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Encyclopedia > Western World

The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e.g., the time period, or the social situation). Accordingly, the basic definition of what constitutes the West will vary, expanding and contracting, in relation to various circumstances. The historic West originated in the Mediterranean (ancient Greece and ancient Rome), but it came to include Central and Western Europe, although does include the whole of Europe as well as all of Russia (except during the U.S.S.R. era when considered part of the East). Linguistically the frontier would run as far as the Indian Subcontinent. Since Columbus the notion of the West has expanded to include the Americas, through much of Latin America's more pre-Western cultural influence. As well Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines and South Africa are cultural hubs due to colonization. However during the Cold War the core of the West was often confined to N.A.T.O. countries.[2] Today, in a political or economic context, perhaps the West would also include developed and fast developing countries such as Japan, Taiwan, India and South Korea, etc. In a world religious context, some would include those faiths acknowledging Abraham, however this umbrella's Islamic countries into the category as well. Western society has survived and evolved due greatly to the efforts of the Greeks, Romans, more recently the European empires, and more notably the British Empire. Generally speaking, the current consensus would locate the West in, at the very least, the cultures and peoples of the mainlands Europe, the two Americas, Australia, and New Zealand.[3] Occident may mean: the Western World Occident (movement), a French far-right violent political group The Occident, a nineteenth century Jewish American periodical Occident (film), a 2002 Romanian film Category: ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Soviet redirects here. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and colonialist who is one of the first Europeans to discover the Americas, after the Vikings. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... This list of pre-Colombian civilizations includes those civilizations and cultures of the Americas which flourished prior to the European colonization of the Americas. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Abrahamic religions symbols designating the three prevalent monotheistic religions – Judaism, Christianity, and Islam Abrahamic religion is a term commonly used to designate the three prevalent monotheistic religions – Judaism, Christianity, and Islam[1][2] – which claim Abraham (Hebrew: Avraham אַבְרָהָם ; Arabic: Ibrahim ابراهيم ) as a part of their sacred history. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...

Contents

Historical divisions

The origins of the word "West" in terms of geopolitical boundaries started in the 1900s. Prior to this most humans would have thought about different nations, languages, individuals, and geographical regions, but with no idea of "Western" nations as we know it today. Many world maps were so crude and inaccurate before the 1800s that geographical and political differences would be harder to measure. Few would have access to good maps and even fewer had access to accurate descriptions of who lived in far away lands. Western thought as we think of it today, is shaped by ideas of the 1900s and 1800's, originating mainly in Europe. What we think of as "Western" thought today is defined as Greco-Roman and Judeo-Christian culture, the Renaissance, the Enlightenment and colonialism. As a consequence the term Western thought is at times unhelpful and vague, since it can define two separate (although related) sets of traditions and values: Firstly, the Christian (or Western Christian) moral tradition and religious values; Secondly, secular values, often with a rationalist anti-clerical tradition. Less acknowledged but equally as important was the influence of the Germanic cultures whose people overran Western Europe beginning in the fifth century AD and effectively became the rulers of Western Europe into the modern age, first in the form of the Goths and the Vandals and later in the form of the Franks who unified the West. In addition, many individuals throughout history do not easily fit into a false dichotomy of East or West. [citation needed] The term Western thought is usually associated with the cultural tradition that traces its origins to Greek thought and Jewish and Christian religion (See also Western culture). ... In modern Olympic and amateur wrestling, Greco-Roman wrestling is a particular style and variation. ... Jacob wrestling an angel, by Gustave Doré (1832-1883), a shared Judeo-Christian story. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... 18th century philosophy redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... The logical fallacy of false dilemma, also known as fallacy of the excluded middle, false dichotomy, either/or dilemma or bifurcation, is to set up two alternative points of view as if they were the only options, when they are not. ...


