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Encyclopedia > Western honey bee
Western honey bee (Apis mellifera)

Honey bee approaching a Milk Thistle flowerhead
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Suborder: Apocrita
Superfamily: Apoidea
Family: Apidae
Subfamily: Apinae
Tribe: Apini
Genus: Apis
Species: A. mellifera
Binomial name
Apis mellifera
Linnaeus, 1758
Subspecies

North-west of Europe Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 322 KB) Honeybee landing on a milk thistle flower If you are a (commercial) publisher and you want me to write you an email or paper mail giving you an authorization to use my works in your products or a... Species Silybum eburneum Silybum marianum Silybum × gonzaloi This article is about the true milk thistles. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Suborders Apocrita Symphyta Hymenoptera is one of the larger orders of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants. ... Superfamilies Apoidea Ceraphronoidea Chalcidoidea Chrysidoidea Cynipoidea Evanioidea Ichneumonoidea Megalyroidea Proctotrupoidea Sphecoidea Stephanoidea Triganalyoidea Vespoidea Many families, see article Apocrita is a suborder of insects in the order Hymenoptera. ... Families Andrenidae Anthophoridae Apidae Colletidae Ctenoplectridae Halictidae Heterogynaidae Megachilidae Melittidae Oxaeidae Sphecidae Stenotritidae This article is about the insect. ... Subfamilies Apinae - Honeybees Bombinae - Bumblebees Euglossinae - Orchid bees Meliponinae - Stingless bees Nomadinae Xylocopinae - Carpenter bees The Apidae are a large family of bees, comprising the common honeybees, stingless bees (which are also cultured for honey), carpenter bees, and bumblebees. ... Tribes Ancylini Anthophorini Apini Bombini Centridini Ctenoplectrini Emphorini Ericrocidini Eucerini Euglossini Exomalopsini Isepeolini Melectini Meliponini Osirini Protepeolini Rhathymini Tapinotaspidini Tetrapediini The Apinae is the subfamily that includes the majority of bees in the family Apidae, including the familiar corbiculate bees (honeybees, stingless bees, orchid bees, and bumblebees), plus all the... Species A. mellifera— western honeybee A. cerana— eastern honeybee Honeybees are a subset of bees which fall into the Order Hymenoptera and Suborder Apocrita. ... Apis Species Categories: Stub | Insects ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

  • A. m. iberica
  • A. m. intermissa
  • A. m. lihzeni
  • A. m. mellifera
  • A. m. sahariensis

South-west of Europe ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

Middle East Origin The bee whose scientific designation is Apis mellifera carnica is the sub-species of the Western honeybee that has naturalized and adapted to the Krain region of Slovenia, the Southern part of the Austrian Alps and North Balkan. ... Apis mellifera ligustica is the Italian bee which is a sub-species of the Italy South of the Alps and North of Sicily. ... Trinomial name Apis mellifera macedonica Ruttner, 1988 The Macedonian bee (Apis mellifera macedonica) is a subspecies of Western honey bee. ... Trinomial name Apis mellifera ruttneri Sheppard, Arias, Grech & Meixner, 1997 The Maltese honey bee, Apis mellifera ruttneri, is a sub-species of the Western honey bee. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...

  • A. m. adamii
  • A. m. anatoliaca
  • A. m. armeniaca
  • A. m. caucasica
  • A. m. cypria
  • A. m. meda

Africa Trinomial name Apis mellifera caucasica Gorbachev, 1916 The Caucasian honeybee is a sub-species of the Western honeybee. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...

Synonyms

Apis mellifica Linnaeus, 1761 Trinomial name Apis mellifera capensis Eschscholtz, 1822 Apis mellifera capensis, the Cape honeybee is a sub-species of the Western honeybee. ... Trinomial name Apis mellifera lamarckii Cockerell, 1906 Lamarcks honeybee or the Egyptian honeybee is a subspecies of honeybee native to the Nile valley of Egypt and Sudan, named after Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. ... Subspecies A. m. ... In scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names used for a single taxon. ... 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...

The Western honey bee or European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a species of honey bee. The genus Apis is Latin for "bee", and mellifera is Greek from meli- "honey" + ferre "to carry" - hence the scientific name means "honey-carrying bee". This is technically wrong, since honey bees carry nectar and produce honey. The name was coined in 1758 by Carolus Linnaeus who, in a subsequent publication, tried to correct it to Apis mellifica ("honey-making bee"); however, according to the rules of synonymy in zoological nomenclature, the older name has precedence. Some people who are unaware of this still use the incorrect subsequent spelling. As of October 28, 2006, the Honey Bee Genome Sequencing Consortium fully sequenced and analyzed the genome of Apis mellifera. The honeybee is a colonial insect that is often maintained, fed, and transported by farmers. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... In scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names used for a single taxon. ... The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature is a set of rules in zoology that have one fundamental aim: to provide the maximum universality and continuity in the naming of all animals according to taxonomic judgment. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Honey Bee Genome Sequencing Consortium is an international collaborative group of genomics scientists, scientific organisations and universities who are trying to decipher the genome sequences of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). ...


In 2007 media attention focused on Colony Collapse Disorder, a "disappearance" of Western honey bee colonies in North America. Honey bees entering a beehive. ...

Contents

Geographic distribution

Subspecies originating in Europe

  • Apis mellifera ligustica , classified by Spinola, 1806 - the Italian bee. The most commonly kept race in North America, South America and southern Europe. They are kept commercially all over the world. They are very gentle, not very likely to swarm, and produce a large surplus of honey. They have few undesirable characteristics. Colonies tend to maintain larger populations through winter, so they require more winter stores (or feeding) than other temperate zone subspecies. The Italian bee is light colored and mostly leather colored, but some strains are golden.
  • Apis mellifera carnica, classified by Pollmann, 1879 - Carniola region of Slovenia, the southern part of the Austrian Alps, and northern Balkans - better known as the Carniolan honey bee - popular with beekeepers due to its extreme gentleness. The Carniolan tends to be quite dark in color, and the colonies are known to shrink to small populations over winter, and build very quickly in spring. It is a mountain bee in its native range, and is a good bee for colder climates.
  • Apis mellifera caucasica, classified by Pollmann, 1889 - Caucasus Mountains - This sub-species is regarded as being very gentle and fairly industrious. Some strains are excessive propolizers. It is a large honeybee of medium, sometimes grayish color.
  • Apis mellifera remipes, classified by Gerstäcker, 1862 - Caucasus, Iran, Caspian lake.
  • Apis mellifera mellifera, classified by Linnaeus, 1758 - the dark bee of northern Europe also called the German honey bee - domesticated in modern times, and taken to North America in colonial times. These small, dark-colored bees, are sometimes called the German black bee.

The hybrid populations of A. m. mellifera x A. m. ligustica , found in North America and Western Europe, have the reputation of stinging people (and other creatures) for no good reason. The near-extinct "pure" A. m. mellifera is not considered randomly aggressive. Apis mellifera ligustica is the Italian bee which is a sub-species of the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera). ... Trinomial name Apis mellifera carnica Pollman, 1879 The Carniolan honeybee (Apis mellifera carnica) is a subspecies of Western honeybee. ... Carniola English and Latin; (Slovenian Kranjska, German Krain) is a name for a region in Slovenia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Trinomial name Apis mellifera caucasica Gorbachev, 1916 The Caucasian honeybee is a sub-species of the Western honeybee. ... The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... Trinomial name Apis mellifera mellifera Linaneus, 1758 The European dark bee (Apis mellifera mellifera) was domesticated in modern times, and taken to North America in colonial times. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

  • Apis mellifera cecropia, classified by Kiesenwetter, 1860 - Southern Greece
  • Apis mellifera cypria, classified by Pollmann, 1879 - The island of Cyprus - This sub-species has the reputation of being very fierce compared to the neighboring Italian sub-species, from which it is isolated by the Mediterranean Sea
  • Apis mellifera sicula, classified by Montagano, 1911 - from the Trapani province and the island of Ustica of western Sicily (Italia)

Michael S. Engel (born 24 September 1971 in Creve Coeur, Missouri) is a paleontologist and entomologist. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Maltese honey bee on frame with queen cells The Maltese honeybee known with the biological name as Apis mellifera ruttneri is a sub-species of the Western Honeybee. ... Trapani is a city on the west coast of Sicily in Italy. ... Country Italy Region Sicily Province Palermo (PA) Mayor Aldo Messina (since May 27, 2005) Elevation 49 m Area 8 km² Population  - Total (as of 2001) 1,330  - Density 166/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Usticesi or Usticani Dialing code 091 Postal code 90010 Location of Ustica in... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...

