by Walter Hopps at the Pasadena Art Museum sent shock waves across the Western United States. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Andy Warhol was a amazing artist (August 6, 1928 — February 22, 1987) was an American artist who became a central figure in the movement known as pop art. ... Soft Bathtub (Model)—Ghost Version by Claes Oldenburg 1966, acryllic and pencil on foam-filled canvas with wood, cord, and plaster. ... Wayne Thiebaud (born November 23, 1920) is an American painter whose most famous works are of cakes, pastries, toys and lipsticks. ... James Rosenquist (born November 29, 1933) is an acclaimed American artist. ... Jim Dine (born June 16, 1935) is an American pop artist. ... Tom Wesselmann (February 23, 1931-December 17, 2004) was an American pop artist who specialised in found art collages. ... Whaam! (1963). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sidney Janis (1896-1989) was a wealthy clothing manufacturer and art collector who opened an art gallery in New York in 1948. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sidney Janis (1896-1989) was a wealthy clothing manufacturer and art collector who opened an art gallery in New York in 1948. ... The New York School was an informal group of American poets, painters and musicians active in the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s in New York City. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Poster for the exhibition. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Walter Hopps (Eagle Rock, California, 1932 - Los Angeles, March 20, 2005) was an American museum director and curator of contemporary art. ... This article is for the Norton Simon Museum in California. ...


Earlier in England in 1958 the term "Pop Art" was used by Lawrence Alloway to describe paintings that celebrated consumerism of the post World War II era. This movement rejected Abstract expressionism and its focus on the hermeneutic and psychological interior, in favor of art which depicted, and often celebrated material consumer culture, advertising, and iconography of the mass production age.[4]The early works of David Hockney and the works of Richard Hamilton and Eduardo Paolozzi were considered seminal examples in the movement. Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the  United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... Lawrence Alloway (London, 1926 - New York, January 2, 1990) was an English art critic and curator who worked in the United States from the 1960s. ... We Two Boys Together Clinging, 1961. ... Just What Is It that Makes Todays Homes So Different, So Appealing? 1956 Richard Hamilton (born February 24, 1922) is an English painter and collage artist. ... Paolozzis Newton, bronze (1995) in the courtyard of the British Library. ...


While in the downtown scene in New York's East Village 10th Street galleries artists were formulating an American version of Pop Art. Claes Oldenburg had his storefront, and the Green Gallery on 57th Street began to show Tom Wesselmann and James Rosenquist. Later Leo Castelli exhibited other American artists including the bulk of the careers of Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein and his use of Benday dots, a technique used in commercial reproduction. There is a connection between the radical works of Duchamp, and Man Ray, the rebellious Dadaists - with a sense of humor; and Pop Artists like Alex Katz, Claes Oldenburg, Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein and the others. NY redirects here. ... East Village Also known as Newmyers Seven Nuts, named for its inventor Chris Newmyer, East Village is a community card poker game. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Soft Bathtub (Model)—Ghost Version by Claes Oldenburg 1966, acryllic and pencil on foam-filled canvas with wood, cord, and plaster. ... Tom Wesselmann (February 23, 1931-December 17, 2004) was an American pop artist who specialised in found art collages. ... James Rosenquist (born November 29, 1933) is an acclaimed American artist. ... Leo Castelli (1907–1999) was an Austro-Hungarian art dealer. ... Man Ray, photographed at Gaite-Montparnasse exhibition in Paris by Carl Van Vechten on June 16, 1934 Man Ray (August 27, 1890–November 18, 1976) was an American artist who spent most of his career in Paris, France. ... Alex Katz (born July 24, 1927) is an American figural artist associated with the Pop Art movement. ... Soft Bathtub (Model)—Ghost Version by Claes Oldenburg 1966, acryllic and pencil on foam-filled canvas with wood, cord, and plaster. ... Andy Warhol was a amazing artist (August 6, 1928 — February 22, 1987) was an American artist who became a central figure in the movement known as pop art. ... Whaam! (1963). ...


Color Field painting, Bay Area Figurative Movement, Neo-Dada

During the 1950s Color Field painting initially referred to a particular type of abstract expressionism, especially the work of Mark Rothko, Clyfford Still, Barnett Newman, Robert Motherwell and Adolph Gottlieb. It essentially described abstract paintings with large, flat expanses of color that expressed the sensual, and visual feelings and properties of large areas of nuanced surface. Art critic Clement Greenberg perceived Color Field painting as related to but different from Action painting. The overall expanse and gestalt of the work of the early color field painters speaks of an almost religious experience, awestruck in the face of an expanding universe of sensuality, color and surface. During the early to mid-1960s Color Field painting was the term used to describe artists like Jules Olitski, Kenneth Noland, and Helen Frankenthaler, whose works were related to second generation abstract expressionism, and to younger artists like Larry Zox, and Frank Stella, - all moving in a new direction. Artists like Clyfford Still, Mark Rothko, Hans Hofmann, Morris Louis, Jules Olitski, Kenneth Noland, Helen Frankenthaler, Larry Zox, and others often used greatly reduced references to nature, and they painted with a highly articulated and psychological use of color. In general these artists eliminated recognizable imagery. Color Field is an art movement characterized by canvases being covered entirely by large fields of solid color. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Clyfford Still (November 30, 1904 – June 23, 1980) was an American painter, one of the leading figures in abstract expressionism. ... Barnett Newman (January 29, 1905 – July 4, 1970) was an American artist. ... Robert Motherwell (January 24, 1915 –July 16, 1991) was an American abstract expressionist painter. ... Adolph Gottlieb (March 14, 1903 - March 4, 1974) was an American abstract expressionist painter. ... An art critic is normally a person who have a speciality in giving reviews mainly of the types of fine art you will find on display. Typically the art critic will go to an art exhibition where works of art are displayed in the traditional way in localities especially made... Clement Greenberg (January 16, 1909 - May 7, 1994) was an influential American art critic closely associated with the abstract art movement in the United States. ... Pollocks Galaxy, a part of the Joslyn Art Museums permanent collection. ... Jules Olitski is an American abstract painter and sculptor, born Jevel Demikovski in Snovsk, Russia, on March 27 1922, a few months after his father, a commissar, was executed by the Russian government. ... Kenneth Noland (born April 10, 1924) is an American painter. ... Helen Frankenthaler (born December 12, 1928) is an American post-painterly abstraction artist. ... Larry Zox (born Lawrence Zox) (1936 is an American painter who is classified as an abstract expressionist, although he does not readily use that category for his work. ... Frank Philip Stella (born May 12, 1936) is an American painter and printmaker. ... Clyfford Still (November 30, 1904 – June 23, 1980) was an American painter, one of the leading figures in abstract expressionism. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Hans Hofmann (1880 - 1966) was an abstract expressionist painter. ... Morris Louis (Morris Louis Bernstein) (1912 - 1962) was one of the talented U.S. abstract expressionist painters to emerge in the fifties. ... Jules Olitski is an American abstract painter and sculptor, born Jevel Demikovski in Snovsk, Russia, on March 27 1922, a few months after his father, a commissar, was executed by the Russian government. ... Kenneth Noland (born April 10, 1924) is an American painter. ... Helen Frankenthaler (born December 12, 1928) is an American post-painterly abstraction artist. ... Larry Zox (born Lawrence Zox) (1936 is an American painter who is classified as an abstract expressionist, although he does not readily use that category for his work. ...