Hellenic

The Ancient Greek world, circa 550 BC
The Ancient Greek world, circa 550 BC

The Hellenic division between the barbarians and the Greeks contrasted in many societies the Greek-speaking culture of the Greek settlements around the Mediterranean to the surrounding non-Greek cultures. Herodotus considered the Persian Wars of the early 5th century BC a conflict of Europe versus Asia[citation needed] (which he considered to be all land West and East of the Sea of Marmara, respectively)[citation needed]. The terms "West" and "East" were not used by any Greek author to describe that conflict. The anachronistic application of those terms to that division entails a stark logical contradiction, given that, when the term West appeared, it was used in opposition to the Greeks and Greek-speaking culture. Image File history File links Location_greek_ancient. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC Events and Trends Carthage conquers Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica 559 BC - King Cambyses I of Anshan dies... The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single language in the Indo-European language family. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... The Greco-Persian Wars or Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Greek world and the Persian Empire that started about 500 BC and lasted until 448 BC. The term can also refer to the continual warfare of the Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire against the Parthians and... The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the...


Western society is sometimes claimed to trace its cultural origins to both Greek thought and Christian religion, thus following an evolution that began in ancient Greece, continued through the Roman Empire and, with the coming of Christianity (which has its origins in the Middle East), spread throughout Europe. Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


However, the conquest of the western parts of the Roman Empire by Germanic peoples and the subsequent advent of despotism in the form of dominance by the Western Christian Papacy (which held combined political and spiritual authority, a state of affairs absent from Greek civilization in all its stages), resulted into a rupture of the previously existing ties between the Latin West and Greek thought,[4] including Christian Greek thought. The Great Schism and the Fourth Crusade confirmed this deviation. Hence, the Medieval West is limited to Western Christendom only, as the Greeks and other European peoples not under the authority of the Papacy are not included in it. The clearly Greek-influenced form of Christianity, Orthodoxy, is more linked to Eastern than Western Europe. On the other hand, the Modern West, emerging after the Renaissance as a new civilization, has been influenced by (its own interpretation of) Greek thought, which was preserved in the Roman (Byzantine) Empire during the Medieval West's Dark Ages and transmitted therefrom by emigration of scholars and courtly marriages. The Renaissance in the West emerged partly from currents within the Roman (Byzantine) Empire. Moreover, European peoples not included in Western Christendom such as the Greeks have redefined their relationship to this new, secular, variant of Western civilization, and have increasingly participated in it since then. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... State of affairs has some technical usages in philosophy, as well as being a phrase in everyday speech in English. ... For the later Papal Schism in Avignon, see Western Schism. ... The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... “Orthodox” redirects here. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ... Otto II and Theophano Theophanu (960 – June 15, 991) (Greek: Θεοφανώ Theophano), also spelled Theophania, was born in Constantinople, and was the wife of Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor. ...


Thus the idea of Western society being influenced from (but not being the single evolution of) ancient Greek thought makes sense only for the post-Renaissance period of Western history. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...


The Roman Empire

Area under Roman control      Roman Republic      Roman Empire      Western Empire      Eastern Empire
Expansion of the Roman Empire.
Expansion of the Roman Empire.

Ancient Rome (510 BC-AD 476) was a civilization that grew from a city-state founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. In its twelve-century existence, Roman civilization shifted from a monarchy, to a republic, to an autocratic empire. It came to dominate Western Europe, the Balkans and the entire area surrounding the Mediterranean Sea through conquest using the Roman legions and then through cultural assimilation by giving Roman privileges and eventually citizenship to the whole empire. Nonetheless, despite its great legacy, a number of factors led to the eventual decline of the Roman Empire. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x760, 218 KB) Summary map of the Roman Empire based on Image:BlankMap-Europe-v3. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x760, 218 KB) Summary map of the Roman Empire based on Image:BlankMap-Europe-v3. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2850x1500, 3079 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Roman Empire Talk:Roman Empire History of West Eurasia ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2850x1500, 3079 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Roman Empire Talk:Roman Empire History of West Eurasia ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... Satellite view of the Peninsula in spring The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1,000 km from the Alps in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ... (10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC - other centuries) (900s BC - 890s BC - 880s BC - 870s BC - 860s BC - 850s BC - 840s BC - 830s BC - 820s BC - 810s BC - 800s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Kingdom of Kush (900 BC... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single person. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... See also Legion software and Legion forummer. ... Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ... This article is about the historiography of the decline of the Roman Empire. ...


The Western Roman Empire eventually broke into independent kingdoms in the 5th century due to civil wars, corruption, and devastating Germanic Invasions from such tribes as the Goths, the Franks and the Vandals; the Eastern Roman Empire, governed from Constantinople, is usually referred to as the Byzantine Empire after 476, the traditional date for the "fall of the Western Roman Empire" and for the subsequent onset of the Early Middle Ages. The Eastern Roman Empire survived the fall of the West, and protected Roman legal and cultural traditions combining them with Greek and Christian elements, for another thousand years. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ...


