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Encyclopedia > Western Thrace
Θράκη
Thrákı
Thrace
Thrace within Greece
 
Country: Greece
Largest city: Alexandroupoli
Prefectures: Xanthi
Rhodope
Evros
Population: 362,038 (2001 census)
368,993 (2006 estimate)
Area: 8,578 km²
Population density: 43/km²
Website: Ministry for Macedonia–Thrace

Thrace or Greek Thrace or West Thrace or Western Thrace (Greek Θράκη or Ελληνική Θράκη or Δυτική Θράκη, Thrákı or Ellınıki Thrákı or Dıtıki Thrákı; Turkish Trakya or Yunan Trakyası or Batı Trakya) is the part of Thrace located between the rivers Nestos and Evros in northeastern Greece. Together with the regions of Macedonia and Thessaly, it is often referred to unofficially as northern Greece. The eastern part of Thrace, east of the river Evros is the European part of Turkey, and the area to the north, in Bulgaria, is referred to as Northern Thrace. Region of Thrace is divided into the three prefectures of Xanthi, Rodhopi and Evros, which together with the two Macedonian prefectures of Drama and Kavala form the Periphery of East Macedonia and Thrace. Furthermore, the prefectural authorities of Drama, Kavala and Xanthi have been combined into a single administrative unit in recent years, as have those of Rodhopi and Evros. Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Alexandroupoli (also Alexandroupolis, Greek: Αλεξανδρούπολη, Turkish: DedeaÄŸaç) is a city of Greece and the capital of the Evros Prefecture in Thrace. ... Greece consists of 13 administrative regions known as Peripheries of Greece, which are further subdivided into 51 prefectures (nomoi, singular - nomos, Greek: νομοί, νομός)): See also List of the prefectures of Greece by area List of the prefectures of Greece by population density List of the prefectures of Greece by population External... Xanthi (Greek: Ξάνθη) is one of the fifty-one prefectures of Greece. ... Rhodope (Greek: Ροδόπη, Rodopi) is one of the prefectures of Greece. ... Evros (Greek: Έβρος) is one of the fifty-one prefectures of Greece and is the northernmost. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Mesta (Bulgarian: Места) or Nestos (Greek: Νέστος) is a river in Bulgaria and Greece. ... For other uses, see Maritsa (disambiguation). ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Prominent issues in Greek foreign policy include a dispute over the name of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the enduring Cyprus problem, Greek-Turkish differences over the Aegean, and relations with the USA. The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Greek refusal to recognize the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia... Thrace (Greek Θρᾴκη, ThrákÄ“, Bulgarian Тракия, Trakija, Turkish Trakya; Latin: Thracia or Threcia) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Greece consists of 13 administrative regions known as Peripheries of Greece, which are further subdivided into 51 prefectures (nomoi, singular - nomos, Greek: νομοί, νομός)): See also List of the prefectures of Greece by area List of the prefectures of Greece by population density List of the prefectures of Greece by population External... Xanthi (Greek: Ξάνθη) is a city in northern Greece, in the East Macedonia and Thrace periphery. ... Rodhopi (Greek: Ροδόπη) or Rodopi is one of the fifty-one prefectures of Greece. ... Evros (Greek: Έβρος) is one of the fifty-one prefectures of Greece and is the northernmost. ... Drama prefecture (Greek: Νομός Δράμας Nomos Dramas) is a prefecture in northeastern Greek Macedonia. ... Kavala prefecture (Greek: Νομός Καβάλας Nomos Kavalas) is a prefecture in eastern Macedonia. ... The peripheries (περιφέρειες) are the subnational divisions of Greece. ... East Macedonia and Thrace is one of the thirteen peripheries of Greece, being the eastern part of Greek Macedonia along with Thrace. ...