During the 1950s and 1960s as abstract painting in America evolved into movements such as Neo-Dada, Color Field painting, Post painterly abstraction, Op Art, hard-edge painting, Minimal art, shaped canvas painting, Lyrical Abstraction, and the continuation of Abstract expressionism. Other artists reacted as a response to the tendency toward abstraction allowing imagery to re-emerge through various new movements like Pop Art, the Bay Area Figurative Movement and later in the 1970s Neo-expressionism. In fact throughout the 20th century many painters continued to use imagery, practicing landscape and figurative painting with contemporary subjects and solid technique, and unique expressivity like Milton Avery, John D. Graham, Fairfield Porter, Edward Hopper, Andrew Wyeth, Balthus, Francis Bacon, Frank Auerbach, Lucian Freud, Philip Pearlstein, David Hockney, Alex Katz, Chuck Close, Susan Rothenberg, Eric Fischl, and Vija Celmins. Neo-Dada is a label applied primarily to the visual arts describing artwork that has similarities in method or intent to earlier Dada artwork. ... Color Field is an art movement characterized by canvases being covered entirely by large fields of solid color. ... Post-painterly Abstraction is a term created by art critic, Clement Greenberg in the 1960s to distinguish his idea of pure art from the Abstract Expressionism movement of about the same time. ... Op art is a term used to described certain paintings made primarily in the 1960s which exploit the fallibilty of the eye through the use of optical illusions. ... The Hard-edge painting style can be considered a subdivision of Post-Painterly Abstraction, which in turn emerged from Color Field painting. ... Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features. ... Shaped canvas paintings are done on canvas in a shape other than the traditional rectangle. ... Lyrical Abstraction is an important American abstract art movement that emerged in New York City, Los Angeles, Washington DC and then Toronto and London during the 1960s - 1970s. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Neo-expressionism was a style of modern painting that emerged in the late 1970s and dominated the art market until the mid-1980s. ... Milton Avery (1885-1965) was a United States painter whose works specialize in American Modernism. ... John D. Graham (1886 – 1961) was a Russian-born American Modernist painter. ... Fairfield Porter (June 10, 1907 - September 18, 1975) was an American painter and art critic. ... Nighthawks. ... Andrew Newell Wyeth (born July 12, 1917) is an American realist painter, one of the best-known of the 20th century. ... Balthazar Klossowski de Rola (February 29, 1908 in Paris – February 18, 2001) was an esteemed Polish/French modern artist whose work was ultimately anti-modern. ... Francis Bacon (28 October 1909 – 28 April 1992) was an Irish figurative painter. ... Frank Helmut Auerbach (born April 29, 1931) is a jewish painter. ... Lucian Michael Freud, OM, CH (born 8 December 1922) is a British painter and printmaker. ... Philip Pearlstein (born May 24, 1924 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, is one of the most important and innovative artists of the contemporary Realist school. ... We Two Boys Together Clinging, 1961. ... Alex Katz (born July 24, 1927) is an American figural artist associated with the Pop Art movement. ... Chuck Close (born Charles Thomas Close July 5, 1940, Monroe, Wisconsin) is an American photorealistic painter and photographer. ... Susan Rothenberg is a contemporary painter who lives and works in New Mexico, USA. Rothenberg was born in Buffalo, New York, in 1945. ... Eric Fischl (born 1948) is an American painter. ... Vija Celmins (b. ...


After World War II the term School of Paris often referred to Tachisme, the European equivalent of American Abstract expressionism and those artists are also related to Cobra. Important proponents being Jean Dubuffet, Pierre Soulages, Nicholas de Staël, Hans Hartung, Serge Poliakoff, and Georges Mathieu, among several others. During the early 1950s Dubuffet (who was always a figurative artist), and de Staël, abandoned abstraction, and returned to imagery via figuration and landscape. De Staël 's work was quickly recognised within the post-war art world, and he became one of the most influential artists of the 1950s. His return to representation (seascapes, footballers, jazz musicians, seagulls) during the early 1950s can be seen as an influential precedent for the American Bay Area Figurative Movement, as many of those abstract painters like Richard Diebenkorn, David Park, Elmer Bischoff, Wayne Thiebaud, and others made a similar move; returning to imagery during the mid-1950s. Much of de Staël 's late work - in particular his thinned, and diluted oil on canvas abstract landscapes of the mid-1950s predicts Color field painting and Lyrical Abstraction of the 1960s and 1970s. Nicolas de Staël 's bold and intensely vivid color in his last paintings predict the direction of much of contemporary painting that came after him including Pop Art of the 1960s. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... School of Paris (École de Paris) refers to two distinct groups of artists — a group of medieval manuscript illuminators, and a group of non-French artists working in Paris before World War I. Additionally, it refers to a similar group of artists living in Paris between the two world... Tachisme (alternative spelling: Tachism, derived from the French word tache - stain) was a French style of abstract painting in the 1940s and 1950s. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... COBRA (or CoBrA) was a European avant-garde movement active from 1949 to 1952. ... Jean Philippe Arthur Dubuffet (July 31, 1901 - May 12, 1985) was a French artist. ... Pierre Soulages (born December 24, 1919) is a French painter, engraver and sculptor. ... Nicolas de Staël (January 5, 1914, Saint Petersburg - March 16, 1955, Antibes) (French nationality, of Russian origin) was a painter known for his use of a thick impasto and his highly abstract landscape painting. ... Hans Hartung (b. ... Serge Poliakoff (January 8, 1900 - October 12, 1969) was a Russia-born French modernist painter. ... Georges Mathieu (1921 in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France) - the father of lyrical abstraction - is one of the great masters of 20th century. ... Jean Philippe Arthur Dubuffet (July 31, 1901 - May 12, 1985) was a French artist. ... Nicolas de Staël (January 5, 1914, Saint Petersburg - March 16, 1955, Antibes) (French nationality, of Russian origin) was a painter known for his use of a thick impasto and his highly abstract landscape painting. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Richard Clifford Diebenkorn, Jr. ... David Park (1911-1960) - Bay Area figurative painter David Park was part of the post-WWII alumnae of the San Francisco Art Institute (then the California Art School) He revived an interest in figurative art, at first experimenting with still-abstracted forms that relied on colour for their impact, dynamics... Elmer Bischoff-(1916-1991) - Visual artist, San Fransciso Bay Area Bischoff, along with Richard Diebenkorn and David Park, was part of the post-WWII generation of artists who started as abstract painters and found their way back to figurative art. ... Wayne Thiebaud (born November 23, 1920) is an American painter whose most famous works are of cakes, pastries, toys and lipsticks. ... Color Field is an art movement characterized by canvases being covered entirely by large fields of solid color. ... Lyrical Abstraction is an important American abstract art movement that emerged in New York City, Los Angeles, Washington DC and then Toronto and London during the 1960s - 1970s. ... Nicolas de Staël (January 5, 1914, Saint Petersburg - March 16, 1955, Antibes) (French nationality, of Russian origin) was a painter known for his use of a thick impasto and his highly abstract landscape painting. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Neo-Dada is also a movement that started 1n the 1950s and 1960s and was related to Abstract expressionism only with imagery. Featuring the emergence of combined manufactured items, with artist materials, moving away from previous conventions of painting. This trend in art is exemplified by the work of Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg, whose "combines" in the 1950s were forerunners of Pop Art and Installation art, and made use of the assemblage of large physical objects, including stuffed animals, birds and commercial photography. Robert Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns, Larry Rivers, John Chamberlain, Claes Oldenburg, George Segal, Jim Dine, and Edward Kienholz among others were important pioneers of both abstraction and Pop Art; creating new conventions of art-making; they made acceptable in serious contemporary art circles the radical inclusion of unlikely materials as parts of their works of art. Neo-Dada is a label applied primarily to the visual arts describing artwork that has similarities in method or intent to earlier Dada artwork. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... Jasper Johns, Jr. ... Robert Rauschenberg (b. ... Installation art uses sculptural materials and other media to modify the way we experience a particular space. ... Robert Rauschenberg (b. ... Jasper Johns, Jr. ... Larry Rivers (August 17, 1923 - August 14, 2002) was a Jewish American musician, artist and actor. ... John Angus Chamberlain (born April 16, 1927) is an American sculptor. ... Soft Bathtub (Model)—Ghost Version by Claes Oldenburg 1966, acryllic and pencil on foam-filled canvas with wood, cord, and plaster. ... George Segal was originally a painter, who later moved into sculpture. ... Jim Dine (born June 16, 1935) is an American pop artist. ... Edward Kienholz (October 23, 1927 - June 10, 1994) was an American installation artist whose work was highly critical of several aspects of modern life. ...