Subspecies originating in Africa

Several researchers and beekeepers describe a general trait of the African subspecies which is absconding, where the Africanized honeybee colonies abscond the hive in times when food-stores are low, unlike the European colonies which tend to die in the hive.

  • Apis mellifera scutellata, classified by Lepeletier, 1836 - (African honey bee) Central and West Africa, now hybrids also in South America, Central America and the southern USA. In an effort to address concerns by Brazilian beekeepers and to increase honey production in Brazil, Warwick Kerr, a Brazilian geneticist, was asked by Brazilian Federal and State authorities in 1956 to import several pure African queens from Tanzania to Piracicaba-São Paulo State in the south of Brazil. In a mishap some queens escaped. The African queens eventually mated with local drones and produced what are now known as Africanized honey bees on the American continent. The intense struggle for survival of honey bees in sub-Saharan Africa is given as the reason that this sub-species is proactive in defending the hive, and also more likely to abandon an existing hive and swarm to a more secure location. They direct more of their energies to defensive behaviors and less of their energies to honey storage. African honey bees are leather colored, difficult to distinguish by eye from darker strains of Italian bees.

Source: Abramsona, Charles I. ; Aquinob, Italo S. ; Brain, Behavior, Evolution 2002;59:68-86) Behavioral Studies of Learning in the Africanized Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L.) web accessed Nov. 2006 Subspecies A. m. ... Warwick Estevam Kerr Warwick Estevam Kerr. ... Piracicaba is a city located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. ... This article is about the city. ... Species HYBRID (see text) Africanized honey bees (AHB), known colloquially as killer bees, are hybrids of the African honey bee, Apis mellifera scutellata (not ; see Collet , 2006), with various European honey bees such as the Italian bee A. m. ...

  • Apis mellifera sahariensis, classified by Baldensperger, 1932 - from the Moroccan desert oases of Northwest Africa. This sub-species faces few predators other than humans and is therefore very gentle. Moreover, because of the low density of nectar-producing vegetation around the oases it colonizes, it forages up to five miles, much farther than sub-species from less arid regions. Other authorities say that while colonies of this species are not much inclined to sting when their hives are opened for inspection, they are, nevertheless, highly nervous.
  • Apis mellifera intermissa, classified by von Buttel-Reepen, 1906; Maa, 1953 - Northern part of Africa in the general area of Morocco, Libya and Tunisia. These bees are totally black. They are extremely fierce but do not attack without provocation. They are industrious and hardy, but have many negative qualities that argue against their being favored in the honey or pollination industry.
  • Apis mellifera major, classified by Ruttner, 1978 - from the Rif mountains of Northwest Morocco - This bee may be a brown variety of the Apis mellifera intermissa but there are also anatomic differences.
  • Apis mellifera unicolor, classified by Latreille, 1804 - Madagascar
  • Apis mellifera lamarckii, classified by Cockerell, 1906 - (Lamarck's honey bee) of the Nile valley of Egypt and Sudan. This mitotype can also be identified in honey bees from California. [1]
  • Apis mellifera litorea, classified by Smith, 1961 - Low elevations of east Africa
  • Apis mellifera nubica, (Nubian honey bee) of Sudan

Trinomial name Apis mellifera capensis Eschscholtz, 1822 Apis mellifera capensis, the Cape honeybee is a sub-species of the Western honeybee. ... Mount Elgon is an extinct volcano on the border of Uganda and Kenya. ... For other uses, see Kilimanjaro (disambiguation). ... Mount Kenya has a low profile typical of a shield volcano. ... Mount Meru is an active volcano located just 70 kilometres (44 miles) west of Mount Kilimanjaro. ... In general terms, the climate of a locale or region is said to be arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or even preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life. ... This is about a region in Morocco: RIF is also an acronym/initialism. ... Trinomial name Apis mellifera lamarckii Cockerell, 1906 Lamarcks honeybee or the Egyptian honeybee is a subspecies of honeybee native to the Nile valley of Egypt and Sudan, named after Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ...

Subspecies originating in the Middle East and Asia

  • Apis mellifera meda, classified by Skorikov, 1829 - Iraq
  • Apis mellifera adamii, classified by Ruttner, 1977 - Crete
  • Apis mellifera anatolica, classified by Maa, 1953 - This race is typified by colonies in the central region of Anatolia in Turkey and Iraq (Range extends as far West as Armenia). It has many good characteristics but is rather unpleasant to deal with in and around the hive.
  • Apis mellifera syriaca, classified by Skorikov, 1829 - (Syrian honeybee) Near East and Israel
  • Apis mellifera pomonella, classified by Sheppard & Meixner, 2003 - Endemic honey bees of the Tien Shan Mountains in Central Asia. This sub-species of Apis mellifera has a range that is the farthest East.

Trinomial name Apis mellifera macedonica Ruttner, 1988 The Macedonian bee (Apis mellifera macedonica) is a subspecies of Western honey bee. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... The Tian Shan (Chinese: 天山; Pinyin: Tiān Shān; celestial mountains), also commonly spelled Tien Shan, and known as Tangri Tagh (celestial mountains or mountains of the spirits) in the Uyghur language, is a mountain range located in Central Asia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...

Biology, life cycle

Main article: Honey bee life cycle
Larvae to the left and eggs to the right

In the temperate zone, honey bees survive winter as a colony, and the queen begins egg laying in mid to late winter, to prepare for spring. This is most likely triggered by longer day length. She is the only fertile female, and deposits all the eggs from which the other bees are produced. Except a brief mating period when she may make several flights to mate with drones, or if she leaves in later life with a swarm to establish a new colony, the queen rarely leaves the hive after the larvae have become full grown bees. The queen deposits each egg in a cell prepared by the worker bees. The egg hatches into a small larva which is fed by nurse bees (worker bees who maintain the interior of the colony). After about a week, the larva is sealed up in its cell by the nurse bees and begins the pupal stage. After another week, it will emerge an adult bee. The honey bee life cycle, here referring exclusively to the domesticated Western honey bee, depends greatly on their social structure. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 799 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2901 × 2176 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 799 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2901 × 2176 pixel, file size: 1. ... The honeybee is a colonial insect that is often maintained, fed, and transported by farmers. ... For other uses, see Female (disambiguation). ... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... New honeybee colonies are formed when queen bees leave the colony with a large group of worker bees, a process called swarming. ... This is a biological article: For a territory administered by another territory see: Colony For a group attempting to affiliate with a Fraternity or Sorority see: Colony (fraternity) In biology, a colony (from Latin colonia) refers to several individual organisms of the same species living closely together, usually for mutual... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ...


For the first ten days of their lives, the female worker bees clean the hive and feed the larvae. After this, they begin building comb cells. On days 16 through 20, a worker receives nectar and pollen from older workers and stores it. After the 20th day, a worker leaves the hive and spends the remainder of its life as a forager. The population of a healthy hive in mid-summer can average between 40,000 and 80,000 bees.

Pupae of drones

The larvae and pupae in a frame of honeycomb are referred to as frames of brood and are often sold (with adhering bees) by beekeepers to other beekeepers to start new beehives. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2700 × 1800 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2700 × 1800 pixel, file size: 1. ... Cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha) pupa Chrysalis redirects here: for other meanings see Chrysalis (disambiguation). ... Recently hatched honeybee larvae are feeding on royal jelly for three days. ...