The Roman Empire succeeded the about 500 year-old Roman Republic (510 BC - 1st century BC), which had been weakened by the conflict between Gaius Marius and Sulla and the civil war of Julius Caesar against Pompey and Marcus Brutus. During these struggles hundreds of senators were killed, and the Roman Senate had been refilled with loyalists of the First Triumvirate and later those of the Second Triumvirate. Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC Events and Trends Establishment of the Roman Republic March 12, 515 BC - Construction is completed on the... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX) ¹ (ca. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... Marcus Junius Brutus Caepio (85 BC–42 BC), or simply Brutus, was a Roman politician of the late Roman Republic. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... ANT AV · III VIR RPC on this denarius minted by Mark Antony to pay his legions. ...


Several dates are commonly proposed to mark the transition from Republic to Empire, including the date of Julius Caesar's appointment as perpetual roman dictator (44 BC), the victory of Caesar's heir Octavian at the Battle of Actium (September 2, 31 BC), and the Roman Senate's granting to Octavian the honorific Augustus. (January 16, 27 BC). Octavian/Augustus officially proclaimed that he had saved the Roman Republic and carefully disguised his power under republican forms; consuls continued to be elected, tribunes of the plebeians continued to offer legislation, and senators still debated in the Roman Curia. However, it was Octavian who influenced everything and controlled the final decisions, and in final analysis, had the legions to back him up, if it ever became necessary. Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC... An honorific is a word or expression that conveys esteem or respect and is used in addressing or referring to a person. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... ojuooiuououoieerwerwerwerwerwwe Year 27 BC was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... This article is about the Roman rank. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... A Curia in early Roman times was a subdivision of the people, i. ...


Roman expansion began long before the state was changed into an Empire and reached its zenith under emperor Trajan with the conquest of Dacia in AD 106. During this territorial peak the Roman Empire controlled approximately 5 900 000 km² (2,300,000 sq.mi.) of land surface. From the time of Caesar to the Fall of the Western Empire, Rome dominated Western Eurasia and the Mediterranean, comprising the majority of its population. Ancient Rome has contributed greatly to the development of law, war, art, literature, architecture, technology and language in the Western world, and its history continues to have a major influence on the world today. This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... Present day Earth altimetry (and bathymetry). ... West Eurasia is an area bounded by the Sahara and the Indian Ocean to the south, the Atlantic to the west, and the Arctic Ocean to the north. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Christian schism

Religious split in Europe (Catholicism - blue, Protestantism - green, Orthodoxy - rose, Sunni Islam - purple)
Religious split in Europe (Catholicism - blue, Protestantism - green, Orthodoxy - rose, Sunni Islam - purple)