Also during the 1960s and 1970s, there was a reaction against painting. Critics like Douglas Crimp viewed the work of artists like Ad Reinhardt, and declared the 'death of painting'. Artists began to practice new ways of making art. New movements gained prominence some of which are: Postminimalism, Earth art, Video art, Installation art, arte povera, performance art, body art, fluxus, mail art, the situationists and conceptual art among others. Adolph Dietmar Friedrich Reinhardt (Ad Reinhardt) (December 24, 1913 – August 30, 1967) was a painter, writer, and pioneer of conceptual and minimal art. ... Postminimalism is a term utilized in various artistic fields for work which is influenced by, or attempts to develop, the aesthetic of minimalism. ... Land art or earth art is a form of art which came to prominence in the late 1960s and 1970s primarily concerned with the natural environment. ... Video art is a type of art which relies on moving pictures and is comprised of video and/or audio data. ... Installation art uses sculptural materials and other media to modify the way we experience a particular space. ... The term Arte Povera (Italian for poor art) was introduced by the Italian art critic and curator, Germano Celant, in 1967. ... This article is about Performance art. ... Complex Kadakali makeup is a form of body art Body art is art made on, with, or consisting of, the human body. ... Fluxus (from to flow) is an art movement noted for the blending of different artistic disciplines, primarily visual art but also music and literature. ... Mail art is art which uses the postal system as a medium. ... The Situationist International (SI), an international political and artistic movement, originated in the Italian village of Cosio dArroscia on 28 July 1957 with the fusion of several extremely small artistic tendencies: the Lettrist International , the International movement for an imaginist Bauhaus, and the London Psychogeographical Association. ... Joseph Kosuth, One and Three Chairs (1965) Conceptual art is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. ...


Geometric abstraction, Op Art, Minimalism, Color field

During the 1960s and 1970s abstract painting continued to develop in America through varied styles. Geometric abstraction, Op art, hard-edge painting, Color field painting and minimal painting, were some interrelated directions for advanced abstract painting as well as some other new movements. Two influential teachers Josef Albers and Hans Hofmann introduced a new generation of American artists to their advanced theories of color and space. Josef Albers is best remembered for his work as an Geometric abstractionist painter and theorist. Most famous of all are the hundreds of paintings and prints that make up the series Homage to the Square. In this rigorous series, begun in 1949, Albers explored chromatic interactions with flat colored squares arranged concentrically on the canvas. Albers' theories on art and education were formative for the next generation of artists. His own paintings form the foundation of both hard-edge painting and Op art. Geometric abstract art is a form of abstract art based on the use of simple geometric forms placed in non-illusionistic space and combined into non-objective compositions. ... Op art is a term used to described certain paintings made primarily in the 1960s which exploit the fallibilty of the eye through the use of optical illusions. ... The Hard-edge painting style can be considered a subdivision of Post-Painterly Abstraction, which in turn emerged from Color Field painting. ... Color Field is an art movement characterized by canvases being covered entirely by large fields of solid color. ... Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features and core self expression. ... Josef Albers (born March 19, 1888 in Bottrop, Westphalia (Germany) - died March 26, 1976 in New Haven, Connecticut), was a German artist and educator whose work, both in Europe and in the United States, formed the basis of some of the most influential and far-reaching art education programs of... Hans Hofmann (1880 - 1966) was an abstract expressionist painter. ... Josef Albers (born March 19, 1888 in Bottrop, Westphalia (Germany) - died March 26, 1976 in New Haven, Connecticut), was a German artist and educator whose work, both in Europe and in the United States, formed the basis of some of the most influential and far-reaching art education programs of... Geometric abstract art is a form of abstract art based on the use of simple geometric forms placed in non-illusionistic space and combined into non-objective compositions. ... The Hard-edge painting style can be considered a subdivision of Post-Painterly Abstraction, which in turn emerged from Color Field painting. ... Op art is a term used to described certain paintings made primarily in the 1960s which exploit the fallibilty of the eye through the use of optical illusions. ...


Josef Albers, Hans Hofmann, Ilya Bolotowsky, Burgoyne Diller, Victor Vasarely, Bridget Riley, Richard Anuszkiewicz, Frank Stella, Morris Louis, Kenneth Noland,[5] Ellsworth Kelly, Barnett Newman, Ronald Davis, Larry Zox, and Al Held are artists closely associated with Geometric abstraction, Op Art, Color Field painting, and in the case of Hofmann and Newman Abstract expressionism as well. Agnes Martin, Robert Mangold, Brice Marden, Jo Baer, Robert Ryman, Richard Tuttle, Neil Williams, David Novros, Paul Mogenson, are examples of artists associated with Minimalism and (exceptions of Martin, Baer and Marden) the use of the shaped canvas also during the period beginning in the early 1960s. Many Geometric abstract artists, minimalists, and Hard-edge painters elected to use the edges of the image to define the shape of the painting rather than accepting the rectangular format. In fact, the use of the shaped canvas is primarily associated with paintings of the 1960s and 1970s that are coolly abstract, formalistic, geometrical, objective, rationalistic, clean-lined, brashly sharp-edged, or minimalist in character. The Bykert Gallery, and the Park Place Gallery were important showcases for Minimalism and shaped canvas painting in New York City during the 1960s. Josef Albers (born March 19, 1888 in Bottrop, Westphalia (Germany) - died March 26, 1976 in New Haven, Connecticut), was a German artist and educator whose work, both in Europe and in the United States, formed the basis of some of the most influential and far-reaching art education programs of... Hans Hofmann (1880 - 1966) was an abstract expressionist painter. ... Ilya Bolotowsky (1907-1981) Born in St. ... Burgoyne Diller (1906 - 1965) was an American abstract painter. ... Victor Vasarely (Vásárhelyi Győző) (9 April 1906, Pécs - 15 March 1997, Paris) was a French Hungarian-born artist often acclaimed as the father of Op-art. ... Movement in Squares, 1961. ... Richard Anuszkiewicz (born May 23, 1930, Erie, Pennsylvania) is one of the worlds most eminent living artists. ... Frank Philip Stella (born May 12, 1936) is an American painter and printmaker. ... Morris Louis (Morris Louis Bernstein) (1912 - 1962) was one of the talented U.S. abstract expressionist painters to emerge in the fifties. ... Kenneth Noland (born April 10, 1924) is an American painter. ... Ellsworth Kelly (b. ... Barnett Newman (January 29, 1905 – July 4, 1970) was an American artist. ... Ronald Davis (a. ... Larry Zox (born Lawrence Zox) (1936 is an American painter who is classified as an abstract expressionist, although he does not readily use that category for his work. ... Al Held (October 12, 1928 - July 27, 2005) was an American Abstract painter. ... Geometric abstract art is a form of abstract art based on the use of simple geometric forms placed in non-illusionistic space and combined into non-objective compositions. ... Op art is a term used to described certain paintings made primarily in the 1960s which exploit the fallibilty of the eye through the use of optical illusions. ... Color Field is an art movement characterized by canvases being covered entirely by large fields of solid color. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... Agnes Martin (March 22, 1912 – December 16, 2004) was a Canadian-American minimalist painter. ... Robert Mangold book cover; a late Mangold piece serves as its background Robert Mangold born October 12, 1937, in North Tonawanda, New York, is an American minimalist artist, who continues to paint and create today, forty years after his peak of notability in the abstract expressionist movement of the 1960... Brice Marden (born October 15, 1938), is an American abstract painter. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Robert Ryman (b. ... Richard James Tuttle (born 12 July 1941 in Rahway, New Jersey) is an American minimalist artist known for his small, subtle, intimate works. ... Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features and core self expression. ... Shaped canvas paintings are done on canvas in a shape other than the traditional rectangle. ... Suprematist painting by Kazimir Malevich Geometric abstract art is a form of abstract art based on the use of simple geometric forms placed in nonillusionistic space and combined into nonobjective compositions. ... Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features and core self expression. ... Hard-edge is a painting style that uses very straight and clean linear patterns and/or lines to create a 3-D effect on a 2-D surface. ... Shaped canvas paintings are done on canvas in a shape other than the traditional rectangle. ... Black square by Kazimir Malevich Abstract art is now generally understood to mean art that does not depict objects in the natural world, but instead uses colour and form in a non-representational way. ... This article is about minimalism in art and design. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Park Place Gallery was a contemporary art gallery located in SoHo in Lower Manhattan, New York City, USA, during the mid to late 1960s. ... Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features and core self expression. ... Shaped canvas paintings are done on canvas in a shape other than the traditional rectangle. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Italian painter Giorgio Morandi was an important 20th century, early pioneer of Minimalism. Born in Bologna, Italy in 1890, throughout his career, Morandi concentrated almost exclusively on still lives and landscapes, except for a few self-portraits. With great sensitivity to tone, color, and compositional balance, he would depict the same familiar bottles and vases again and again in paintings notable for their simplicity of execution. Morandi executed 133 etchings, a significant body of work in its own right, and his drawings and watercolors often approach abstraction in their economy of means. Through his simple and repetitive motifs and economical use of color, value and surface, Morandi became a prescient and important forerunner of Minimalism. He died in Bologna in 1964. Giorgio Morandi (June 20, 1890 - June 18, 1964) was an Italian painter who specialized in still life. ... Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features and core self expression. ... Bologna (from Latin Bononia, Bulaggna in the local dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, between the Po River and the Apennines. ... Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features and core self expression. ...