Contents

Area - Demographics

The approximate area of Greek Thrace is 8,578 km² with a population of 368,993 (2006 est.). Around 75% of the population are Orthodox Christian Greeks, while the remainder (approx. 95,000) are Muslims who are an officially recognised minority of Greece. Around half are of Turkish origin, while another third are Bulgarian Muslim, or Pomaks who mainly inhabit the mountainous parts of the region. The Roma of Thrace are also mainly Muslim, unlike their ethnic kin in other parts of the country who generally profess the Orthodox faith of the Greek majority. Since 1990 and the end of the cold war Western Thrace (just as the rest of Greece) has seen an influx of both legal and illegal economic immigrants (most of them being Albanians) seeking work mainly in the urban areas of the region. Western Thrace is bordered by Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the east, the Aegean Sea to the south and the prefectures of Drama and Kavala to the west. Alexandroupoli is the largest city, with a population of around 52,720 (2001 census). Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: HellÄ“northódoxÄ“ EkklÄ“sía) can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Map of the Greek Prefectures according to the 1991 census with the minority highlighted. ... The Pomaks (помаци pomaci) or Muslim Bulgarians (българи мюсюлмани bălgari mjusjulmani), also known locally as Ahryani, are an Islamized Slavic speaking people of the Rhodope region. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Immigration is the movement of people into one place from another. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Drama prefecture (Greek: Νομός Δράμας Nomos Dramas) is a prefecture in northeastern Greek Macedonia. ... Kavala prefecture (Greek: Νομός Καβάλας Nomos Kavalas) is a prefecture in eastern Macedonia. ... Alexandroupoli (also Alexandroupolis, Greek: Αλεξανδρούπολη, Turkish: DedeaÄŸaç) is a city of Greece and the capital of the Evros Prefecture in Thrace. ...

Church of Panagia Eleftherotria in Didymoteicho
Church of Panagia Eleftherotria in Didymoteicho
Largest Thracian towns and cities
City Greek Population
(2001)
Municipal Population
(2001)
Alexandroupoli Αλεξανδρούπολη 48.885 52.720
Komotini Κομοτηνή 43.326 52.659
Xanthi Ξάνθη 45.111 52.270
Orestiada Ορεστιάδα 15.246 21.730
Didymoteicho Διδυμότειχο 8.799 18.998

Download high resolution version (1600x800, 182 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1600x800, 182 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Alexandroupoli (also Alexandroupolis, Greek: Αλεξανδρούπολη, Turkish: Dedeağaç) is a city of Greece and the capital of the Evros Prefecture in Thrace. ... Komotini or Komotene (Greek: Κομοτηνή, Turkish: Gümülcine) is a city in north-eastern Greece. ... Xanthi (Greek: Ξάνθη) is a city in northern Greece, in the East Macedonia and Thrace periphery. ... Orestiada (Greek, Modern: Ορεστιάδα, Ancient Katharevousa, Orestias) or Orestias is the northeasternmost and northernmost city of Greece and the capital of the Orestiada Province as well as the Evros prefectures second largest city and province in population. ... A church in Didymoteicho Didymoteicho (or Didimoteixo), (Greek, Modern: Διδυμότειχο, Ancient/Katharevousa: Διδυμότειχον, meaning twin walls from didymo twin and teicho wall) is a town located in the eastern part of the prefecture of Evros. ...

History

This flag represents the Turks in Western Thrace
The clock tower in the central square of Xanthi
The clock tower in the central square of Xanthi
Komotini's Clock Tower
Komotini's Clock Tower

The region had been under the rule of the Ottoman Empire since 14th century and till the 19th century. Before the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913, Western Thrace had a mixed population of Turks and Bulgarians, with a strong Greek element in the cities and the Aegean Sea littoral. A smaller number of Pomaks, Jews, Armenians and Roma also lived in the region. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,536 × 2,048 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,536 × 2,048 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 693 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Clock Tower of Komotini Vahe Gkoumousian Vahe Gkoumousian Cannot be used I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 693 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Clock Tower of Komotini Vahe Gkoumousian Vahe Gkoumousian Cannot be used I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... A littoral is the region near the shoreline of a body of fresh or salt water. ... The Pomaks (помаци pomaci) or Muslim Bulgarians (българи мюсюлмани bălgari mjusjulmani), also known locally as Ahryani, are an Islamized Slavic speaking people of the Rhodope region. ... The Roma people (pronounced rahma, singular Rom, sometimes Rroma, and Rrom) along with the closely related Sinti people are commonly known as Gypsies in English, and as Tsigany in most of Europe. ...


During the First Balkan War, the Balkan League (Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria and Montenegro) fought against the Ottoman Empire and annexed most of its European territory, including Thrace. The victors quickly fell into dispute on how to divide the newly conquered lands, resulting in the Second Balkan War. In August 1913 Bulgaria was defeated, but gained Western Thrace under the terms of the Treaty of Bucharest. Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... The Treaty of Bucharest was concluded on August 10, 1913, by the delegates of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece. ...


In the following years, the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire) (with which Bulgaria had sided) lost World War I and as a result Western Thrace was given to Greece (which had sided with the Entente) (mainly the United Kingdom, France, Russian Empire) under the terms of the 1919 Treaty of Neuilly. European military alliances in 1914. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Treaty of Neuilly, dealing with Bulgaria for its role as one of the Central Powers in World War I, was signed on the November 27, 1919 at Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. ...