Stages of development of the drone pupae

Both workers and queens are fed "royal jelly" during the first three days of the larval stage. Then workers are switched to a diet of pollen and nectar or diluted honey, while those intended for queens will continue to receive royal jelly. This causes the larva to develop to the pupa stage more quickly, while being also larger and fully developed sexually. Queen breeders consider good nutrition during the larval stage to be of critical importance to the quality of the queens raised, good genetics and sufficient number of matings also being factors. During the larval and pupal stages, various parasites can attack the pupa/larva and destroy or damage it. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2624 × 1968 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2624 × 1968 pixel, file size: 1. ... To meet Wikipedias content policies, the external links section for this article may require cleanup. ... IT FEELS REALLY GOOD IF YOU IMATATE THE ANIMALS. LOL! “Mounting” redirects here. ...


Queens are not raised in the typical horizontal brood cells of the honeycomb. The typical queen cell is specially constructed to be much larger, and has a vertical orientation. However, should the workers sense that the old queen is weakening, they will produce emergency cells known as supersedure cells. These cells are made from a cell with an egg or very young larva. These cells protrude from the comb. As the queen finishes her larval feeding, and pupates, she moves into a head downward position, from which she will later chew her way out of the cell. At pupation the workers cap or seal the cell. Just prior to emerging from their cells, young queens can often be heard "piping." The purpose of this sound is not yet fully understood. Honeycomb Honeycombs on a Sacred fig tree A honeycomb is a mass of hexagonal wax cells built by honey bees in their nests to contain their larvae and stores of honey and pollen. ...

Bee Swarm- bees are remarkably non aggressive in this state as they have no hive to protect, and can be captured with ease

Worker bees are infertile females; but in some circumstances, generally only in times of severe stress or with the loss or injury or declining health of the queen, they may lay infertile eggs, and in some subspecies these eggs may actually be fertile. However, since the worker bees are 'imperfect' (not fully sexually developed) females, they do not mate with drones. Any fertile eggs that they lay would be haploid, having only the genetic contribution of their mother, and in honey bees these haploid eggs will always develop into drones. Worker bees also secrete the wax used to build the hive, clean and maintain the hive, raise the young, guard the hive and forage for nectar and pollen. Download high resolution version (1024x1040, 442 KB)Swarm of bees Taken by fir0002 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1024x1040, 442 KB)Swarm of bees Taken by fir0002 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For the rock song by Nirvana, see Beeswax (song). ...


In honey bees, the worker bees have a modified ovipositor called a stinger with which they can sting to defend the hive, but unlike other bees of any other genus (and even unlike the queens of their own species), the stinger is barbed. Contrary to popular belief, the bee will not always die soon after stinging: this is a misconception based on the fact that a bee will usually die after stinging a human or other mammal. The sting and associated venom sac are modified so as to pull free of the body once lodged (autotomy), and the sting apparatus has its own musculature and ganglion which allow it to keep delivering venom once detached. It is presumed that this complex apparatus, including the barbs on the sting, evolved specifically in response to predation by vertebrates, as the barbs do not function (and the sting apparatus does not detach) unless the sting is embedded in elastic material. Even then, the barbs do not always "catch", so a bee may occasionally pull the sting free and either fly off unharmed, or sting again. The honeybee is a colonial insect that is often maintained, fed, and transported by farmers. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that sting (biology) be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Autotomy (from the Greek auto = self- and tomy = severing) or self amputation is the act whereby an animal severs one of its own appendages, usually as a self-defence mechanism designed to elude a predators grasp. ...


Drone bees are the male bees of the colony. Since they do not have ovipositors, they also do not have stingers. Drone honeybees do not forage for nectar or pollen. In some species, drones are suspected of playing a contributing role in the temperature regulation of the hive. The primary purpose of a drone bee is to fertilize a new queen. Multiple drones will mate with any given queen in flight, and each drone will die immediately after mating; the process of insemination requires a lethally convulsive effort. Drone honey bees are haploid (having single, unpaired chromosomes) in their genetic structure and are descended only from their mother, the queen. They truly do not have a father. In essence, drones are the equivalent of flying gametes. In regions of temperate climate, the drones are generally expelled from the hive before Winter and die of cold and starvation, since they are unable to forage or produce honey or take care of themselves. This article is about the Male sex. ... Categories: Biology stubs ... For other uses, see Father (disambiguation). ... Gametes (in Greek: γαμέτες) —also known as sex cells, germ cells, or spores—are the specialized cells that come together during fertilization (conception) in organisms that reproduce sexually. ... Winter is one of the four seasons of temperate zones. ...


The average lifespan of the queen in most subspecies is three to four years. However, there are reports that in the German/European Black Bee subspecies that was previously used for beekeeping, the queen was said to live 7 to 8 years or more.[citation needed] Because queens successively run out of sperm, towards the end of their life they start laying more and more unfertilized eggs. Beekeepers therefore frequently change queen every or every other year.


The lifespan of the workers vary drastically over the year in places with an extended winter. Workers born in the spring will work hard and live only a few weeks, whereas those born in the autumn will stay inside for several months as the colony hibernates.


Honey bee queens release pheromones to regulate hive activities, and worker bees also produce pheromones for various communications (below). Fanning honeybee exposes Nasonov gland (white-at tip of abdomen) releasing pheromone to entice swarm into an empty hive A pheromone is a chemical that triggers an innate behavioural response in another member of the same species. ...

Honey bee with tongue partly extended

Bees produce honey by collecting nectar, which is a clear liquid consisting of nearly 80% water with complex sugars. The collecting bees store the nectar in a second stomach and return to the hive where worker bees remove the nectar. The worker bees digest the raw nectar for about 30 minutes using enzymes to break up the complex sugars into simpler ones. Raw honey is then spread out in empty honeycomb cells to dry, which reduces the water content to less than 20%. When nectar is being processed, honeybees create a draft through the hive by fanning with their wings. Once dried, the cells of the honeycomb are sealed (capped) with wax to preserve the honey. Bee1. ... Bee1. ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Wing structure of a dragonfly (family Gomphidae) Insect wings are outgrowths of the insect exoskeleton that enable insects to fly. ...


When a hive detects smoke, many bees become remarkably non aggressive. It is speculated that this is a defense mechanism; wild colonies generally live in hollow trees, and when bees detect smoke it is presumed that they prepare to evacuate from a forest fire, carrying as much food reserve as they can. In order to do this, they will go to the nearest honey storage cells and gorge on honey. In this state they are quite docile since defense from predation is relatively unimportant; saving as much as possible is the most important activity.


Thermal regulation of the Honey bee

The honey bee needs an internal body temperature of 35 °C to fly, which is also the temperature within the cluster. The brood nest needs the same temperature over a long period to develop the brood, and it is the optimal temperature for the creation of wax.


The temperature on the periphery of the cluster varies with the outside air temperature. In the winter cluster, the inside temperature is as low as 20 - 22 °C. In beekeeping, a winter cluster is a well-defined cluster of honey bees that forms in a colony when the air temperature dips below 54 - 57° F (12 -14° C). ...


Honey bees are able to forage over a 30 °C range of air temperature largely because they have behavioural and physiological mechanisms for regulating the temperature of their flight muscles. From very low to very high air temperatures, the successive mechanisms are shivering before flight and stopping flight for additional shivering, passive body temperature in a comfort range that is a function of work effort, and finally active heat dissipation by evaporative cooling from regurgitated honey sac contents. The body temperatures maintained differ depending on expected foraging rewards and on caste. [1] The optimal air temperature for foraging is 22 - 25 °C. During flight, the rather large flight muscles create heat, which must dissipate. The honeybee uses a form of evaporative cooling to release heat through its mouth. Under hot conditions, heat from the thorax is dissipated through the head. The bee regurgitates a droplet of hot internal fluid--a "honeycrop droplet"--which immediately cools the head temperature by 10 °C. [2] For bees, their forage or food supply consists of nectar and pollen from blooming plants within flight range. ...


Below 7-10 °C, bees become immobile due to the cold and above 38 °C bee activity slows due to heat. Honey bees can tolerate temperatures up to 50 °C for short periods.