In 1965, an exhibition called The Responsive Eye, curated by William C. Seitz, was held at the Museum of Modern Art, in New York City. The works shown were wide ranging, encompassing the Minimalism of Frank Stella, the Op art of Larry Poons, the work of Alexander Liberman, alongside the masters of the Op Art movement: Victor Vasarely, Richard Anuszkiewicz, Bridget Riley and others. The exhibition focused on the perceptual aspects of art, which result both from the illusion of movement and the interaction of color relationships. Op art, also known as optical art, is used to describe some paintings and other works of art which use optical illusions. Op art is also closely akin to geometric abstraction and hard-edge painting. Although sometimes the term used for it is perceptual abstraction. Op art is a method of painting concerning the interaction between illusion and picture plane, between understanding and seeing.[6] Op art works are abstract, with many of the better known pieces made in only black and white. When the viewer looks at them, the impression is given of movement, hidden images, flashing and vibration, patterns, or alternatively, of swelling or warping. View across garden, in new MoMA building by Yoshio Taniguchi. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features and core self expression. ... Frank Philip Stella (born May 12, 1936) is an American painter and printmaker. ... Op art is a term used to described certain paintings made primarily in the 1960s which exploit the fallibilty of the eye through the use of optical illusions. ... Olympic Iliad, a Liberman sculpture at the Seattle Center in Seattle, Washington. ... Op art is a term used to described certain paintings made primarily in the 1960s which exploit the fallibilty of the eye through the use of optical illusions. ... Victor Vasarely (Vásárhelyi Győző) (9 April 1906, Pécs - 15 March 1997, Paris) was a French Hungarian-born artist often acclaimed as the father of Op-art. ... Richard Anuszkiewicz (born May 23, 1930, Erie, Pennsylvania) is one of the worlds most eminent living artists. ... Movement in Squares, 1961. ... Op art is a term used to described certain paintings made primarily in the 1960s which exploit the fallibilty of the eye through the use of optical illusions. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with illusion. ... Geometric abstract art is a form of abstract art based on the use of simple geometric forms placed in non-illusionistic space and combined into non-objective compositions. ... The Hard-edge painting style can be considered a subdivision of Post-Painterly Abstraction, which in turn emerged from Color Field painting. ... Op art is a term used to described certain paintings made primarily in the 1960s which exploit the fallibilty of the eye through the use of optical illusions. ...


Shaped canvas, Washington Color School, Abstract Illusionism, Lyrical Abstraction

Color Field painting clearly pointed toward a new direction in American painting, away from abstract expressionism. Color Field painting is related to Post-painterly abstraction, Suprematism, Abstract Expressionism, Hard-edge painting and Lyrical Abstraction. Color Field is an art movement characterized by canvases being covered entirely by large fields of solid color. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... Post-painterly Abstraction is a term created by art critic, Clement Greenberg in the 1960s to distinguish his idea of pure art from the Abstract Expressionism movement of about the same time. ... This term is not to be confused with supremacism. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... The Hard-edge painting style can be considered a subdivision of Post-Painterly Abstraction, which in turn emerged from Color Field painting. ... Lyrical Abstraction is an important American abstract art movement that emerged in New York City, Los Angeles, Washington DC and then Toronto and London during the 1960s - 1970s. ...


Color Field painting sought to rid art of superflous rhetoric. Artists like Clyfford Still, Mark Rothko, Hans Hofmann, Morris Louis, Jules Olitski, Kenneth Noland, Helen Frankenthaler, Larry Zox, and others often used greatly reduced references to nature, and they painted with a highly articulated and psychological use of color. In general these artists eliminated recognizable imagery. Certain artists quoted references to past or present art, but in general color field painting presents abstraction as an end in itself. In pursuing this direction of modern art, artists wanted to present each painting as one unified, cohesive, monolithic image. Clyfford Still (November 30, 1904 – June 23, 1980) was an American painter, one of the leading figures in abstract expressionism. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Hans Hofmann (1880 - 1966) was an abstract expressionist painter. ... Morris Louis (Morris Louis Bernstein) (1912 - 1962) was one of the talented U.S. abstract expressionist painters to emerge in the fifties. ... Jules Olitski is an American abstract painter and sculptor, born Jevel Demikovski in Snovsk, Russia, on March 27 1922, a few months after his father, a commissar, was executed by the Russian government. ... Kenneth Noland (born April 10, 1924) is an American painter. ... Helen Frankenthaler (born December 12, 1928) is an American post-painterly abstraction artist. ... Larry Zox (born Lawrence Zox) (1936 is an American painter who is classified as an abstract expressionist, although he does not readily use that category for his work. ... Dejeuner sur lHerbe by Pablo Picasso At the Moulin Rouge: Two Women Waltzing by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1892 The Scream by Edvard Munch, 1893 I and the Village by Marc Chagall, 1911 Fountain by Marcel Duchamp, 1917 Campbells Soup Cans 1962 Synthetic polymer paint on thirty-two...


Frank Stella, Kenneth Noland, Ellsworth Kelly, Barnett Newman, Ronald Davis, Neil Williams, Robert Mangold, Charles Hinman, Richard Tuttle, David Novros, and Al Loving are examples of artists associated with the use of the shaped canvas during the period beginning in the early 1960s. Many Geometric abstract artists, minimalists, and Hard-edge painters elected to use the edges of the image to define the shape of the painting rather than accepting the rectangular format. In fact, the use of the shaped canvas is primarily associated with paintings of the 1960s and 1970s that are coolly abstract, formalistic, geometrical, objective, rationalistic, clean-lined, brashly sharp-edged, or minimalist in character. The Andre Emmerich Gallery, the Leo Castelli Gallery, the Richard Feigen Gallery, and the Park Place Gallery were important showcases for Color Field painting, shaped canvas painting and Lyrical Abstraction in New York City during the 1960s. There is a connection with post-painterly abstraction, which reacted against abstract expressionisms' mysticism, hyper-subjectivity, and emphasis on making the act of painting itself dramatically visible - as well as the solemn acceptance of the flat rectangle as an almost ritual prerequisite for serious painting. During the 1960s Color Field painting and Minimal art were often closely associated with each other. In actuality by the early 1970s both movements became decidedly diverse. Frank Philip Stella (born May 12, 1936) is an American painter and printmaker. ... Kenneth Noland (born April 10, 1924) is an American painter. ... Ellsworth Kelly (b. ... Barnett Newman (January 29, 1905 – July 4, 1970) was an American artist. ... Ronald Davis (a. ... Robert Mangold book cover; a late Mangold piece serves as its background Robert Mangold born October 12, 1937, in North Tonawanda, New York, is an American minimalist artist, who continues to paint and create today, forty years after his peak of notability in the abstract expressionist movement of the 1960... Richard James Tuttle (born 12 July 1941 in Rahway, New Jersey) is an American minimalist artist known for his small, subtle, intimate works. ... Shaped canvas paintings are done on canvas in a shape other than the traditional rectangle. ... Suprematist painting by Kazimir Malevich Geometric abstract art is a form of abstract art based on the use of simple geometric forms placed in nonillusionistic space and combined into nonobjective compositions. ... Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features and core self expression. ... Hard-edge is a painting style that uses very straight and clean linear patterns and/or lines to create a 3-D effect on a 2-D surface. ... Shaped canvas paintings are done on canvas in a shape other than the traditional rectangle. ... Black square by Kazimir Malevich Abstract art is now generally understood to mean art that does not depict objects in the natural world, but instead uses colour and form in a non-representational way. ... This article is about minimalism in art and design. ... Leo Castelli (1907–1999) was an Austro-Hungarian art dealer. ... Park Place Gallery was a contemporary art gallery located in SoHo in Lower Manhattan, New York City, USA, during the mid to late 1960s. ... Color Field is an art movement characterized by canvases being covered entirely by large fields of solid color. ... Shaped canvas paintings are done on canvas in a shape other than the traditional rectangle. ... Lyrical Abstraction is an important American abstract art movement that emerged in New York City, Los Angeles, Washington DC and then Toronto and London during the 1960s - 1970s. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Post-painterly Abstraction is a term created by art critic, Clement Greenberg in the 1960s to distinguish his idea of pure art from the Abstract Expressionism movement of about the same time. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features. ...