In the early 4th century, the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great established the city of Constantinople as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. The Eastern Empire included lands east of the Adriatic Sea and bordering on the Eastern Mediterranean and parts of the Black Sea. These two divisions of the Eastern and Western Empires were reflected in the administration of the Christian Church, with Rome and Constantinople debating and arguing over whether either city was the capital of Christianity. As the eastern and western churches spread their influence, the line between "East" and "West" can be described as moving, but generally followed a cultural divide that was defined by the existence of the Byzantine empire and the fluctuating power and influence of the church in Rome. Some, including Huntington, theorized that this cultural division still existed during the Cold War as the approximate western boundary of those countries that were allied with the Soviet Union; others have criticized these views on the basis that they confuse the Eastern Roman Empire with Russia, especially considering the fact that the country that had the most historical roots in Byzantium, Greece, was allied with the West during the Cold War. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 737 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1475 × 1200 pixel, file size: 740 KB, MIME type: image/png)  Protestantism  Orthodox Christianity  Catholicism  Sunni Islam  Shia Islam Description: religions in Europe, map en Source: own map, based on the Generic Mapping Tools and ETOPO2... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 737 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1475 × 1200 pixel, file size: 740 KB, MIME type: image/png)  Protestantism  Orthodox Christianity  Catholicism  Sunni Islam  Shia Islam Description: religions in Europe, map en Source: own map, based on the Generic Mapping Tools and ETOPO2... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... Constantine. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Cultural divide is a term of sociology and human psychology, referring to attempts to describe the differences in reaction, response, and perception of people exposed to multi-cultural situations. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Under Charlemagne, the Franks established an empire that was recognized as the Holy Roman Empire by the Christian Patriarch of Rome, offending the Roman Emperor in Constantinople. The crowning of the Emperor by the Pope led to the assumption that the highest power was the papal hierarchy, establishing, until the Protestant Reformation, the civilization of Western Christendom. The Latin Rite Christian Church of western and central Europe headed by the Patriarch of Rome split with the eastern, Greek-speaking Patriarchates during the Great Schism. Meanwhile, the extent of each expanded, as Scandinavia, Germany, Britain, and the other non-Christian lands of the northwest were converted by the Western Church, while Russia and much of Eastern Europe were converted by the Eastern Church. Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... The office of the Pope is called the Papacy. ... “Reformation” redirects here. ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ... The Latin Rite is one of the 23 sui iuris particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... For the later Papal Schism in Avignon, see Western Schism. ... The term Great Schism refers to either of two splits in the history of Christianity: Most commonly, it refers to the great East-West Schism, the event that separated Eastern Orthodoxy and Western Roman Catholicism in the eleventh century (1054). ... The term Eastern Church is variously used to refer to: The Eastern Orthodox Church, or Any of the Oriental Orthodox churches, or Any of the Eastern Rite Catholic churches, or The three groups collectively, when speaking of things they share in common with each other but not with Western churches. ...


In this context, the Protestant reformation may be viewed as a schism within the Latin Church. Martin Luther, in the wake of precursors, broke with the Pope and with the Emperor, backed by many of the German princes. These changes were adopted by the Scandinavian kings. Later, the commoner Jean Cauvin (John Calvin) assumed the religio-political leadership in Geneva, a former ecclesiastical city whose prior ruler had been the Bishop. The English King later improvised on the Lutheran model, but subsequently many Calvinist doctrines were adopted by popular dissenters, leading to the English Civil War. Both royalists and dissenters colonized North America, eventually resulting in an independent U.S.A.


The Colonial "West"

The voyages of discovery, conquest, and exploitation of the Spanish and Portuguese and the rise of the Dutch, British and French colonial empires saw the expansion of Western European institutions around the world. The dissolution of Western Christendom and the legal establishment in international law of the principle of national sovereignty, culminated in the French Revolution with the creation of the Nation State. Coupled with the Industrial revolution in Britain, these political and economic institutions have come to influence most nations of the world today. This however, was due to mandates that required post-colonial societies to form nation-states, creating boundaries and borders that did not necessarily represent a whole nation of people. In this way, through the colonial cultural impositions and post-colonial political processes, Western Civilization has become global in its influence. For the French colonial postage stamps, see French Colonies. ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme authority over a geographic region or group of people, such as a nation or a tribe. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... A nation-state is a specific form of state, which exists to provide a sovereign territory for a particular nation, and which derives its legitimacy from that function. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ...


During the colonial era, western thought might be said to have been implanted in the Americas and in Australasia. Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ...


The Cold War

During the Cold War, a new definition emerged. The Earth was divided into three "worlds". The First World, analogous in this context to the West, was composed of NATO members and other countries aligned with the United States. The Second World was the Eastern bloc in the Soviet sphere of influence, including the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact countries. The Third World consisted of countries unaligned with either, and important members include India, Yugoslavia and for a time the People's Republic of China, though some find it expedient to group the latter group under Second World either because of their communist ideology, or geopolitical importance. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were used to divide the nations of Earth into three broad categories. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... A map of countries often considered to have made up the Second World from the 1950s through the 1980s. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... CCCP redirects here. ... A sphere of influence (SOI) is an area or region over which an organization or state exerts some kind of indirect cultural, economic, military or political domination. ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... A map of countries often considered to have made up the Second World from the 1950s through the 1980s. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...

East and West in 1980, as defined by the Cold War.
East and West in 1980, as defined by the Cold War.
European trade blocs as of the late 1980s. EEC member states are marked in blue, EFTA – green, and Comecon – red.
European trade blocs as of the late 1980s. EEC member states are marked in blue, EFTA – green, and Comecon – red.

