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Encyclopedia > Western Xia

Xia
Flag
1038 – 1227 Flag
Location of Western Xia in 1142
Capital Xingqing
Government Monarchy
Emperor
 - 1038-1048 Emperor Jingzong
 - 1226-1227 Emperor Modi
History
 - Established 1038
 - Surrendered to the Mongol Empire 1227
Population
 - peak est. 3,000,000 
History of China
ANCIENT
3 Sovereigns and 5 Emperors
Xia Dynasty 2070–1600 BCE
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  Western Zhou
  Eastern Zhou
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  Eastern Jin 16 Kingdoms
304–439 CE
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Tang Dynasty 618–907 CE
5 Dynasties &
10 Kingdoms

907–960 CE
Liao Dynasty
907–1125 CE
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960–1279 CE
  Northern Song W. Xia Dyn.
  Southern Song Jin Dyn.
Yuan Dynasty 1271–1368 CE
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Qing Dynasty 1644–1911 CE
MODERN
Republic of China 1911–present
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of China
1949–present

Republic of China
(on Taiwan) Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Events Independent declaration of Western Xia. ... January 11 first mention of city of Požega in a charter of Andrew II of Hungary March 19 - Pope Gregory IX succeeds Pope Honorius III as the 178th pope. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Another picture of Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Их Монгол Улс, literally meaning Greater Mongol Nation; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous land empire in history, covering over 33 million km² [1] (12 million square miles) at its peak, with an estimated population of over 100 million... Image File history File linksMetadata China_11b. ... 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Expansion of the Mongol Empire Another picture of Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Их Монгол Улс, literally meaning Greater Mongol Nation; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous land empire in history, covering over 33 million km² [1] (12 million square miles) at its peak, with an estimated population of over 100 million... January 11 first mention of city of Požega in a charter of Andrew II of Hungary March 19 - Pope Gregory IX succeeds Pope Honorius III as the 178th pope. ... Image File history File links History_of_China. ... The history of China is told in traditional historical records that go back to the Three sovereigns and five emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Xia Dynasty (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: hsia-chao), ca. ... 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The Western Xia Dynasty (Chinese: 西夏; Pinyin: Xī Xià; literally "Western Xia") or the Tangut Empire was a state that existed from 1038 up to 1227 in what are now the northwestern Chinese provinces of Gansu, Shaanxi, and Ningxia. It was established in the 11th century by Tangut tribes. Occupying the area along the trade route between Central Asia and the West, the Tangut were neighbors to Northern China, which was ruled by Song China and later the Jurchen Empire. The following is a timeline of the history of China. ... Below is a table of the dynasties in Chinese history. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Chinese art is art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists or performers. ... A method of making astronomical observation instruments at the time of Qing Dynasty. ... The Chinese education was accompanied with the birth of Chinese civilization. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Xia details several meanings in the Chinese language and the History of China: The season of summer (夏) Xia (philosophy) is a Chinese philosophy similar (but not identical) to the chivalrous code of European knights. ... Events Independent declaration of Western Xia. ... January 11 first mention of city of Požega in a charter of Andrew II of Hungary March 19 - Pope Gregory IX succeeds Pope Honorius III as the 178th pope. ... For other province-level divisions, see Political divisions of China. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ShÇŽnxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River as well as the Qinling Mountains across the... Ningxia (Simplified Chinese: 宁夏; Traditional Chinese: 寧夏; Pinyin: Níngxià; Wade-Giles: Ning-hsia; Postal Pinyin: Ningsia), full name Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (Simplified Chinese: 宁夏回族自治区; Traditional Chinese: 寧夏回族自治區; Pinyin: Níngxià Huízú ZìzhìqÅ«), is a Hui autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China, located on the northwest Loess... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... The Tangut, also known as the Western Xia were a Qiangic-Tibetan people who moved to the highlands of western Sichuan sometime before the 10th century AD. They spoke Tangut language a now-extinct Tibeto-Burman language. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... The Jin Dynasty (金 pinyin: JÄ«n 1115-1234; Anchu in Jurchen), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ...

Contents

Name

The Tanguts called their own state "phiow¹-bjij²-lhjij-lhjij²" which translates as "The Great State of the White and the Lofty" (大白高國). Since it was located in the west, the Chinese name is Xi-Xia (西夏), literally "Western Xia", and thus that name is often used in Sinological literature. The English name "Tangut" comes from the Mongolian name for the country, Tanggud or Tangghud (Taŋɣud).