Another related movement of the late 1960s Lyrical Abstraction is a term that was originally coined by Larry Aldrich (the founder of the Aldrich Contemporary Art Museum, Ridgefield Connecticut) in 1969 to describe what Aldrich said he saw in the studios of many artists at that time.[7] It is also the name of an exhibition that originated in the Aldrich Museum and traveled to the Whitney Museum of American Art and other museums throughout the United States between 1969 and 1971.[8] Lyrical Abstraction is an important American abstract art movement that emerged in New York City, Los Angeles, Washington DC and then Toronto and London during the 1960s - 1970s. ... The Aldrich Contemporary Art Museum is located in Ridgefield, Connecticut, USA. It does not collect art but aims to be a nationally leading contemporary art gallery and education center, hosting special exhibition. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... Night view of Whitney Museum of American Art The Whitney Museum of American Art is an art gallery and museum in New York City founded in 1931 by Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ...


Lyrical Abstraction along with the Fluxus movement and Postminimalism (a term first coined by Robert Pincus-Witten in the pages of Artforum in 1969)[9] sought to expand the boundaries of abstract painting and Minimalism by focusing on process, new materials and new ways of expression. Postminimalism often incorporating industrial materials, raw materials, fabrications, found objects, installation, serial repetition, and often with references to Dada and Surrealism is best exemplified in the sculptures of Eva Hesse.[10] Lyrical Abstraction, Conceptual Art, Postminimalism, Earth Art, Video, Performance art, Installation art, along with the continuation of Fluxus, Abstract Expressionism, Color Field Painting, Hard-edge painting, Minimal Art, Op art, Pop Art, Photorealism and New Realism extended the boundaries of Contemporary Art in the mid-1960s through the 1970s.[11] Lyrical Abstraction is a type of freewheeling abstract painting that emerged in the mid-1960s when abstract painters returned to various forms of painterly, pictorial, expressionism with a predominate focus on process, gestalt and repetitive compositional strategies in general. Lyrical Abstraction is an important American abstract art movement that emerged in New York City, Los Angeles, Washington DC and then Toronto and London during the 1960s - 1970s. ... Fluxus (from to flow) is an art movement noted for the blending of different artistic disciplines, primarily visual art but also music and literature. ... Postminimalism is a term utilized in various artistic fields for work which is influenced by, or attempts to develop, the aesthetic of minimalism. ... Artforum is an international monthly magazine specializing in contemporary art. ... Postminimalism is a term utilized in various artistic fields for work which is influenced by, or attempts to develop, the aesthetic of minimalism. ... Cover of the first edition of the publication, Dada. ... Yves Tanguy Indefinite Divisibility 1942 Surrealism[1] is a cultural movement that began in the mid-1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members. ... Eva Hesse (January 11, 1936 - May 29, 1970), was a German-born American sculptor, known for her pioneering work in materials such as latex, fiberglass, and plastics. ... Joseph Kosuth, One and Three Chairs (1965) Conceptual art is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. ... Postminimalism is a term utilized in various artistic fields for work which is influenced by, or attempts to develop, the aesthetic of minimalism. ... Land art or earth art is a form of art which came to prominence in the late 1960s and 1970s primarily concerned with the natural environment. ... Video (Latin for I see, first person singular present, indicative of videre, to see) is the technology of electronically capturing, recording, processing, storing, transmitting, and reconstructing a sequence of still images representing scenes in motion. ... This article is about Performance art. ... Installation art uses sculptural materials and other media to modify the way we experience a particular space. ... Fluxus (from to flow) is an art movement noted for the blending of different artistic disciplines, primarily visual art but also music and literature. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... Color Field painting was an abstract style that emerged in the 1950s after Abstract Expressionism and is largely characterized by abstract canvases painted primarily with large areas of solid color. ... For building painting, see painter and decorator. ... The Hard-edge painting style can be considered a subdivision of Post-Painterly Abstraction, which in turn emerged from Color Field painting. ... Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features. ... Op art is a term used to described certain paintings made primarily in the 1960s which exploit the fallibilty of the eye through the use of optical illusions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Photorealism is the genre of painting resembling a photograph, most recently seen in the splinter hyperrealism art movement. ... New Realism (in French: Nouveau Réalisme) refers to an artistic movement founded in 1960 by Pierre Restany and Yves Klein. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...


Lyrical Abstraction shares similarities with Color Field Painting and Abstract Expressionism especially in the freewheeling usage of paint - texture and surface. Direct drawing, calligraphic use of line, the effects of brushed, splattered, stained, squeegeed, poured, and splashed paint superficially resemble the effects seen in Abstract Expressionism and Color Field Painting. However the styles are markedly different. Setting it apart from Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting of the 1940s and 1950s is the approach to composition and drama. As seen in Action Painting there is an emphasis on brushstrokes, high compositional drama, dynamic compositional tension. While in Lyrical Abstraction there is a sense of compositional randomness, all over composition, low key and relaxed compositional drama and an emphasis on process, repetition, and an all over sensibility. During the 1960s and 1970s artists as powerful and influential as Robert Motherwell, Adolph Gottlieb, Phillip Guston, Lee Krasner, Cy Twombly, Robert Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns, Richard Diebenkorn, Josef Albers, Elmer Bischoff, Agnes Martin, Al Held, Sam Francis, Ellsworth Kelly, Morris Louis, Helen Frankenthaler, Gene Davis, Frank Stella, Kenneth Noland, Joan Mitchell, Friedel Dzubas, and younger artists like Brice Marden, Robert Mangold, Sam Gilliam, Sean Scully, Elizabeth Murray, Larry Poons, Walter Darby Bannard, Larry Zox, Ronnie Landfield, Ronald Davis, Dan Christensen, Joan Snyder, Ross Bleckner, Archie Rand, Susan Crile, and dozens of others produced vital and influential paintings. Lyrical Abstraction is an important American abstract art movement that emerged in New York City, Los Angeles, Washington DC and then Toronto and London during the 1960s - 1970s. ... Color Field painting was an abstract style that emerged in the 1950s after Abstract Expressionism and is largely characterized by abstract canvases painted primarily with large areas of solid color. ... For building painting, see painter and decorator. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... Color Field painting was an abstract style that emerged in the 1950s after Abstract Expressionism and is largely characterized by abstract canvases painted primarily with large areas of solid color. ... For building painting, see painter and decorator. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... Pollocks Galaxy, a part of the Joslyn Art Museums permanent collection. ... Pollocks Galaxy, a part of the Joslyn Art Museums permanent collection. ... Robert Motherwell (January 24, 1915 –July 16, 1991) was an American abstract expressionist painter. ... Adolph Gottlieb (March 14, 1903 - March 4, 1974) was an American abstract expressionist painter. ... Painting, Smoking Eating 1972 Oil on Canvas Philip Guston (July 27, 1913 – June 7, 1980) was a notable member of the New York School, which also numbered many of the Abstract Expressionists, such as Jackson Pollock and Willem De Kooning, as well a painter that lead the transition from Modernism... Jackson Pollock gets the big stone and Lee Krasner gets the small stone in Green River Cemetery in Springs, New York Lee Krasners painting Cool White (1959) Lee Krasner (October 27, 1908 - June 19, 1984) was an influential abstract expressionist painter in the second half of the 20th Century. ... Cy Twombly (born April 25, 1928) is an American abstract artist. ... Robert Rauschenberg (b. ... Jasper Johns, Jr. ... Richard Clifford Diebenkorn, Jr. ... Josef Albers (born March 19, 1888 in Bottrop, Westphalia (Germany) - died March 26, 1976 in New Haven, Connecticut), was a German artist and educator whose work, both in Europe and in the United States, formed the basis of some of the most influential and far-reaching art education programs of... Elmer Bischoff-(1916-1991) - Visual artist, San Fransciso Bay Area Bischoff, along with Richard Diebenkorn and David Park, was part of the post-WWII generation of artists who started as abstract painters and found their way back to figurative art. ... Agnes Martin (March 22, 1912 – December 16, 2004) was a Canadian-American minimalist painter. ... Al Held (October 12, 1928 - July 27, 2005) was an American Abstract painter. ... See also: other Sam Francises Samuel Lewis Francis (1923 - November 4, 1994) was an American painter and printmaker. ... Ellsworth Kelly (b. ... Morris Louis (Morris Louis Bernstein) (1912 - 1962) was one of the talented U.S. abstract expressionist painters to emerge in the fifties. ... Helen Frankenthaler (born December 12, 1928) is an American post-painterly abstraction artist. ... Gene Davis (1920-1985) was a US painter known especially for paintings of vertical stripes of color, and a member of the group of abstract painters in Washington DC during the 1960s known as the Washington Color School. ... Frank Philip Stella (born May 12, 1936) is an American painter and printmaker. ... Kenneth Noland (born April 10, 1924) is an American painter. ... Joan Mitchell (1925-1992) was a ‘Second Generation’ Abstract Expressionist painter. ... Friedel Dzubas was born in Berlin, Germany on April 20, 1915. ... Brice Marden (born October 15, 1938), is an American abstract painter. ... Robert Mangold book cover; a late Mangold piece serves as its background Robert Mangold born October 12, 1937, in North Tonawanda, New York, is an American minimalist artist, who continues to paint and create today, forty years after his peak of notability in the abstract expressionist movement of the 1960... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sean Scully (born 1945) is an Irish-born American painter and has twice been a Turner Prize nominee. ... Elizabeth Murray (born 1940) is an American artist. ... Walter Darby Bannard (born September 23, 1934, New Haven, CT) is an American abstract painter. ... Larry Zox (born Lawrence Zox) (1936 is an American painter who is classified as an abstract expressionist, although he does not readily use that category for his work. ... Ronnie Landfield (born January 9, 1947 in The Bronx, New York) is an American abstract painter. ... Ronald Davis (a. ... Dan Christensen, the American abstract painter was born in Cozad, Nebraska on October 6, 1942, he died January 20, 2007. ... Ross Bleckner (born 1949) is an American artist from New York City. ... Archie Rand Archie Rand (born 1950) is an artist and academic from Brooklyn, New York, currently Presidential Professor of Art at Brooklyn College. ... Susan Crile (b. ...