There were a number of countries which did not fit comfortably into this neat definition of partition, including Switzerland, Sweden, and the Republic of Ireland, which chose to be neutral. Finland was under the Soviet Union's sphere of influence but remained neutral, was not communist, nor was it a member of the Warsaw Pact or Comecon. In 1955 , when Austria again became a fully independent republic, it did so under the condition that it remained neutral, but as a country to the west of the Iron Curtain, it was in the United States sphere of influence. Turkey was a member of NATO but was not usually regarded as either part of the First or Western worlds. Spain did not join NATO until 1982, towards the end of the Cold War and after the death of the authoritarian Franco. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1427x628, 39 KB) Summary Colored by Clevelander from public domain Wikimedia Commons source Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1427x628, 39 KB) Summary Colored by Clevelander from public domain Wikimedia Commons source Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Map: European trade blocs as of late 1980s. ... Map: European trade blocs as of late 1980s. ... A trade bloc is a large free trade area or free trade area formed by one or more tax, tariff and trade agreements. ... The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) was established on May 3, 1960 as an alternative for European states that were not allowed or did not wish to join the European Community (now the European Union). ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... “Franco” redirects here. ...


Modern definitions

The exact scope of the Western World is somewhat subjective in nature, depending on whether cultural, economic or political criteria are used. In general however these definitions always include the following countries: the countries of Western Europe, the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. These are Western European or Western European-settled nations which enjoy relatively strong economies and stable governments, have chosen democracy as a form of governance, favor capitalism and free international trade, and have some form of political and military alliance or cooperation. For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ... A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ...


Many anthropologists, sociologists and historians still make the mistake of opposing "the West and the Rest" in a categorical manner.[5] The same has been done by Malthusian demographers with a sharp distinction between European and non-European family systems. Among anthropologists, this includes Durkheim, Dumont and Lévi-Strauss.[5] David Émile Durkheim (April 15, 1858 - November 15, 1917) is known as the founder of modern sociology. ... Louis Dumont (1911–1998), was a French anthropologist, associate professor at Oxford University during the 1950s, and director at the École des hautes études en sciences sociales in Paris. ... This article is about the anthropologist. ...


As the term "Western world" does not have a strict international definition, governments do not use the term in legislation of international treaties and instead rely on other definitions. This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Cultural

See: Western Culture.

From a cultural and sociological approach the Western world is defined as including all cultures that are (directly derived from) European cultures, i.e. Europe, the Americas (North and South America), Australia and New Zealand (and sometimes South Africa,the Philippines, and Japan). Together these countries constitute "Western society"[3] [1] [2] These are generally countries that share similar history, religions, languages, values and traditions. Culturally, many Latin Americans, particularly Argentines, Uruguayans, Colombians, Chileans and Brazilians, firmly consider themselves Westerners, especially the ruling classes. For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... Sociology is the study of the social lives of humans, groups and societies. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The term ruling class refers to the social class of a given society that decides upon and sets that societys political policy. ...


Some countries like Israel and Turkey may be considered Western because of the blend of Western and non-Western culture.[citation needed]


In the 20th Century, Christianity declined in influence in many western countries, in Europe and elsewhere. Secularism (separating religion from politics and science) increased. However, while church attendance is in decline, most Westerners nominally identify themselves as Christians (e.g. 70% in the UK) and occasionally attend church on major occasions. In the United States, Christianity continues to play an important societal role, thus helping to maintain Christianity's important role in Western culture. The official religion of the United Kingdom and some Nordic countries is Christianity, even though the majority of European countries have no official religion. Despite this, Christianity, in its different forms, remains the largest faith in most Western countries. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about secularism. ... Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. ...


Political

Countries of the Western World are thought to have democracy, rule of law, human rights and a high degree of gender equality. Additionally countries with strong political and military ties to Western Europe, NATO or the United States, such as Japan, Israel, South Korea and Turkey may also be referred to being part of the western world. The rule of law is the principle that governmental authority is legitimately exercised only in accordance with written, publicly disclosed laws adopted and enforced in accordance with established procedure. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... This article is about the military alliance. ...