Honey bee queens

Main article: Queen bee
Peanut-like queen brood cells are extended outward from the brood comb

Periodically, the colony determines that a new queen is needed. There are three general triggers. The queen bee is an adult, mated female in a honeybee colony or hive; she is usually the mother of all the bees in the hive. ... Honeybee queen cells Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 13:22, Sep 23, 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Honeybee queen cells Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 13:22, Sep 23, 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

  1. The colony becomes space-constrained because the hive is filled with honey, leaving little room for new eggs. This will trigger a swarm where the old queen will take about half the worker bees to found a new colony, leaving the new queen with the other half of worker bees to continue the old colony.
  2. The old queen begins to fail. This is thought to be recognized by a decrease in queen pheromones throughout the hive. This situation is called supersedure. At the end of the supersedure, the old queen is generally killed.
  3. The old queen dies suddenly. This is an emergency supersedure. The worker bees will find several eggs or larvae in the right age-range and attempt to develop them into queens. Emergency supersedure can generally be recognized because the queen cell is built out from a regular cell of the comb rather than hanging from the bottom of a frame.

Regardless of the trigger, the workers develop the larvae into queens by continuing to feed them royal jelly. This triggers an extended development as a pupa.


When the virgin queen emerges, she is commonly thought to seek out other queen cells and sting the infant queens within and that should two queens emerge simultaneously, they will fight to the death. Recent studies, however, have indicated that colonies of Apis mellifera may maintain two queens in as many as 10% of hives. The mechanism by which this occurs is not yet known, but it has been reported to occur more frequently in some South African subspecies of Apis mellifera.[citation needed] Regardless, the queen asserts her control over the worker bees through the release of a complex suite of pheromones called queen scent.


After several days of orientation within and around the hive, the young queen flies to a drone congregation point - a site near a clearing and generally about 30 feet above the ground where the drones from different hives tend to congregate in a swirling aerial mass. Drones detect the presence of a queen in their congregation area by her smell, and then find her by sight and mate with her in midair (drones can be induced to mate with "dummy" queens if they have the queen pheromone applied). A queen will mate multiple times and may leave to mate several days in a row, weather permitting, until her spermatheca is full. The spermatheca is a part of the female reproductive tract in insects, some molluscs, and certain other invertebrates. ...


The queen lays all the eggs in a healthy colony. The number and pace of egg-laying is controlled by weather and availability of resources and by the characteristics of the specific race of honeybee. Honey bee queens generally begin to slow egg-laying in the early-fall and may even stop during the winter. Egg-laying will generally resume in late winter as soon as the days begin to get longer. Egg-laying generally peaks in the spring. At the height of the season, she may lay over 2500 eggs per day - more than her own body mass.


The queen fertilizes each egg as it is being laid using stored sperm from the spermatheca. The queen will occasionally not fertilize an egg. These eggs, having only half as many genes as the queen or the workers, develop into drones.


Genome

The Western honey bee is the third insect, after the fruit fly and the mosquito, to have its genome mapped. According to the scientists who analysed its genetic code, the honey bee originated in Africa and spread to Europe in two ancient migrations.[3] They have also discovered that the number of genes in the honey bees related to smell outnumber those for taste, and they have fewer genes for immunity than the fruit fly and the mosquito. [4] The genome sequence revealed several groups of genes, particularly the genes related to circadian rhythms, were closer to vertebrates than other insects. Genes related to enzymes that control other genes were also vertabratelike.[5] Fruit fly may refer to: Tephritidae, the family of large fruit flies. ... For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ... The Circadian rhythm is a name given to the internal body clock that regulates the (roughly) 24 hour cycle of biological processes in animals and plants. ...


See also: Honey Bee Genome Sequencing Consortium The Honey Bee Genome Sequencing Consortium is an international collaborative group of genomics scientists, scientific organisations and universities who are trying to decipher the genome sequences of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). ...


Honey bee pheromones

Honey bees use special pheromones, or chemical communication, for almost all behaviors of life. Such uses include (but are not limited to): mating, alarm, defense, orientation, kin and colony recognition, food production, and integration of colony activities. Pheromones are thus essential to honey bees for their survival. Honey bee pheromones (Greek:“carrier of excitement”) are mixtures of chemical substances released by individual bees into the hive or environment that cause changes in the physiology and behaviour of other bees. ... IT FEELS REALLY GOOD IF YOU IMATATE THE ANIMALS. LOL! “Mounting” redirects here. ... Self defense refers to actions taken by a person to defend onself, ones property or ones home. ... Kin has multiple meanings: It can refer to family. ... This article is about a type of political territory. ...


Honey bee communication

A large honey bee swarm on a fallen tree trunk

Honey bees are an excellent animal to study with regards to behavior because they are abundant and familiar to most people. An animal that is disregarded every day has very specific behaviors that go unnoticed by the normal person. Karl von Frisch studied the behavior of honey bees with regards to communication and was awarded the Nobel Prize for physiology and medicine in 1973. Von Frisch noticed that honey bees communicate with the language of dance. Honey bees are able to direct other bees to food sources through the round dance and the waggle dance. The round dance tells the other foragers that food is within 50 meters of the hive, but it does not provide much information regarding direction. The waggle dance, which may be vertical or horizontal, provides more detail about both the distance and the direction of the located food source. It is also hypothesized that the bees rely on their olfactory sense to help locate the food source once the foragers are given directions from the dances. Honey bees learn and communicate in order to find food sources and for other means. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1067x1600, 1320 KB) A large bee swarm on a fallen tree If you are a (commercial) publisher and you want me to write you an email or paper mail giving you an authorization to use my works in your products or... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1067x1600, 1320 KB) A large bee swarm on a fallen tree If you are a (commercial) publisher and you want me to write you an email or paper mail giving you an authorization to use my works in your products or... Karl von Frisch 1961 Karl Ritter von Frisch (November 20, 1886 – June 12, 1982) was an Austrian ethologist who received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1973, along with Nikolaas Tinbergen and Konrad Lorenz. ... The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: ), as designated in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, are awarded for physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace. ... Round dance is a term used in bee keeping, entomology and communication of social insects. ... Waggle dance is a term used in beekeeping and ethology for a particular figure-eight dance of the honeybee. ...


Another signal for communication is the shaking signal, also known as the jerking dance, vibration dance, or vibration signal. It is a modulatory communication signal because it appears to manipulate the overall arousal or activity of behaviors. The shaking signal is most common in worker communication, but it is also evident in reproductive swarming. A worker bee vibrates its body dorsoventrally while holding another honey bee with its front legs. Jacobus Biesmeijer examined the incidence of shaking signals in a forager’s life and the conditions that led to its performance to investigate why the shaking signal is used in communication for food sources. Biesmeijer found that the experienced foragers executed 92.1% of the observed shaking signals. He also observed that 64% of the shaking signals were executed by experienced foragers after they had discovered a food source. About 71% of the shaking signal sessions occurred after the first five foraging success within one day. Then other communication signals, such as the waggle dance, were performed more often after the first five successes. Biesmeijer proved that most shakers are foragers and that the shaking signal is most often executed by foraging bees over pre-foraging bees. Beismeijer concluded that the shaking signal presents the overall message of transfer work for various activities or activity levels. Sometimes the signal serves to increase activity, when bees shake inactive bees. At other times, the signal serves as an inhibitory mechanism such as the shaking signal at the end of the day. However, the shaking signal is preferentially directed towards inactive bees. All three types of communication between honey bees are effective in their jobs with regards to foraging and task managing.

"The general story of the communication of the distance, the situation, and the direction of a food source by the dances of the returning (honey bee) worker bee on the vertical comb of the hive, has been known in general outline from the work of Karl von Frisch in the middle 1950s."

For a discussion of bees' cognition, response to training, varieties of dance, and use of odors, see Bee learning and communication. Karl von Frisch 1961 Karl Ritter von Frisch (November 20, 1886 – June 12, 1982) was an Austrian ethologist who received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1973, along with Nikolaas Tinbergen and Konrad Lorenz. ... Honey bees learn and communicate in order to find food sources and for other means. ...


Social choice lessons from honey bees

Honey bees have been shown to employ what in human terms would be called range voting to make hive-relocation decisions, see Myerscough (2003), Lindauer (1971) and this essay at the Center for Range Voting. Range voting (also called ratings summation, average voting, cardinal ratings, 0–99 voting, or the score system or point system) is a voting system for one-seat elections under which voters score each candidate, the scores are added up, and the candidate with the highest score wins. ...