Neo-expressionism

In the late 1970s and early 1980s, there was also a return to painting that occurred almost simultaneously in Italy, Germany, France and Britain. These movements were called Transavantguardia, Neue Wilde, Figuration Libre, Neo-expressionism and the School of London respectively. These painting were characterized by large formats, free expressive mark making, figuration, myth and imagination. All work in this genre came to be labeled neo-expressionism. Critical reaction was divided. Some critics regarded it as driven by profit motivations by large commercial galleries. This type of art continues in popularity into the 21st century, even after the art crash of the late 1980s. The term Junge Wilde was originally applied to trends within the art world of the late 1970s and early 1980s, and was only later used with reference to politics. ... The “Figuration Libre” is an artistic movement of the beginning of the years 1980, appeared in a context of “serious” art, minimalist and conceptual. ... Neo-expressionism was a style of modern painting that emerged in the late 1970s and dominated the art market until the mid-1980s. ... Neo-expressionism was a style of modern painting that emerged in the late 1970s and dominated the art market until the mid-1980s. ...


Neo-expressionism was a style of modern painting that became popular in the late 1970s and dominated the art market until the mid-1980s. It developed in Europe as a reaction against the conceptual and minimalistic art of the 1960s and 1970s. Neo-expressionists returned to portraying recognizable objects, such as the human body (although sometimes in a virtually abstract manner), in a rough and violently emotional way using vivid colours and banal colour harmonies. The veteran painters Philip Guston, Frank Auerbach, Leon Kossoff, Gerhard Richter, and Georg Baselitz, along with slightly younger artists like Anselm Kiefer, Eric Fischl, Susan Rothenberg, Francesco Clemente, Damien Hirst, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Julian Schnabel, Keith Haring, and many others became known for working in this intense expressionist vein of painting. For Modernism in an American context, see American modernism. ... For building painting, see painter and decorator. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features and core self expression. ... The Bath, a painting by Mary Cassatt (1844-1926). ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... Black square by Kazimir Malevich Abstract art is now generally understood to mean art that does not depict objects in the natural world, but instead uses colour and form in a non-representational way. ... Philip Guston ([Montreal, Canada [July 27]], 1913 - [Woodstock, N.Y.[June 7]], 1980) was one of the most important painters of the New York School, which also numbered many of the Abstract Expressionists, such as Jackson Pollock and Willem De Kooning. ... Frank Helmut Auerbach (born April 29, 1931) is a jewish painter. ... Leon Kossoff (Born 1926) is a British expressionist painter, who mainly paints portraits, life drawings, and cityscapes of London Leon Kossoff was born in 1926 in Islington London, and spent most of his early life living there with his Russian Jewish parents. ... Gerhard Richter (born February 9, 1932) is a prominent German artist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article should be translated from material at de:Anselm Kiefer. ... Eric Fischl (born 1948) is an American painter. ... Susan Rothenberg is a contemporary painter who lives and works in New Mexico, USA. Rothenberg was born in Buffalo, New York, in 1945. ... Francesco Clemente (born in Naples in 1952) is an Italian painter. ... The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living by Damien Hirst (1991) Damien Hirst (born June 7, 1965) is an English artist and the most prominent of the group that has been dubbed Young British Artists (or YBAs). ... Image:Jean1. ... Julian Schnabel (b. ... Harings Radiant Baby Keith Haring (May 4, 1958 - February 16, 1990) was a pre-eminent artist and social activist whose work responded to the New York street culture of the 1980s. ...


Painting still holds a respected position in contemporary art. Art is an open field no longer divided by the objective versus non-objective dichotomy. Artists can achieve critical success whether their images are representational or abstract. What has currency is content, exploring the boundaries of the medium, and a refusal to recapitulate the works of the past as an end goal. This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...


Contemporary painting in the 21st century

also see main articles Contemporary art, Postmodern art, Modernism This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Postmodern art (sometimes called po-mo) is a term used to describe art which is thought to be after or in contradiction to some aspect of modernism. ... For Modernism in an American context, see American modernism. ...

  • to be continued

At the beginning of the 21st century Contemporary painting and Contemporary art in general continues in several contigious modes, characterized by the idea of pluralism. The "crisis" in painting and current art and current art criticism today is brought about by pluralism. There is no consensus as to a representative style of the age. There is an anything goes attitude that prevails; an "everything going on," and consequently "nothing going on" syndrome; except for an aesthetic traffic jam, with no firm and clear direction, with every lane on the artistic superhighway filled to capacity. Consequently magnificent and important works of art continue to be made albeit in a wide variety of styles. This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Pluralism is used, often in different ways, across a wide range of topics: In science, the concept often describes the view that several methods, theories or points of view are legitimate or plausible, see Scientific pluralism. ... A crisis (plural: crises) is a turning point or decisive moment in events. ... Art criticism is the study and evaluation of art. ... Pluralism is used, often in different ways, across a wide range of topics: In science, the concept often describes the view that several methods, theories or points of view are legitimate or plausible, see Scientific pluralism. ... A highway is a major road within a city, or linking several cities together. ...