Foundations

After coming under military pressure from the Tibetan Empire some Tangut tribes submitted to Tang China under Emperor Dezong in 799. The Tanguts who submitted were moved to the Ordos region near Ningxia, whereas those who stayed accepted Tibetan political dominance and became known in Chinese as Mi-yao. Tibet (see Name section below for other spellings) is a plateau region in Central Asia and the indigenous home to the Tibetan people. ... The Tangut, also known as the Western Xia were a Qiangic-Tibetan people who moved to the highlands of western Sichuan sometime before the 10th century AD. They spoke Tangut language a now-extinct Tibeto-Burman language. ... China under the Tang Dynasty (yellow) and its sphere of influence Capital Changan (618–904) Luoyang (904-907) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 618-626 Emperor Gaozu  - 684, 705-710 Emperor Zhongzong  - 684, 710-712 Emperor Ruizong  - 904-907 Emperor Ai History  - Li Yuan... Emperor Tang Dezong (唐德宗李适 742-805), born Li Kuo, was the 9th emperor of the Tang dynasty of China. ... Ordos can refer to: the Ordos Desert in Inner Mongolia House Ordos, a fictional organisation appearing in Dune spin-offs This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Ningxia (Simplified Chinese: 宁夏; Traditional Chinese: 寧夏; Pinyin: Níngxià; Wade-Giles: Ning-hsia; Postal Pinyin: Ningsia), full name Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (Simplified Chinese: 宁夏回族自治区; Traditional Chinese: 寧夏回族自治區; Pinyin: Níngxià Huízú ZìzhìqÅ«), is a Hui autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China, located on the northwest Loess...


The Tanguts remained loyal to the Tang during the revolt of Huang Chao but established de-facto independence when Tang fell in 906. They retained their de-facto independence throughout the Five Dynasties period. During this period, their chieftain had the title of Dingnan Jiedushi and nominally remained under the Five Dynasties. Emperor Mingzong of Later Tang made an unsuccessful attempt to conquer Dingnan in 932 after believing incorrectly that Dingnan was about to enter an alliance with Liao. Huang Chao(Chinese:黃巢)(d. ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 906 ... Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 五代十國 Simplified Chinese: 五代十国 Hanyu pinyin: Wǔdàishíguó) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. ... The Jiedushi of Dingnan (定難節度使) was Li Jiqian of 10th and 11th century China. ... Events Foundation of the St. ... The Liao Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Liáo Cháo), 907-1125, also known as the Khitan Empire, was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of northern China proper. ...


The foundation of a Tangut state as such goes back to the year 982 under Li Deming (李德明). However, it would not be until 1038 that the Tangut chieftain Li Yuanhao (李元昊), Li Deming's son, who also ordered the creation of a Tangut writing system and the translation of Chinese classics into Tangut, named himself emperor of Da Xia, and demanded of the Song emperor recognition as an equal. The Song court accepted the recognition of Li Yuanhao as 'governor', but not 'emperor', a title considered exclusive to the Song emperor. After intense diplomatic contacts, in 1043 the Tangut state accepted the recognition of the Song emperor as emperor in exchange for annual tribute, which implied tacit recognition on the part of the Song of the military power of the Tangut. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ...


Early history

After Jingzong's death, Yizong became the emperor at the age of two. His mother became the regent and during Yizong's reign, Liao Dynasty launched an invasion of Western Xia, causing Western Xia to submit to Liao Dynasty as a vassal state. After Yizong's death, Huizong was put under house arrest by his mother, and she attacked Song Dynasty. The attack was a failure, and Huizong took back power from his mother. After Chongzong became emperor, his grandmother (Huizong's mother) became regent again and launched invasion of Liao Dynasty and Song Dynasty. Again, both campaigns ended in defeat and Chongzong took direct control of Western Xia. He ended wars with both Liao and Song and focused on domestic reform.


In 1115, Jurchen Jin Dynasty was set up and Liao emperor fled to Western Xia in 1123. Chongzong submitted to the Jin demand of the Liao emperor and Western Xia became a vassal state of Jin. After Jin Dynasty destroyed Northern Song Dynasty, Western Xia attacked and took several thousands square miles of land from Northern Song. Immediately following Renzong's coronation, many natural disasters occurred and Renzong worked to stabilize the economy.


The Tanguts and the Mongols

After Renzong's death, Huanzong came into power and Western Xia's power began to fail. Corruption was widespread and the economy began to falter. Western Xia also began to come under attack by Mongol Empire.


The Mongol Empire campaigned six times against the Tanguts (1202, 1207, 1209-10, 1211-13, 1214-19, 1225-26).


In 1206, Xiangzong (Li An-chuan) initiated a coup d'etat against Huanzong and killed him, installing himself as emperor. In 1207 Li An-ch'uan submitted to the Mongols, and gave his daughter to Genghis Khan in marriage. Xiangzong then began a decade-long campaign against Jin Empire, significantly weakening both empires. Also during Xiangzong's reign, corruption rose to new heights, and normal peasants were very poor. The Western Xia army was also untrained and ill-equipped. Xiangzong abdicated after Shenzong started a coup d'etat and seized power, and Xiangzong died in the same year, 1211. For other uses, see Genghis Khan (disambiguation). ...