Beekeeping

Main article: Beekeeping
Queen (The yellow dot on the thorax was added by a beekeeper to aid in finding the queen. She was probably born in 1997 or 2002; see the Queen article for an explanation of the dot color conventions.)

The honey bee is a colonial insect that is often maintained, fed, and transported by beekeepers. Honey bees do not survive individually, but rather as part of the colony. Reproduction is also accomplished at the colony level. Colonies are often referred to as superorganisms. Beekeeping, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (14th century) Honey seeker depicted on 6000 year old cave painting near Valencia, Spain Beekeeping (or apiculture, from Latin apis, a bee) is the practice of intentional maintenance of honey bee colonies, commonly in hives, by humans. ... Bee Queen File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The queen bee is an adult, mated female in a honeybee colony or hive; she is usually the mother of all the bees in the hive. ... This is a biological article: For a territory administered by another territory see: Colony For a group attempting to affiliate with a Fraternity or Sorority see: Colony (fraternity) In biology, a colony (from Latin colonia) refers to several individual organisms of the same species living closely together, usually for mutual... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Beekeeping, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (14th century) Honey seeker depicted on 6000 year old cave painting near Valencia, Spain Beekeeping (or apiculture, from Latin apis, a bee) is the practice of intentional maintenance of honey bee colonies, commonly in hives, by humans. ... A group of organisms, such as an insect colony, that functions as a social unit. ...


Honey bees collect flower nectar and convert it to honey which is stored in their hives. The nectar is transported in the stomach of the bees, and is converted to honey through the addition of various digestive enzymes, and by being stored in a 'honey cell' and then partially dehydrated. Nectar and honey provide the energy for the bees' flight muscles and for heating the hive during the winter period. Honey bees also collect pollen which supplies protein and fat for bee brood to grow. Centuries of selective breeding by humans have created honey bees that produce far more honey than the colony needs. Beekeepers, also known as "apiarists," harvest the honey. For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... Recently hatched honeybee larvae are feeding on royal jelly for three days. ... Beekeeping, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (14th century) Honey seeker depicted on 6000 year old cave painting near Valencia, Spain Beekeeping (or apiculture, from Latin apis, a bee) is the practice of intentional maintenance of honey bee colonies, commonly in hives, by humans. ...


Beekeepers often provide a place for the colony to live and to store honey. There are seven basic types of beehive: skeps, Langstroth hives, top-bar hives, box hives, log gums, D.E. hives and miller hives. All U.S. states require beekeepers to use movable frames to allow bee inspectors to check the brood for disease. This allows beekeepers to keep the Langstroth, top-bar, and D.E. hives freely, but other types of hives require special permitting, such as for museum use. The type of beehive used significantly impacts colony health and wax and honey production. Domesticated Western honey bees are kept in beehives. ... Domesticated honeybees are kept in beehives. ... Langstroth hives on pallets The Langstroth bee hive is the standard beehive used in many parts of the world for bee keeping. ... Top-bar hives are a style of beehive used for beekeeping. ... The box hive is a beehive shaped like a Langstroth hive but it pays no attention to bee space and therefore can be longer, taller and wider. ... The log gum was esentially a bee tree cut into a short section that contained a colony of honey bees. ...


Modern hives also enable beekeepers to transport bees, moving from field to field as the crop needs pollinating and allowing the beekeeper to charge for the pollination services they provide.


In cold climates some beekeepers have kept colonies alive (with varying success) by moving them indoors for winter. While this can protect the colonies from extremes of temperature and make winter care and feeding more convenient for the beekeeper, it can increase the risk of dysentery (see the Nosema section of diseases of the honey bee) and can create an excessive buildup of carbon dioxide from the respiration of the bees. Recently, inside wintering has been refined by Canadian beekeepers, who build large barns just for wintering bees. Automated ventilation systems assist in the control of carbon dioxide build-up. Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is frequent, small-volume, severe diarrhea that shows blood in the feces along with intestinal cramping and tenesmus (painful straining to pass stool). ... Common diseases, parasites, pests, and ailments of the honeybee include: // Varroa mites Varroa mite on a honeybee larva Main articles: Varroa destructor Varroa destructor and Varroa jacobsoni are parasitic mites that feed off the bodily fluids of adult, pupal and larval bees. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


Ancient beekeeping

Archaeologist Amihai Mazar of Jerusalem's Hebrew University said that findings in the ruins of the city of Rehov (with 2,000 residents at that time, Israelites and Canaanites) include 30 intact hives, 900 B.C., evidence that an advanced honey industry existed in the Holy Land at the time of the Bible or 3,000 years ago. The beehives, made of straw and unbaked clay were found in orderly rows, with 100 hives. Ezra Marcus, expert of Haifa University, said the finding was a glimpse of ancient beekeeping seen in texts and ancient art from the Near East. Religious practice was evidenced by an altar decorated with fertility figurines found alongside the hives. Beekeeping as a practice is known to predate these ruins, but this is the oldest actual apiary ever found.[6] Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Amihai Ami Mazar (born 1942) is an Israeli archaeologist. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים) is one of Israels biggest and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ... Ury House, Aberdeenshire ruined by removal of the roof after the second world war to avoid taxation. ... Rehov (occasionally spelt Rehob) was the site of an important Bronze and Iron Age Canaanite city and is the name given to Tel Rehov תל רחוב, a large earthern city mound in the Jordan Valley of Israel, approximately 5 kilometres south of Bet Shean and 3 kilometres west of the Jordan... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ... This article is about the land called Canaan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Holy Land (Biblical). ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Bales of straw bundles of rice straw Pile of straw bales, sheltered under a tarpaulin Straw is an agricultural byproduct, the dry stalk of a cereal plant, after the nutrient grain or seed has been removed. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... Look up expert in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The University of Haifa (אוניברסיטת חיפה) is a university in Haifa, Israel. ... For the span of recorded history starting roughly 5,000-5,500 years ago, see Ancient history. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing Anatolia (the Asian portion of modern Turkey), the Levant (modern Israel/Palestine, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Georgia, Armenia, and... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Fertility is the natural capability of giving life. ... A rare Dresden porcelain figurine Figurine is a diminutive form of the word figure, and generally refers to a small, human-made object that represents some sort of being. ... An Apiary in South Carolina, Langstroth hives on pallets An apiary (also known in the US as a bee yard) is a place where beehives of honeybees are kept. ...


Products of the honey bee

Pollination

Main article: List of plants pollinated by bees
Beehives set up for pollination

The honey bee's primary commercial value is as a pollinator of crops. Orchards and fields have grown larger; at the same time wild pollinators have dwindled. In several areas of the world the pollination shortage is compensated by migratory beekeeping, with beekeepers supplying the hives during the crop bloom and moving them after bloom is complete. In many higher latitude locations it is difficult or impossible to winter over enough bees, or at least to have them ready for early blooming plants, so much of the migration is seasonal, with many hives wintering in warmer climates and moving to follow the bloom to higher latitudes. Pollination Management is the label for horticultural practices that accomplish or enhance pollination of a crop, to improve yield or quality, by understanding of the particular crops pollination needs, and by knowledgeable management of pollenizers, pollinators, and pollination conditions. ... Pollination by insects is called entomophily. ... Placing honeybees for pumpkin pollination, Mowhawk Valley, NY Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 05:54, Sep 19, 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Placing honeybees for pumpkin pollination, Mowhawk Valley, NY Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 05:54, Sep 19, 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A pollinator is the agent that moves pollen from the male anthers of a flower to the female stigma of a flower to accomplish fertilization or syngamy of the female gamete in the ovule of the flower by the male gamete from the pollen grain. ... Pollinator decline is based on observations made at the end of the twentieth century of the reduction in abundance of pollinators in many ecosystems worldwide. ...