Hard-edge painting, Geometric abstraction, Hyperrealism, Photorealism, Expressionism, Minimalism, Lyrical Abstraction, Pop Art, Op Art, Abstract Expressionism, Color Field painting, Monochrome painting, Neo-expressionism, Collage, Intermedia painting, Assemblage painting, Computer art painting, Postmodern painting, Neo-Dada painting, Shaped canvas painting, environmental mural painting, Graffiti, traditional figure painting, Landscape painting, Portrait painting, are a few continuing and current directions in painting at the beginning of the 21st century. The Hard-edge painting style can be considered a subdivision of Post-Painterly Abstraction, which in turn emerged from Color Field painting. ... Geometric abstract art is a form of abstract art based on the use of simple geometric forms placed in non-illusionistic space and combined into non-objective compositions. ... Hyperreality (not to be confused with surrealism) is a concept in semiotics and postmodern philosophy. ... Photorealism is the genre of painting resembling a photograph, most recently seen in the splinter hyperrealism art movement. ... The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc Elbe Bridge I by Rolf Nesch On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features and core self expression. ... Lyrical Abstraction is an important American abstract art movement that emerged in New York City, Los Angeles, Washington DC and then Toronto and London during the 1960s - 1970s. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Op art is a term used to described certain paintings made primarily in the 1960s which exploit the fallibilty of the eye through the use of optical illusions. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... Color Field is an art movement characterized by canvases being covered entirely by large fields of solid color. ... Monochrome painting is sometimes seen as meditative art. ... Neo-expressionism was a style of modern painting that emerged in the late 1970s and dominated the art market until the mid-1980s. ... A collage composed of magazine articles and pictures Collage (From the French: , to stick) is regarded as a work of visual arts made from an assemblage of different forms, thus creating a new whole. ... For the hypertext system, see Intermedia (hypertext) Intermedia was a concept employed in the mid-sixties by Fluxus artist Dick Higgins to describe the ineffable, often confusing, inter-disciplinary activities that occur between genres that became prevalent in the 1960s. ... An assemblage is an archaeological term meaning a group of different artefacts found in association with one another, that is, in the same context. ... This computer generated image was created using the program Sterling Fractal, which uses a fractal to seed the colouring algorithms and filters. ... Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used by philosophers, social scientists, art critics and social critics to refer to aspects of contemporary art, culture, economics and social conditions that are the result of the unique features of late 20th century and early 21st century... Neo-Dada is a label applied primarily to the visual arts describing artwork that has similarities in method or intent to earlier Dada artwork. ... Shaped canvas paintings are done on canvas in a shape other than the traditional rectangle. ... A mural by brightens the walls of this air-raid shelters in south London. ... Graffiti (strictly, as singular, graffito, from the Italian — graffiti being the plural) are images or letters applied without permission to publicly viewable surfaces such as walls or bridges. ... Figure can refer to any of the following: A persons figure. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Portrait painting is a genre in painting, where the intent is to depict the visual appearance of the subject, mostly a person, whereas the portrait is expected to show the essence of the subject. ...


References

  1. ^ http://www.art-and-archaeology.com/roman/painting.html
  2. ^ http://www.accd.edu/sac/vat/arthistory/arts1303/Rome4.htm
  3. ^ Jackson, Catherine Charlotte, Lady, The Court of France in the Sixteenth Century: 1514-1559, 1896, p.113. "At about this time [speaking of the painter Raphael] only, movable pictures, to be hung on walls as ornaments, began to be in frequent demand. It is considered doubtful whether before the sixteenth century any such existed. For what would now be termed the easel pictures of the older masters have been detached from some articles of civil or ecclesiastical furniture."
  4. ^ Topics in American Art since 1945, Pop Art the words, p.119-122, by Lawrence Alloway, copyright 1975 by W.W.Norton and Company, NYC ISBN 0-393-04401-7
  5. ^ Terry Fenton, online essay about Kenneth Noland, and acrylic paint, [2] accessed April 30th, 2007
  6. ^ John Lancaster. Introducing Op Art, London: BT Batsford Ltd, 1973, p. 28.
  7. ^ Aldrich, Larry. Young Lyrical Painters, Art in America, v.57, n6, November-December 1969, pp.104-113.
  8. ^ Lyrical Abstraction, Exhibition Catalogue, the Aldrich Museum of Contemporary Art, Ridgefield, Conn. 1970.
  9. ^ Movers and Shakers, New York, "Leaving C&M", by Sarah Douglas, Art and Auction, March 2007, V.XXXNo7.
  10. ^ Movers and Shakers, New York, "Leaving C&M", by Sarah Douglas, Art and Auction, March 2007, V.XXXNo7.
  11. ^ Martin, Ann Ray, and Howard Junker. The New Art: It's Way, Way Out, Newsweek 29 July 1968: pp.3,55-63.

Catherine Hannah Charlotte Elliott Jackson, Lady Jackson (1824-1891), was the wife of Knight Diplomat Sir George Jackson [1] (1785-1861), who she married in 1856, and a prolific author in her own right, especially in the area of history and the court of France in the 16th century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Lawrence Alloway (London, 1926 - New York, January 2, 1990) was an English art critic and curator who worked in the United States from the 1960s. ... Kenneth Noland (born April 10, 1924) is an American painter. ... Acrylic paint is fast-drying paint containing pigment suspended in an acrylic polymer emulsion. ...

Outline of painting history

Prehistoric painting

In the history of art, prehistoric art is all art produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory), beginning somewhere in very late geological history. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Ancient painting

This article has been tagged since January 2007. ... A portion of Arthur Evans reconstruction of the Minoan palace at Knossos. ... Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ... Bilingual amphora by the Andokides Painter, ca. ... Fresco from the Villa of the Mysteries. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Portrait of a young woman, A.D. 110–20 Encaustic on wood; 43. ...

Western painting

Medieval painting

The most famous of the surviving Byzantine mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople - the image of Christ Pantocrator on the walls of the upper southern gallery. ... This page (folio 292r) of the Book of Kells contains the lavishly decorated text that opens the Gospel of John. ... Lorsch Gospels 778-820. ... Interior of the Saint-Saturnin church St-Sernin, Toulouse, 1080 – 1120: elevation of the east end Romanesque sculpture, cloister of St. ... The Western (Royal) Portal at Chartres Cathedral ( 1145). ... The Arnolfini Portrait by Jan van Eyck, National Gallery, London. ... In the strictest definition of illuminated manuscript, only manuscripts decorated with gold or silver, like this miniature of Christ in Majesty from the Aberdeen Bestiary (folio 4v), would be considered illuminated. ... The Ghent Altarpiece: The Adoration of the Mystic Lamb, interior view, 1432. ...

The Renaissance

Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and Wife by Jan van Eyck (1434). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. ... The Northern Renaissance is the term used to describe the Renaissance in northern Europe, or more broadly in Europe outside Italy. ... The Creation of Adam, Michelangelos fresco from the . ... In Parmigianinos Madonna with the Long Neck (1534-40), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, affected poses, and unclear perspective. ...

Baroque

Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Baroque art is the painting and sculpture associated with the Baroque cultural movement, a movement often identified with Absolutism and the Counter Reformation; the existence of important Baroque art and architecture in non-absolutist and Protestant states, however, undercuts this linking. ... Johannes Vermeer Milkmaid 1658-1660 The Dutch Golden Age was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. ... The Spanish Golden Age (in Spanish, Siglo de Oro) was a period of flourishing in arts and literature in Spain, coinciding with the political decline and fall of the Habsburgs (Philip III, Philip IV and Charles II). ... Art and architecture in France in the early 17th century are generally referred to as Baroque. ...

18th Century

North side of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo - carriage courtyard: all the stucco details sparkled with gold until 1773, when Catherine II had gilding replaced with olive drab paint. ... Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture. ...

19th Century

Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romanticism is an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe during the Industrial Revolution. ... Birth of Venus, Alexandre Cabanel, 1863 Academic art is a style of painting and sculpture produced under the influence of European academies or universities. ... Realism is a style of painting that depicts the actuality of what the eyes can see. ... Naturalism in art refers to the depiction of realistic objects in a natural setting. ... Thomas Coles View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm, or The Oxbow, 1836 The Hudson River School was a mid-19th century American art movement by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism. ... Luminism is an American landscape painting style of the 1850s – 1870s, characterized by effects of light in landscapes, through the use of aerial perspective, and the hiding of visible brushstrokes. ... See also Impressionist (entertainment): A girl with a watering can by Renoir, 1876 Impressionism was a 19th century art movement, which began as a private association of Paris-based artists who exhibited publicly in 1874. ... The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was a group of English painters, poets and critics, founded in 1848 by John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and William Holman Hunt. ... Self-Portrait with sister, by Victor Borisov-Musatov 1898 Post-Impressionism is the term coined by the British artist and art critic Roger Fry in 1914, to describe the development of European art since Monet (Impressionism). ... Neo-Impressionism is a term coined by the French art critic Félix Fénéon in 1887[1] to characterise the late-19th century art movement led by Georges Seurat and Paul Signac, who first exhibited their work in 1884 at the exhibition of the Société des Artistes... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... ... Vitebsk Railway Station one of the finest examples of Art Nouveau architecture. ...