The Mongols asked their allies and tributaries for military aid in the campaign against the Islamic countries in 1216, although the Tangut emperor Shenzong was willing, his court and in particular his general Aša-gambu recommended against it. When Genghis Khan returned from his campaign the new emperor Xianzong pled with him, but the general Aša-gambu challenged Genghis Khan. The emperor Xianzong died during the fighting and was succeeded by Modi (Li Xian), the last of the Tangut rulers. Modi sued for peace, which was accepted, but he was then executed by Tolui the son of Genghis, and the Tangut state was fully incorporated into Mongolian administration. (cf. Kwanten 1974) Tolui,also rendered Toluy or Tolui Khan (Mongolian: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 1190–1232), was the youngest son of Genghis Khan by Börte. ...


Rulers of Western Xia

Temple Name Posthumous Name Personal Name Reign Dates
Jǐngzōng 景宗 Wǔlièdì 武烈帝 Lǐ Yuánhào 李元昊 1038-1048
Yìzōng 毅宗 Zhāoyīngdì 昭英帝 Lǐ Liàngzuò 李諒祚 1048-1067
Huìzōng 惠宗 Kāngjìngdì 康靖帝 Lǐ Bǐngcháng 李秉常 1067-1086
Chóngzōng 崇宗 Shèngwéndì 聖文帝 Lǐ Qiánshùn 李乾順 1086-1139
Rénzōng 仁宗 Shèngzhēndì 聖禎帝 Lǐ Rénxiào 李仁孝 1139-1193
Huánzōng 桓宗 Zhāojiǎndì 昭簡帝 Lǐ Chúnyòu 李純佑 1193-1206
Xiāngzōng 襄宗 Jìngmùdì 敬穆帝 Lǐ Ānquán 李安全 1206-1211
Shénzōng 神宗 Yīngwéndì 英文帝 Lǐ Zūnxū 李遵頊 1211--1223
Xiànzōng 獻宗 none Lǐ Déwàng 李德旺 1223--1226
Mòdì 末帝 none Lǐ Xiàn 李晛 1226-1227

Temple names (Traditional Chinese: 廟號 Simplified Chinese: 庙号 Pinyin: miào hào;), are commonly used when naming most Chinese, Vietnamese (such dynasties as Tran,Anterior Lê and Nguyen Dynasty) and most Korean rulers of the Goryeo and Joseon Dynasties. ... A posthumous name (Traditional Chinese: 諡號/謚號 Simplified Chinese: 谥号; Pinyin: shì hào; Romaji: shigō/tsuigō; Revised Romanization of Korean: siho) is a honorary name given to royalty in some cultures posthumously, that is, after the persons death. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Emperor Yizong of Western Xia Emperor of the Western Xia from 1048-1067. ... Huizong was Emperor of Western Xia (1067-1086). ... Emperor Xixia Chongzong of Western Xia (西夏崇宗), or Li Qianshun (李乾順)1, was a Tangut emperor of Western Xia (one of the four kingdoms that made up China, along with Song dynasty, Liao dynasty and Jin Empire) from 1086 until 11392. ... Emperor Renzong, born Li Renxiao, was the 5th emperor of the Western Xia dynasty (1124-1193; reigned 1139-1193). ... Emperor Huanzong of Western Xia lived from 1177 to 1206 and reigned from 1193 to 1206. ... Emperor Xiangzong of Western Xia lived from 1170 to 1211, and reigned from 1206 to 1211. ... Shenzong was emperor of Western Xia from 1211 to 1223 Categories: China-related stubs ... Emperor Xianzong of Western Xia lived from 1181 to 1226. ... Emperor Modi of Western Xia was the last emperor of Western Xia and reigned from 1226 to 1227. ...

References

  • Kwanten, Luc. "Chingis Kan's Conquest of Tibet, Myth or Reality". Journal of Asian History 8.1 (1974): 17-23.

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Chinese History -Western Xia Dynasty (Xixia) 西夏 event history (www.chinaknowledge.de) (1154 words)
Li Yichao 李彝超 was able to defend the kingdom of Xia against the Later Tang Dynasty 後唐 and was therefore acknowledged as the supremate head of all Tangut tribes in th 930s.
Western Xia forged an alliance with Jin 金, the succession state of Liao, but in vain: In 1227 Li Xian 李睍, the Last Emperor (Xixia Modi 西夏末帝), submitted to the Mongols and was killed on the way to their headquarters.
Note: The short-lived Eastern Xia empire (Dongxia 東夏) was founded by a sideline of the Silla (Chinese: Xinluo 新羅) empire in Korea and occupied the territory of modern Jilin province.
Genghis Khan (1056 words)
The vassal emperor of Western Xia had refused to take part in the war against the Khwarizm, and Genghis had vowed punishment.
Meanwhile, he studied intelligence reports from Western Xia and Jin and readied a force of 180,000 troops for a new campaign.
Pursuing energetically, the Mongols killed the Western Xia emperor in a mountain fortress.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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