As such, this definition of "Western" is not necessarily tied to the geographic sense of the word. A geographically western nation such as Cuba is sometimes not considered "western" due to its general rejection of liberal democracy, freedom of the press, and personal liberty. Conversely, some eastern nations, for example; Japan, Israel, Taiwan, and South Korea, could be considered "western", due to their general adherence to the aforementioned "western" institutions. Liberal democracy is a form of government. ... Freedom of the Press (or Press Freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Economic

     High human development     Medium human development     Low human development     Unavailable(colour-blind compliant map) The majority of the green-colored countries constitutes the current First World.
     High human development     Medium human development     Low human development     Unavailable (colour-blind compliant map) The majority of the green-colored countries constitutes the current First World.

Though the Cold War has ended, and the former Eastern Bloc is making a general movement towards capitalism and other values common for the United States and Western Europe, some former Soviet republics are not considered "western" because of the small presence of social and political reform. Image File history File linksMetadata 800pix-HDImap2007. ... Image File history File linksMetadata 800pix-HDImap2007. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 29 KB) Based on HDImap2006. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... Soviet Union administrative divisions, 1989 In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ...


Although it is inaccurate to do so, the term "Western world" is often interchangeable with the term First World stressing the difference between First World and the Third World or developing countries. The term "The North" has in some contexts replaced earlier usage of the term "the West", particularly in the critical sense, as a more robust demarcation than "West" and "East". The North provides some absolute geographical indicators for the location of wealthy countries, most of which are physically situated in the Northern Hemisphere, although, as most countries are located in the northern hemisphere in general, some have considered this distinction to be equally unhelpful. The thirty countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), which include: the EU, Norway, Iceland, Switzerland, Canada, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, South Korea and Japan, generally include what used to be called the "first world" or the "developed world", although the OECD includes a few countries, namely Mexico and Turkey, that are not yet fully industrial countries, but newly industrialized countries. The existence of "The North" implies the existence of "The South", and the socio-economic divide between North and South. Although Israel, Singapore, Taiwan and Hong Kong are not members of the OECD, they might also be regarded as "western" or "northern" countries or regions, because their high living standards and their social, economical and political structure are quite similar to those of the OECD member countries. The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were used to divide the nations of Earth into three broad categories. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...  High human development Medium human development Low human development Unavailable (colour-blind compliant map)   Developing countries not listed as least developed countries or as newly industrialized countries, in their respective articles. ... The updated view of the north-south divide based on its accurate definition of the north. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), (in French: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques; OCDE) is an international organisation of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... The category of newly-industrialized country (NIC) is a socioeconomic classification applied to several countries around the world by political scientists and economists. ... The updated view of the north-south divide based on its accurate definition of the north. ... Socioeconomics is the study of the social and economic impacts of any product or service offering, market intervention or other activity on an economy as a whole and on the companies, organization and individuals who are its main economic actors. ... The updated view of the north-south divide based on its accurate definition of the north. ... Political structure is a term frequently used in political science. ...


Other Views

A series of scholars of civilization, including Arnold J. Toynbee, Alfred Kroeber and Carroll Quigley have identified and analyzed "Western civilization" as one of the civilizations that have historically existed and still exist today. Toynbee entered into quite an expansive mode, including as candidates those countries or cultures who became so heavily influenced by the West as to adopt these borrowings into their very self-identity; carried to its limit, this would in practice include almost everyone within the West, in one way or another. In particular, Toynbee refers to the intelligentsia formed among the educated elite of countries impacted by the European expansion of centuries past. While often pointedly nationalist, these cultural and political leaders interacted within the West to such an extent as to change both themselves and the West.[6] Arnold Joseph Toynbee (April 14, 1889 - October 22, 1975) was a British historian whose twelve-volume analysis of the rise and fall of civilizations, A Study of History, 1934-1961, was a synthesis of world history, a metahistory based on universal rhythms of rise, flowering and decline. ... Alfred Louis Kroeber Alfred Louis Kroeber (June 11, 1876–October 5, 1960) was one of the most influential figures in American anthropology in the first half of the twentieth century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... Central New York City. ...

Huntington's map of major civilizations, which did not attempt to identify "lone countries" and certain exceptional cases, such as for instance Haiti and Turkey. What constitutes Western civilization in his view is coloured dark blue.