As an example, in California, the pollination of almonds occurs in February, early in the growing season, before local hives have built up their populations. Almond orchards require two hives per acre (2,000 m² per hive) for maximum yield and so the pollination is highly dependent upon the importation of hives from warmer climates. Almond pollination, which occurs in February and March, is the largest managed pollination event in the world, requiring more than one third of all the managed honey bees in the United States. Massive movement of honey bee are also made for apples in New York, Michigan, and Washington. And despite the inefficiency of honey bees in pollinating blueberries[7], huge numbers are also moved to Maine for blueberries, because they are the only pollinators that can be relatively easily moved and concentrated for this and other monoculture crops. Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Binomial name (Mill. ... A community apple orchard originally planted for productive use during the 1920s, in Westcliff on Sea (Essex, England) An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs maintained for food production. ... An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ... This article is about the state. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Largest metro area Metro Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Monoculture describes systems that have very low diversity. ...


Commercial beekeepers plan their movements and their wintering locations with prime reference to the pollination services they plan to perform.


Honey

Main article: Honey

Honey is the complex substance made when the nectar and sweet deposits from plants and trees are gathered, modified and stored in the honeycomb by honey bees. Honey is a complex biological mixture that consists mostly of inverted sugars, primarily glucose and fructose. It has antibacterial and antifungal properties and will not rot or ferment when stored under normal conditions. However, honey will crystallize with time. Crystallized honey is not damaged or defective in any way, for human use, but bees will automatically remove crystallized honey from their hive and discard it, since they can only use liquid honey. For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ...


Beeswax

Main article: Beeswax

Worker bees of a certain age will secrete beeswax from a series of glands on their abdomen. They use the wax to form the walls and caps of the comb. When honey is harvested, the wax can be gathered to be used in various wax products like candles and seals. For the rock song by Nirvana, see Beeswax (song). ... For other uses, see Candle (disambiguation). ... This article is about the authentication means. ...


Pollen

See movie of bee at work collecting pollen. Requires an Ogg Theora enabled player, such as VideoLAN.
Main article: Pollen

Bees collect pollen in the pollen basket and carry it back to the hive. In the hive, pollen is used as a protein source necessary during brood-rearing. In certain environments, excess pollen can be collected from the hives. It is often eaten as a health supplement. File links The following pages link to this file: Honeybee ... File links The following pages link to this file: Honeybee ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ... VideoLAN is a software development project comprising two multi-platform computer programs—VLC media player and VideoLAN Server (VLS)—and several audio/video decoding and decryption libraries. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... honeybee pollen basket The pollen basket or corbicula is part of the hind tibia of the back (posterior) legs of the honeybee. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ...

A bee collecting pollen. High res.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1172 × 1172 pixel, file size: 686 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) bee collecting pollen. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1172 × 1172 pixel, file size: 686 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) bee collecting pollen. ...

Propolis

Main article: Propolis

Propolis (or bee glue) is created from resins, balsams and tree saps. Honey bees use propolis to seal cracks in the hive. Propolis is also sold for its reported health benefits. Propolis is a wax-like resinous substance collected by honey bees from tree buds or other botanical sources and used as cement and to seal cracks or open spaces in the hive. ... Propolis is a wax-like resinous substance collected by honey bees from tree buds or other botanical sources and used as cement and to seal cracks or open spaces in the hive. ... Sap exuding (gummosis) from the stem of a koa tree, probably in response to surface damage Sap is the fluid carried in tubules inside a plant, circulating to distribute food and water to various parts of the plant. ...


Royal jelly

Main article: Royal jelly

Royal Jelly is a nutritional food product provided to larval bees, particularly those intended to become queens. It is also harvested and consumed by humans as a dietary supplement, as it contains various vitamins and amino acids. To meet Wikipedias content policies, the external links section for this article may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias content policies, the external links section for this article may require cleanup. ... A dietary supplement is intended to supply nutrients, (vitamins, minerals, fatty acids or amino acids) that are missing or not consumed in sufficient quantity in a persons diet. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) For the record label, see Vitamin Records A vitamin is an organic compound required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ...


Hazards to honey bee survival

Western honey bee populations have recently faced threats to their survival. North American and European honey bee populations were severely depleted by varroa mite infestations in the early 1990s, and US beekeepers were further affected by Colony Collapse Disorder in 2006 and 2007.[8] Chemical treatments against Varroa mites saved most commercial operations and improved cultural practices. New bee breeds are starting to reduce the dependency on miticides (acaracides) by beekeepers. Feral bee populations were greatly reduced during this period but now are slowly recovering, mostly in areas of mild climate, owing to natural selection for Varroa resistance and repopulation by resistant breeds. Further, Insecticides, particularly when used in violation of label directions, have also depleted bee populations[citation needed], while various bee pests and diseases are becoming resistant to medications (e.g. American Foul Brood, Tracheal Mites and Varroa Mites). North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Common diseases, parasites, pests, and ailments of the honeybee include: // Varroa mites Varroa mite on a honeybee larva Main articles: Varroa destructor Varroa destructor and Varroa jacobsoni are parasitic mites that feed off the bodily fluids of adult, pupal and larval bees. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Honey bees entering a beehive. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... Pesticides vary in their effect on bees. ... Common diseases, parasites, pests, and ailments of the honeybee include: // Varroa mites Varroa mite on a honeybee larva Main articles: Varroa destructor Varroa destructor and Varroa jacobsoni are parasitic mites that feed off the bodily fluids of adult, pupal and larval bees. ... Common diseases, parasites, pests, and ailments of the honeybee include: // Varroa mites Varroa mite on a honeybee larva Main articles: Varroa destructor Varroa destructor and Varroa jacobsoni are parasitic mites that feed off the bodily fluids of adult, pupal and larval bees. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Varroa destructor. ...


Environmental hazards

In North America, Africanized bees have spread across the southern United States where they pose a small danger to humans, although they may make beekeeping (particularly hobby beekeeping) difficult and potentially dangerous. Species HYBRID (see text) Africanized honey bees (AHB), known colloquially as killer bees, are hybrids of the African honey bee, Apis mellifera scutellata (not ; see Collet , 2006), with various European honey bees such as the Italian bee A. m. ...


As an invasive species, feral honey bees have become a significant environmental problem in places where they are not native. Imported bees may compete with and displace native bees and birds, and may also promote the reproduction of invasive plants that native pollinators do not visit. Also, unlike native bees, they do not properly extract or transfer pollen from plants with poricidal anthers (anthers that only release pollen through tiny apical pores), as this requires buzz pollination, a behavior which honey bees rarely exhibit. For example, Gross and Mackay (1998) found that honey bees reduce fruiting in Melastoma affine (a plant with poricidal anthers) by robbing stigmas of previously-deposited pollen. Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ... Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ... Stamens of the Amaryllis with prominent anthers carrying pollen Insects, while collecting nectar, unintentionally transfer pollen from one flower to another, bringing about pollination The stamen (from Latin stamen meaning thread of the warp) is the male organ of a flower. ... Some flowers are pollinated using buzz pollination. ... Binomial name Melastoma affine D. Don Melastoma affine, also known by the common names Blue Tongue or Native Lassiandra, is a shrub distributed in tropical and sub-tropical forests of India, South-east Asia and Australia. ...


Honey bee predators

Insects

Asilidae are a family of Diptera Asiloidea . ... A praying mantis, or praying mantid, is the common name for an insect of the order Mantodea. ... This article is about the insect. ... Binomial name Anax junius (Drury, 1773) The Green Darner (Anax junius) is nicknamed Darning Needle because of its body shape. ... Binomial name Smith, 1852 For general information see hornet, and the related European hornet. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1763) Hacota Matata is an insect which, despite commonly being called the bald-faced hornet (or white-faced hornet), is not a true hornet at all. ... Yellowjacket or yellow-jacket is the common name in North America for wasps of the genera Vespula and Dolichovespula. ... Genera Aquarius Gerris Halobates Limnogonus Limnoporus Metrobates Neogerris Rheumatobates Trepobates The water strider, also known as the Magic bug, pond skater, skater, skimmer, water scooter, water skater, water skeeter, water skimmer, water skipper, or water spider, is any of a number of predatory insects in the family Gerridae (Leach, 1815... Binomial name (Fabricius, 1775) Philanthus triangulum, or the European beewolf is a solitary wasp, that lives in Southern Europe and Northern Africa, although sightings have been found as far north as the Isle of Wight. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...