Throughout the Balkan Wars and World War I, Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey each forced respective minority populations in the Thrace region out of areas they controlled. A large population of Greeks in Eastern Thrace, and Black Sea coastal and southern Bulgaria, was expelled south and west into Greek-controlled Western Thrace. Concurrently, a large population of Bulgarians was forced from the region into Bulgaria by Greek and Turkish actions. Turkish populations in the area were also targeted by Bulgarian and Greek forces and pushed eastward. As part of the Treaty of Neuilly, and subsequent agreements, the status of the expelled populations was legitimized. This was followed by a further population exchange which radically changed the demographics of the region toward increased ethnic homogenization within the territories each respective country ultimately was awarded. Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Prominent issues in Greek foreign policy include a dispute over the name of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the enduring Cyprus problem, Greek-Turkish differences over the Aegean, and relations with the USA. The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Greek refusal to recognize the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Treaty of Neuilly, dealing with Bulgaria for its role as one of the Central Powers in World War I, was signed on the November 27, 1919 at Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. ...


This was followed by the large-scale Greek-Turkish population exchanges of 1923 (Treaty of Lausanne), which finalized the reversal of Western and Eastern Thrace region's pre-Balkan War demography. The treaty granted the status of a minority to the Muslims in Western Thrace, in exchange for a similar status for the Greek Orthodox minority in Istanbul and the Aegean islands of Imbros and Tenedos. The Treaty of Lausanne was gradually violated from the turkish side, and was crowned by the Istanbul Pogrom in mid 50's. Cartoon The 1923 Exchange of Populations between Greece and Turkey refers to the first large scale population exchange, or agreed mutual expulsion in the 20th century. ... Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty that settle a part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire that reflected the consequences of the Turkish Independence War between Allies of World War I and Turkish national movement, (Grand National Assembly... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... For the district, see Gökçeada (district). ... Tenedos, known as Bozcaada officially and by its Turkish inhabitants, (Greek: , Tenedhos), is a small island in the Aegean Sea, part of the Bozcaada district of Çanakkale province in Turkey. ... Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty that settle a part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire that reflected the consequences of the Turkish Independence War between Allies of World War I and Turkish national movement, (Grand National Assembly... The Istanbul Pogrom (also known as Istanbul Riots; Greek: (Events of September); Turkish: (Events of September 6-7)), was a pogrom directed primarily at Istanbuls 100,000-strong Greek minority on September 6 and 7, 1955. ...


When Bulgaria invaded Western Thrace as one of the Axis Powers during World War II, it further changed the demographics by arresting the region's Jews and deporting them to death camps administered by Germany. This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ...


Politics

The Muslim minority of Western Thrace has been a source of diplomatic tension between Greece and Turkey. Turkey considers the whole of the Muslim minority a strictly Turkish minority. Greece, on the other hand, considers the whole minority to be Greek citizens of diverse origins and a recognised religious minority under Greece's international obligations (Treaty of Lausanne) - anything further is of no concern of the state, and Athens affords no official recognition to a Turkish or any other ethnicity. Turks of Thrace executing a folk dance in Echinos - Şahin [1] Turks of Western Thrace (Batı Trakya Türkleri in Turkish, Τούρκοι Δυτικής Θράκης Turki Dhitikis Thrakis in Greek, Западнотракийски турци Zapadnotrakiyski turtsi in Bulgarian) is a minority group in Greece, traditionally settled in the Western Thrace region of Greece, which is composed of the... Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty that settle a part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire that reflected the consequences of the Turkish Independence War between Allies of World War I and Turkish national movement, (Grand National Assembly...


In fact, there are ethnic differences within the Muslim minority. The estimated numbers of its constituent ethnic groups are given in a document of the Greek Consulate Berlin as follows:

  • total number: 250,000
  • percentage of Turks: 50%
  • percentage of Pomaks: 35%
  • percentage of Roma: 15%

Such documents as the said paper of the Greek Consulate Berlin have no effect on the minority politics of Greece concerning the concession of any ethnic identity to the Muslim minority and they primarily serve as information publications about Greece to the world.