Yet more recently, Samuel P. Huntington has taken a far more restricted approach, forging a narrow political science hypothesis he labelled the "The Clash of Civilizations?" in a Foreign Affairs article and a book.[7] According to Huntington's hypothesis, what he calls "conflicts between civilizations" will be the primary tensions of the 21st century world. In this hypothesis, the West is based on religion, as the countries of Western and Central Europe were historically influenced by the two forms of Western Christianity, namely Catholicism and Protestantism. Also, many Anglo-phone countries share these traits, i.e., Australia and New Zealand, as well as the more heterogeneous United States and Canada. Of course, so does Latin America.[8] Huntington's thesis was influential, but was by no means universally accepted; its supporters say that it explains modern conflicts, such as those in the former Yugoslavia; the thesis' detractors fear that by equating values like democracy with "Western civilization", it reinforces racist and/or xenophobic notions about "non-Western" societies, as well as blatantly ignoring non-Western democracies. As such, it will serve to provoke and amplify conflict rather than illuminating a way to find an accommodating world order, or in particular cases a commonly agreed solution. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 416 pixelsFull resolution (1427 × 742 pixel, file size: 54 KB, MIME type: image/png) User:Ishvara7 Taken from wikipedia map and colored Dark Blue: Western Christendom Sky Blue: Orthodox Christendom Green: Islamic World Dark Red: Sinic World Purple: Latin America... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 416 pixelsFull resolution (1427 × 742 pixel, file size: 54 KB, MIME type: image/png) User:Ishvara7 Taken from wikipedia map and colored Dark Blue: Western Christendom Sky Blue: Orthodox Christendom Green: Islamic World Dark Red: Sinic World Purple: Latin America... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Cover of The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order The Clash of Civilizations is a theory, proposed by political scientist Samuel P. Huntington, that peoples cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold War world. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Western Christianity is a... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      As a... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ...


In Huntington's narrow thesis, the historically Eastern Orthodox nations of southeastern and Eastern Europe constitute a distinct "Euro-Asiatic civilization"; although European and Christian, these nations were not, in Huntington's view, shaped by the cultural influences of the Renaissance. The Renaissance did not affect Orthodox Eastern Europe due in part to the proximity of Ottoman domination; though the decisive influence on the Renaissance of Greek emigré scholars should be acknowledged.[9] Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith...


Other views might be made regarding Eastern Europe.[10]


Huntington also considered the possibility that South America is a separate civilization from the West, but also mused that it might become a third part (the first two being North America and Europe) of the West in the future.[11] South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


The theologian and paleontologist, and generous and wide-ranging philosopher, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin conceived of the West as the set of civilizations decended from the Nile Valley Civilization of Egypt.[12] Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... A paleontologist carefully chips rock from a column of dinosaur vertebrae. ... It has been suggested that noogenesis be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Civilization (disambiguation). ...


The "West" may also be used pejoratively by those especially critical of the influence of the West and its history of imperialism and colonialism. Ethnocentric definitions of the term Western world are definitions often constructed around one or another Western culture. The British writer Rudyard Kipling wrote about this contrast: East is East and West is West and never the twain shall meet, expressing that somebody from the West can never understand the Asian cultures as the latter differ too much from the Western cultures. Perhaps these views are precursors to Huntington. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with pejoration. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... This article is about the British author. ...


Paradoxically, today Asia and Africa to varying degrees may be considered quasi-Western. Many East Asians and South Asians and Africans and others associate or even identify with the cosmopolitan cultures and international societies referred to sometimes as Western. Likewise, many in the West identify with a transcultural humanity, a notion often found in visions of the sacred.