Spiders

Species M. vatia (Goldenrod crab spider) Misumena is a genus of crab spider. ... Diversity 9 genera, 419 species Genera Oxyopes Peucetia Lynx Spiders are hunting spiders that spend their lives on plants, flowers and shrubs. ... Species A. aurantia A. bruennichi The St Andrews Cross spiders are large and spectacular spiders of the genus Argiope, also commonly called black and yellow argiopes due to the markings on their abdomens. ... Diversity 99 species Species  many more Dolomedes is a genus of spiders of the family Pisauridae. ...

Reptiles and amphibians

Binomial name LeConte, 1825 Wood Frog range Synonyms Rana sylvatica Wood Frog is the common name given to Lithobates sylvaticus[1][2], previously Rana sylvatica. ... Binomial name (Shaw, 1802) Bullfrog range Synonyms Rana catesbeiana The American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus,[1][2] previously Rana catesbeiana[3]) is an aquatic frog, a member of the family Ranidae, or true frogs, native to much of North America. ... Binomial name Bufo americanus (Holbrook, 1836) Habitat range of B. americanus The American toad (Bufo americanus) is a common species of toad found throughout the eastern United States and Canada. ... Species See text. ...

Birds

Genera Nyctyornis Meropogon Merops The bee-eaters are a group of near passerine birds in the family Meropidae. ... Binomial name Archilochus colubris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Ruby-throated Hummingbird, Archilochus colubris, is a small hummingbird. ... Genera Many, see text. ... Binomial name Myiarchus crinitus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Great Crested Flycatcher, Myiarchus crinitus, is a large insect-eating bird of the tyrant flycatcher family. ... Binomial name Quiscalus quiscula (Linnaeus, 1758) The Common Grackle, Quiscalus quiscula, is a large blackbird. ...

Mammals

Contrary to popular perception, bears and honey badgers are brood predators; honey is only of secondary interest.

Binomial name Cryptotis parva (Say, 1823) The Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva) is one of the smallest creatures in the Class Mammalia, growing to be only up to 3 inches long. ... For other uses, see Skunk (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Raccoon native range in red, feral range in blue. ... For other uses, see Ratel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bear (disambiguation). ... This article is about modern humans. ...

Trivia

  • Human encroachment into or adjacent to natural areas where African bush elephants occur has led to recent research into methods of safely driving groups of elephants away from humans, including the discovery that playback of the recorded sounds of angry Apis mellifera colonies are remarkably effective at prompting elephants to flee an area.[9]
  • They have a well developed sense of time (circadian rhythm). Honey bees are one of the very few invertebrates in which sleep-like behavior, similar in many respects to mammalian sleep, is known to exist.
  • Honey, as well as propolis, has antibiotic properties. Honey is so sweet that bacteria cannot grow on it, and dry enough that it does not support yeasts. Anaerobic bacteria may be present and survive in spore form in honey, however, as well as anywhere else in common environments. Honey (or any other sweetener) which is diluted by the non-acidic digestive fluids of infants, can support the transition of botulism bacteria from the spore form to the actively growing form which produces a toxin. When infants are weaned to solid foods, their digestive system becomes acidic enough to prevent such growth and poisoning. No sweeteners should be given to infants prior to weaning.
  • Honey bees are one of the very few invertebrates that produce a sort of "milk" for their young, royal jelly, which is the only food the larvae will eat early in development.
  • Like other social insects, they have an advanced immune system.
  • They have specially modified hairs on their body that develop a static electricity charge to attract pollen grains to their bodies.
  • Honey bee foragers die usually when their wings are worn out after approximately 500 miles of flight.
  • Honey bee wings beat at a constant rate of 230 beats per second or 13,800 beats/minute. The frequency of the wing beats was much higher than expected for an insect of this size. Honey bees make up for carrying heavier loads or for changes in air density by altering the amplitude of their wings and catching more air. This makes the wing muscles work harder, but it does not change the frequency of the wing beats. The science of bee flight remained an unsolved mystery until December of 2005. A study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences details the work supervised by Michael Dickinson from Caltech.
  • Bees are capable of perceiving the polarization of light. They use this information to orient their communicative dances.
  • They navigate by using a combination of memory, visual landmarks, colors, the position of the sun, smell, polarized light and magnetic anomalies.
  • Their aging is controlled by a hormone which regulates the production of a protein called vitellogenin.
  • The honey bee was a prominent political symbol in the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte, representing the Bonapartist bureaucratic and political system. The main purpose of this symbolism was a reference to the Merovingian Dynasty given that about a century earlier, a series of golden honeybees had been discovered in the tomb of Childeric I (which had by then come into Napoleon's possession).
  • Worker honey bees can reproduce by parthenogenesis, but will necessarily produce only drones (though this is not true of all other subspecies). Worker bees are sexually underdeveloped females, and their ovulation is ordinarily inhibited by hormonal signals provided to all hive members by a functioning queen. Should the queen bee die and a replacement not be available, inhibition of egg laying behavior among the worker bees will end, but the eggs they lay will be unfertilized and therefore can produce only drones. Absent a virgin queen, the colony will die out as the worker population dies out due to old age.
  • Bee stings have also been reputed to help alleviate the associated symptoms of Multiple sclerosis, arthritis, and other autoimmune diseases. This is an area of ongoing research. Bees are sometimes crushed and mixed with water to form part of a homeopathy treatment.

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Binomial name (Blumenbach, 1797) The African Bush Elephant (Loxodonta africana) is the larger of the two species of African elephants. ... A circadian rhythm is a roughly-24-hour cycle in the physiological processes of living beings, including plants, animals, fungi and cyanobacteria. ... Propolis is a wax-like resinous substance collected by honey bees from tree buds or other botanical sources and used as cement and to seal cracks or open spaces in the hive. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with approximately 1,500 species described. ... An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... “Baby” redirects here. ... Botulism (Latin, botulus, sausage) is a rare, but serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin, botulin, that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ... For other uses, see Toxin (disambiguation). ... what was here was sick and improperly spelled. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ... A breastfeeding infant Breastfeeding is the practice of a woman feeding an infant (or sometimes a toddler or a young child) with milk produced from her mammary glands, usually directly from the nipples. ... To meet Wikipedias content policies, the external links section for this article may require cleanup. ... The density of air, ρ (Greek: rho) (air density), is the mass per volume of Earths atmosphere, and is a useful value in aeronautics. ... The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, usually referred to as PNAS, is the official journal of the United States National Academy of Sciences. ... California Institute of Technology The California Institute of Technology (commonly known as Caltech) is a private, coeducational university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ... In electrodynamics, polarization (also spelled polarisation) is the property of electromagnetic waves, such as light, that describes the direction of their transverse electric field. ... Honey bees learn and communicate in order to find food sources and for other means. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des... // In French political history, Bonapartists were monarchists who desired a French Empire under the House of Bonaparte, the Corsican family of Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I of France) and his nephew Louis (Napoleon III of France). ... For other uses of the term Merovingian, see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... Childeric I (c. ... For the religious belief, see Virgin Birth of Jesus. ... The queen bee is an adult, mated female in a honeybee colony or hive; she is usually the mother of all the bees in the hive. ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ... Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ... Homeopathy starring at the horrors of Allopathy by Alexander Beydeman, 1857 Homeopathy (also spelled homÅ“opathy or homoeopathy), from the Greek words όμοιος, hómoios (similar) and πάθος, páthos (suffering, disease),[1] is a highly controversial type of alternative medicine that aims to treat like with like. ...

Designated state insect

Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Largest metro area Little Rock Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,002 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English[2] Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  Ranked 15th  - Total 82,277 sq mi (213,096 km²)  - Width 211 miles (340 km)  - Length 417 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to 92° 53′ W Population  Ranked... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Largest metro area Oklahoma City metro area Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,898 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ...