Economy

The economy of Thrace in recent years has become less dependent on agriculture. A number of Greek-owned high-tech industries belonging to the telecommunications industry have settled in the area. The Via Egnatia motorway (which is planned to be completed by 2008) which will pass through Western Thrace, is a promise for further development of the region. Tourism is slowly becoming more and more important as the Aegean coast of Region of Thrace boasts quite a few beautiful beaches. Additionally, there is the potential for winter tourism activities in the Rhodopi mountains, the natural border with Bulgaria which are covered by dense forest. Ancient Via Egnatia route Via Egnatia (Greek: Εγνατία Οδός) was a road constructed by the Romans around 146 BC. It was named after Gnaeus Egnatius, proconsul of Macedonia, who ordered its construction. ... Landscape of the Rhodopes near the village of Hvoyna View from the Belintash Rock towards the village of Vrata The Rhodopes (Bulgarian: , Rodopi, usually used with a definite article: Родопите, Rodopite, sometimes also called Родопа, Rodopa or Родопа планина, Rodopa planina; Greek: , Rodopi, red aspect) are a mountain range in Southeastern Europe, with over...


Miscellaneous

Ruins of the ancient city of Abdera.
Ruins of the ancient city of Abdera.
  • Abdera, an ancient Greek coastal town in the prefecture of Xanthi is the birth place of the Greek philosophers Democritus, considered by some the father of the atomic theory, and Protagoras, who is credited with having invented the role of the professional sophist or teacher of "virtue".
  • Western Thrace and in particular the Rhodope mountains, its northern mountainous part, is home to one of the two surviving brown bear (species Ursus arctos) populations in Greece (the other is in the Pindus mountains, in central Greece).
  • The Greek-Turkish border is a major entering point of illegal immigrants from Asia (Kurds, Afghans, Pakistanis) trying to enter Europe. The Greek governments have faced complaints about Turkish side and had been complained about, to the European Human Rights Council.[citation needed]

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 768 pixels, file size: 258 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) from en-wiki [1] File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 768 pixels, file size: 258 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) from en-wiki [1] File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Abdera, was a town on the coast of Thrace near the mouth of the Nestos, and almost opposite Thasos. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Democritus University of Thrace is a university in Komotini, Greece which opened in 1973. ... Abdera, was a town on the coast of Thrace near the mouth of the Nestos, and almost opposite Thasos. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... ‎ Democritus (Greek: ) was a pre-Socratic Greek materialist philosopher (born at Abdera in Thrace ca. ... This article focuses on the historical models of the atom. ... Protagoras (in Greek Πρωταγόρας) was born around 481 BC in Abdera, Thrace in Ancient Greece. ... Sophism was originally a term for the techniques taught by a highly respected group of philosophy and rhetoric teachers in ancient Greece. ... Landscape of the Rhodopes near the village of Hvoyna View from the Belintash Rock towards the village of Vrata The Rhodopes (Bulgarian: , Rodopi, usually used with a definite article: Родопите, Rodopite, sometimes also called Родопа, Rodopa or Родопа планина, Rodopa planina; Greek: , Rodopi, red aspect) are a mountain range in Southeastern Europe, with over... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Ursus arctos range map. ... The Pindus (Greek: Πίνδος, Albanian: Pino) mountains are a range located in northern Greece, roughly 160 km (100 miles) long, with a maximum elevation of 2636 m (8650 ft), along the border of Thessaly and Epirus. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ...

See also

The Democritus University of Thrace is a university in Komotini, Greece which opened in 1973. ... The term refers to a religious minority in western Thrace, in north-east Greece. ... Xanthi (Greek: Ξάνθη) is one of the fifty-one prefectures of Greece. ... Rhodope (Greek: Ροδόπη, Rodopi) is one of the prefectures of Greece. ... Evros (Greek: Έβρος) is one of the fifty-one prefectures of Greece and is the northernmost. ...

External links

  • Periphery of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace
  • Combined Prefectural Authority of Drama, Kavala and Xanthi
  • Combined Prefectural Authority of Rhodope and Evros
  • Prefecture of Xanthi
  • Thrakiki.gr
  • Prefecture of Rhodope
  • Prefecture of Evros
  • Democritus University of Thrace
  • Greek Thrace Minorities

  Results from FactBites:
 
Western Thrace - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1135 words)
Western Thrace is divided into the three prefectures of Xanthi, Rodhopi and Evros, which together with the two Macedonian prefectures of Drama and Kavala form the Periphery of East Macedonia and Thrace.
The approximate area of Western Thrace is 8,200 km² with a population of 368,993 (2005 est.).
Western Thrace is bordered by Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the east, the Aegean Sea to the south and the prefectures of Drama and Kavala to the west.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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