20th century

This list is in random order. Date given is for the start of the style or movement.

The Dessert: Harmony in Red (1908) by Henri Matisse Les Fauves (French for The Wild Beasts) were a short-lived and loose grouping of early Modern artists whose works emphasized painterly qualities, and the use of deep color over the representational values retained by Impressionism. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Robert Falk Still life with ficus 1913 Jack of Diamonds (Russian: ), also called Knave Of Diamonds are a group of artists founded in 1909 in Moscow. ... The Puteaux Group is the name applied to a group of European artists and critics associated with Cubism but because of their unique style, were branded a Cubist offshoot called Orphism. ... Cover of the first edition of the publication, Dada. ... Yves Tanguy Indefinite Divisibility 1942 Surrealism[1] is a cultural movement that began in the mid-1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members. ... Rayonnism is a style of abstract painting that developed from Italian futurism. ... Dutch De Stijl (pr. ... The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc Elbe Bridge I by Rolf Nesch On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... Black square by Kazimir Malevich Abstract art is now generally understood to mean art that does not depict objects in the natural world, but instead uses colour and form in a non-representational way. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... Post-painterly Abstraction is a term created by art critic, Clement Greenberg in the 1960s to distinguish his idea of pure art from the Abstract Expressionism movement of about the same time. ... Neo-expressionism was a style of modern painting that emerged in the late 1970s and dominated the art market until the mid-1980s. ... Asheville City Hall. ... Futurism was a 20th century art movement. ... Op art is a term used to described certain paintings made primarily in the 1960s which exploit the fallibilty of the eye through the use of optical illusions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features and core self expression. ... Adolf W lflis Irren-Anstalt Band-Hain, 1910 Outsider Art was a term coined by art critic Roger Cardinal in 1972 as an English synonym for Art Brut, a term created by French artist Jean Dubuffet to describe art created by people well outside the boundaries of official art... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Example of Henri Rousseaus work: The Repast of the Lion, circa 1907 Naïve art is created by untrained artists. ... Adolf Wölflis Irren-Anstalt Band-Hain, 1910 The term Outsider Art was coined by art critic Roger Cardinal in 1972 as an English synonym for Art Brut (which literally translates as Raw Art or Rough Art), a label created by French artist Jean Dubuffet to describe art created... This term is not to be confused with supremacism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Tachisme (alternative spelling: Tachism, derived from the French word tache - stain) was a French style of abstract painting in the 1940s and 1950s. ... Tatlin Tower. ... Lissitzky, Beat the Whites With the Red Wedge, lithograph, 1919 The Russian avant-garde is an umbrella term used to define the large, influential wave of modern art that flourished in Russia from approximately 1890 to 1930 - although some place its beginning as early as 1850 and its end as... De Stijl redirects here. ... Die Neue Sachlichkeit (The New Objectivity) was an Expressionist art movement founded in Germany in the aftermath of World War I, by Otto Dix and George Grosz. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... A Diego Rivera mural depicting factory workers in Detroit Social Realism is an artistic movement, expressed in the visual and other realist arts, which depicts working class activities as heroic. ... Roses for Stalin, Boris Vladimirski, 1949 For other meanings of the term realism, see realism (disambiguation). ... Pollocks Galaxy, a part of the Joslyn Art Museums permanent collection. ... Lyrical Abstraction is an important American abstract art movement that emerged in New York City, Los Angeles, Washington DC and then Toronto and London during the 1960s - 1970s. ... Monochrome painting is sometimes seen as meditative art. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Photorealism is the genre of painting resembling a photograph, most recently seen in the splinter hyperrealism art movement. ... Concept art is a form of illustration where the main goal is to convey a visual representation of a design, idea, and/or mood for use in movies, video games, or comic books before it is put into the final product. ... The term Junge Wilde was originally applied to trends within the art world of the late 1970s and early 1980s, and was only later used with reference to politics. ... The “Figuration Libre” is an artistic movement of the beginning of the years 1980, appeared in a context of “serious” art, minimalist and conceptual. ... Graffiti (strictly, as singular, graffito, from the Italian — graffiti being the plural) are images or letters applied without permission to publicly viewable surfaces such as walls or bridges. ... The logo on the Stuckism International web site Stuckism is an art movement that was founded in 1999 in Britain by Billy Childish and Charles Thomson to promote figurative painting in opposition to conceptual art. ...

See also

For building painting, see painter and decorator. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... // The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all cultures. ... An art period is a phase in the development of the work of an artist, groups of artists or art movement. ... The following list is an incomplete list of painters. ... A hierarchy of genres is any formalization which ranks different types of genres in an art-form in terms of their value. ... Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and Wife by Jan van Eyck (1434). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Self-portrait by Vincent Van Gogh A portrait is a painting, photograph, or other artistic representation of a person. ... The Annunciation is a oil painting by the Early Netherlandish master Jan van Eyck, from around 1434-1436. ...

Sources

Clement Greenberg (January 16, 1909 - May 7, 1994) was an influential American art critic closely associated with the abstract art movement in the United States. ... For Modernism in an American context, see American modernism. ... Hilton Kramer (1928-) is an U.S conservative cultural critic and commentator. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Controversy swirls over the alleged sale of No. ... View across garden, in new MoMA building by Yoshio Taniguchi. ... Lyrical Abstraction is an important American abstract art movement that emerged in New York City, Los Angeles, Washington DC and then Toronto and London during the 1960s - 1970s. ... Night view of Whitney Museum of American Art The Whitney Museum of American Art is an art gallery and museum in New York City founded in 1931 by Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.art-and-archaeology.com/roman/painting.html
  2. ^ http://www.accd.edu/sac/vat/arthistory/arts1303/Rome4.htm
  3. ^ Jackson, Catherine Charlotte, Lady, The Court of France in the Sixteenth Century: 1514-1559, 1896, p.113. "At about this time [speaking of the painter Raphael] only, movable pictures, to be hung on walls as ornaments, began to be in frequent demand. It is considered doubtful whether before the sixteenth century any such existed. For what would now be termed the easel pictures of the older masters have been detached from some articles of civil or ecclesiastical furniture."
  4. ^ Topics in American Art since 1945, Pop Art the words, p.119-122, by Lawrence Alloway, copyright 1975 by W.W.Norton and Company, NYC ISBN 0-393-04401-7
  5. ^ Terry Fenton, online essay about Kenneth Noland, and acrylic paint, [1] accessed April 30th, 2007
  6. ^ John Lancaster. Introducing Op Art, London: BT Batsford Ltd, 1973, p. 28.
  7. ^ Aldrich, Larry. Young Lyrical Painters, Art in America, v.57, n6, November-December 1969, pp.104-113.
  8. ^ Lyrical Abstraction, Exhibition Catalogue, the Aldrich Museum of Contemporary Art, Ridgefield, Conn. 1970.
  9. ^ Movers and Shakers, New York, "Leaving C&M", by Sarah Douglas, Art and Auction, March 2007, V.XXXNo7.
  10. ^ Movers and Shakers, New York, "Leaving C&M", by Sarah Douglas, Art and Auction, March 2007, V.XXXNo7.
  11. ^ Martin, Ann Ray, and Howard Junker. The New Art: It's Way, Way Out, Newsweek 29 July 1968: pp.3,55-63.

Catherine Hannah Charlotte Elliott Jackson, Lady Jackson (1824-1891), was the wife of Knight Diplomat Sir George Jackson [1] (1785-1861), who she married in 1856, and a prolific author in her own right, especially in the area of history and the court of France in the 16th century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Lawrence Alloway (London, 1926 - New York, January 2, 1990) was an English art critic and curator who worked in the United States from the 1960s. ... Kenneth Noland (born April 10, 1924) is an American painter. ... Acrylic paint is fast-drying paint containing pigment suspended in an acrylic polymer emulsion. ...

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