Gallery

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Category:Apis mellifera

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

References

  • A. I. Root's The ABC and XYZ of Beekeeping
  • Molecular confirmation of a fourth lineage in honeybees from the Near East Apidologie 31 (2000) 167-180, accessed Oct 2005
  • Biesmeijer, Jacobus. "The Occurrence and Context of the Shaking Signal in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) Exploiting Natural Food Sources". Ethology. 2003.
  • Collet, T., Ferreira, K.M., Arias, M.C., Soares, A.E.E. and Del Lama, M.A. (2006). Genetic structure of Africanized honeybee populations (Apis mellifera L.) from Brazil and Uruguay viewed through mitochondrial DNA COI–COII patterns. Heredity 97, 329–335.
  • Gross, C. L., Mackay, D. "Honeybees reduce fitness in the pioneer shrub Melastoma affine (Melastomataceae)". Biological Conservation, November 1998.
  • Lindauer, Martin. "Communication among social bees". Harvard University Press 1971.
  • Myerscough, Mary R.: Dancing for a decision: a matrix model for nest-site choice by honeybees, Proc. Royal Soc. London B 270 (2003) 577-582.
  • Schneider, S. S., P. K. Visscher, Camazine, S. "Vibration Signal Behavior of Waggle-dancers in Swarms of the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Ethology. 1998.
  • 'Honey Bee - Study of Northern Virginia Ecology'. Retrieved on 2006-01-01.
  1. ^ Heinrich, Bernd; Bee World 77:130-137 (1996)
  2. ^ Heinrich, Bernd; Science Vol 205 pages 1269-1271 (1979)
  3. ^ Whitfield, CW; Behura SK, Berlocher SH, Clark AG, Johnston JS, Sheppard WS, Smith DR, Suarez AV, Weaver D, Tsutsui ND (Oct 27 2006). "Thrice out of Africa: ancient and recent expansions of the honey bee, Apis mellifera". Science 314 (5799): 642-5. PMID 17068261. Retrieved on 2006-12-01. 
  4. ^ Honeybee Genome Sequencing Consortium (Oct 26 2006). "Insights into social insects from the genome of the honeybee Apis mellifera". Nature 443 (7114): 931-49. PMID 17073008. Retrieved on 2006-12-01. 
  5. ^ Wang, Y; Jorda M, Jones PL, Maleszka R, Ling X, Robertson HM, Mizzen CA, Peinado MA, Robinson GE (Oct 27 2006). "Functional CpG methylation system in a social insect". Science 314 (5799): 645-7. PMID 17068262. Retrieved on 2006-12-01. 
  6. ^ Yahoo.com, Archaeologists discover ancient beehives
  7. ^ Javorek SK, Mackenzie KE, Vander Kloet SP (2002) Comparative pollination effectiveness among bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) on Lowbush Blueberry (Ericaceae: Vaccinium angustifolium). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 95: 345–351
  8. ^ Lovgren, Stefan. "Mystery Bee Disappearances Sweeping U.S." National Geographic News. URL accessed March 10, 2007.
  9. ^ Lucy E. King, Iain Douglas-Hamilton, Fritz Vollrath (2007) African elephants run from the sound of disturbed bees. Current Biology 17: R832-R833

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Honey Bee Genome Sequencing Consortium is an international collaborative group of genomics scientists, scientific organisations and universities who are trying to decipher the genome sequences of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Binomial name Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton Lowbush Blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) is a species of blueberry native to eastern and central Canada and the northeastern United States, growing as far south as West Virginia and west to Minnesota and Manitoba. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

See also

Bee venom therapy is a therapeutical use of love bee stings. ... Beeline or bee line can mean:- A straight line route: see wiktionary:beeline. ... Bee bearding is the practice of wearing several dozen to several hundred thousand honey bees on ones face, usually as a sideshow-type activity. ... Honey bees entering a beehive. ...

External links

  • Flight of Honey Bee finally understood
  • Honey Bee Pheromones
  • Honey Bee Apis mellifera diagnostic pictures, descriptions, natural history
  • Brother Adams On-line book; accessed September 2005
  • Origin of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) from the Yucatan peninsula inferred from mitochondrial DNA analysis; Molecular Ecology (2001)10, 1347-1355; accessed Jan 2005
  • Apis mellifera pomonella, a new honey bee subspecies from Central Asia; Apidologie 34 (2003) 367-375; Walter S. Sheppard and Marina D. Meixner; accessed 2005
  • [3] Beekeeping explained by FAO
  • [4] Types of hives by FAO
  • Interactive 3-D flash presentation of honey beehive from PBS
  • Brainy Bees Think Abstractly
  • BeeSource
  • Cyclopedia of American Agriculture ed. by L. H. Bailey (1911), Vol. III--Animals, "Bees," including a history of the literature related to European honey bees in the United States.
  • Digital library of Beekeeping
  • Anatomy of the honeybee by the FAO

  The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger. ...

Honey bee types and characteristics (edit)
Queen bees
Worker and drone bees
Worker bee | Laying worker bee | Drone
Lifecycle
Beehive | Honey bee life cycle | Brood
Bee learning and communication | Swarming
Western honey bee subspecies and breeds
Buckfast bee | Carniolan honey bee | European dark bee | Italian bee
Africanized bee | Apis mellifera scutellata
Cultivation
Beekeeping | Beeswax | Honey | Honey extraction
Apiary | Beehive | Langstroth hive | Top-bar hive
Apiology | Honey extractor
Lists
Topics in beekeeping | Honey bee races
Diseases of the honey bee

The honeybee is a colonial insect that is often maintained, fed, and transported by farmers. ... The queen bee is an adult, mated female in a honeybee colony or hive; she is usually the mother of all the bees in the hive. ... A worker bee is a female honeybee which performs certain tasks in support of a bee hive. ... A laying worker bee is a worker bee that lays unfertilized eggs usually in the absence of a queen bee. ... Drone Drones are male honey bees. ... Domesticated Western honey bees are kept in beehives. ... The honey bee life cycle, here referring exclusively to the domesticated Western honey bee, depends greatly on their social structure. ... Recently hatched honey bee larvae are feeding on royal jelly for three days. ... Honey bees learn and communicate in order to find food sources and for other means. ... A swarm about to land Swarming is the natural means of reproduction of honey bee colonies (considering the colony as the organism rather than individual bees which cannot survive alone), including the domesticated Western honey bee. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Trinomial name Apis mellifera carnica Pollman, 1879 The Carniolan honey bee (Apis mellifera carnica) is a subspecies of Western honey bee. ... Trinomial name Apis mellifera mellifera Linaneus, 1758 The European dark bee (Apis mellifera mellifera) was domesticated in modern times, and taken to North America in colonial times. ... Apis mellifera ligustica is the Italian bee which is a sub-species of the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera). ... Species HYBRID (see text) Africanized honey bees (AHB), known colloquially as killer bees, are hybrids of the African honey bee, Apis mellifera scutellata (not ; see Collet , 2006), with various European honey bees such as the Italian bee A. m. ... Subspecies A. m. ... Beekeeping, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (14th century) Honey seeker depicted on 6000 year old cave painting near Valencia, Spain Beekeeping (or apiculture, from Latin apis, a bee) is the practice of intentional maintenance of honey bee colonies, commonly in hives, by humans. ... For the rock song by Nirvana, see Beeswax (song). ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... A very uniform completely filled frame, before uncapping. ... An Apiary in South Carolina, Langstroth hives on pallets An apiary (also known in the US as a bee yard) is a place where beehives of honeybees are kept. ... Domesticated Western honey bees are kept in beehives. ... Langstroth hives on pallets The Langstroth bee hive is the standard beehive used in many parts of the world for bee keeping. ... Top-bar hives are a style of beehive used for beekeeping. ... Apiology is the scientific study of bees, a branch of entomology. ... A honey extractor is a mechanical device to extract the honey from the beeswax or honey comb. ... This is a list of topics concerning beekeeping and honey bees. ... Races of honey bees Some biologists use race synonymously with subspecies or - in botany- variety, to refer to divisions within a species. ... Common diseases, parasites, pests, and ailments of the honey bee include: // Varroa mite on a honey bee larva Main articles: Varroa destructor Varroa destructor and Varroa jacobsoni are parasitic mites that feed off the bodily fluids of adult, pupal and larval bees. ...


 
 

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