See also

Definitions of the Anglosphere vary: Countries in which English is the first language of a large fraction of the population are shown in blue. ... Greater China, Singapore, and countries culturally linked to Chinese culture. ... Dark blue: the Indian subcontinent, Light Blue: Other countries culturally linked to India, notably Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Indonesia and Malaysia, Purple: Regions not included in Indosphere, but with significant current or historical Indian cultural influence, notably Afghanistan, Tibet, and Yunnan province of China. ... The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were used to divide the nations of Earth into three broad categories. ... A map of countries often considered to have made up the Second World from the 1950s through the 1980s. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... Fourth World may mean: Fourth World, a term most commonly used to collectively describe notably marginalised or oppressed groups, in particular indigenous peoples, living in Third or First World countries. ... The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures, social structures and philosophical systems of the East, namely Asia (including China, India, Japan, and surrounding regions). ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Look up world in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Protestant work ethic, or sometimes called the Puritan work ethic, is a Calvinist value emphasizing the necessity of constant labor in a persons calling as a sign of personal salvation. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... For the Macy Gray song, see Sexual Revolution (song). ... This article is about the general concept. ... Europeanisation (or Europeanization) refers to a number of related phenomena and patterns of change. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... G-8 work session; July 20-22, 2001. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... The updated view of the north-south divide based on its accurate definition of the north. ... WEOG Member States The Western European and Others Group (WEOG) is one of several unofficial regional voting blocs within the United Nations. ... As defined by the Census Bureau, the western United States includes 13 states: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington lincoln, and Wyoming. ... The cowboy, the quintessential symbol of the American Old West, circa 1887. ... The term Western mystery tradition (also Western Esoteric tradition) refers to the collection of the mystical, esoteric knowledge of the Western world. ... A market economy (also called a free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services take place through the mechanism of free markets guided by a free price system. ... This is a list of inventors. ... This list of explorers is sorted by surname. ...

References

  1. ^ the West AKA Occident at World Book Encyclopedia
  2. ^ Founded in 1949, N.A.T.O. in 1952 admitted Greece and Turkey.
  3. ^ a b Thompson, William; Joseph Hickey (2005). Society in Focus. Boston, MA: Pearson. 0-205-41365-X.  Broek and Webb, A Geography of Mankind (2nd ed., 1973) at 199, 201; cf., Arnold Toynbee, Change and Habit (Oxford Univ., 1966).
  4. ^ Charles Freeman. The Closing of the Western Mind. Knopf, 2003. ISBN 1-4000-4085-X
  5. ^ a b New Left Review - Jack Goody: The Labyrinth of Kinship. Retrieved on 2007-07-24.
  6. ^ Cf., Arnold J. Toynbee, Change and Habit. The challenge of our time (Oxford 1966, 1969) at 153-156; also, Toynbee, A Study of History (10 volumes, 2 supplements).
  7. ^ Sameul P. Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (1996).
  8. ^ About Latin America Huntington was evidently ambivalent; see text at next after paragraph.
  9. ^ Scholars such as Georgios Gemistos Plethon, Manuel Chrysoloras, Theodorus of Gaza, Ioannis Argyropoulos, Markos Mousouros and Demetrius Chalcondyles.
  10. ^ The Renaissance was said to be weak in the frontier region of Hungary because Ottoman military pressure long limited Hungarian access to their fellow Roman Catholics in Austria. Yet regarding Hungary, such views wander away from the consensus. Some claim the reforms of Peter the Great (1682-1725) and Catherine II the Great (1762-96) were inspired by the Enlightenment. However, they departed considerably from the Enlightenment idea of respect for the individual: Peter's projects for St Petersburg cost the lives of 30,000 workers (though such loss of life was not unknown in Western Europe), and under both Peter and Catherine most Russians remained serfs. It is unclear whether these views are those of Huntington or not.
  11. ^ Huntington evidently did not detail Australia and New Zealand, but see map.
  12. ^ Cf., Teilhard de Chardin, Le Phenomene Humain (1955), translated as The Phenomena of Man (New York 1959).

Angel John This page is about the economic historian Arnold Toynbee; for the universal historian Arnold Joseph Toynbee see this article. ... Charles Freeman of Houstin Texas is a muslim lawyer, only known of by the editor for his role in the post 9/11 prosecution of Al Qaeda terrorist Zacarias Moussaoui. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Georgius Gemistos (or Plethon, Pletho), (c. ... Manuel (or Emmanuel) Chrysoloras (c. ... Theodorus Gaza (c. ... Marsilio Ficino (Latin name: Marsilius Ficinus; Figline Valdarno, October 19, 1433 - Careggi, October 1, 1499) was one of the most influential humanist philosophers of the early Italian Renaissance, an astrologer, a reviver of Neoplatonism who was in touch with every major academic thinker and writer of his day, and the... Demetrius Chalcondyles (1424–1511), born in Athens, was the brother of the writer Laonicus Chalcondyles In 1447 he migrated to Italy, where Cardinal Bessarion gave him his patronage. ... Peter I Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia Peter I (Pyotr Alekseyvich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... “Serf” redirects here. ...


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