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Encyclopedia > Western Satraps
Western Satraps

Approximate territory of the Western Kshatrapas (35-405).
Languages Scythian language
Pali (Kharoshthi script)
Sanskrit, Prakrit (Brahmi script)
Possibly Greek (Greek alphabet)
Religions Zoroastrianism
Buddhism
Hinduism
Capitals Ujjain
Barygaza
Area Gujarat, Kathiawar, Rajasthan, Malwa, Maharashtra
Existed 35 CE–405 CE

The Western Satraps, or Western Kshatrapas (35-405) were Saka rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states). Their state, or at least part of it, was called "Ariaca" according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. For alternate uses, see Number 35. ... For other uses, see 405 (disambiguation). ... Scythian and Sarmatian are the names of the East Iranian dialects spoken by the Scythian/Sarmatian tribes of cattlebreeders in Southern Russia between 8th century BC and 5th century AD. The two branches are divided mainly chronologically, rather than geographically: Scythian - archaic version; mainly during classic antiquity Sarmatian Sometimes, the... Pali (IAST: ) is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... The Kharoṣṭhī script, also known as the Gāndhārī script, is an ancient alphabetic script used by the Gandhara culture of historic northwest India to write the Gandhari and Sanskrit languages (the Gandhara kingdom was located along the present-day border between Afghanistan and Pakistan between the Indus River and the... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... BrāhmÄ« refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts, attested from the 3rd century BC. The best known and earliest dated inscriptions in Brahmi are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka. ... The Greek alphabet (Greek: ) is an alphabet consisting of 24 letters that has been used to write the Greek language since the late 8th or early 8th century BC. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel... Major world religions have been distinguished from minor religions using a variety of methods, though any such division naturally reflects a particular bias, since many adherent of a religion are likely to consider their own faith major. Two methods are mentioned in this article, number of adherents and the definitions... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... This article concerns places that serve as centers of government and politics. ... , Ujjain   (Hindi:उज्जैन) (also known as Ujain, Ujjayini, Avanti, Avantikapuri) is an ancient city of central India, in the Malwa region of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River. ... Bharuch is located in Bharuch District, Gujarat. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... Kathiawar in between Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Khambat. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For alternate uses, see Number 35. ... For other uses, see 405 (disambiguation). ... A cataphract-style parade armour of a Saka royal from the Issyk kurgan. ... Saurashtra in between Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Khambat. ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... Names, routes and locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. ...


They were successors to the Indo-Scythians, and were contemporaneous with the Kushans who ruled the northern part of the Indian subcontinent and were possibly their overlords, and the Satavahana (Andhra) who ruled in Central India. They are called "Western" in contrast to the "Northern" Indo-Scythian satraps who ruled in the area of Mathura, such as Rajuvula, and his successors under the Kushans, the "Great Satrap" Kharapallana and the "Satrap" Vanaspara.[1] Although they called themselves "Satraps" on their coins, leading to their modern designation of "Western Satraps", Ptolemy in his 2nd century "Geographia" still called them "Indo-Scythians".[2] The Indo-Scythians are a branch of the Indo-Iranian Sakas (Scythians), who migrated from southern Siberia into Bactria, Sogdiana, Arachosia, Gandhara, Kashmir, Punjab, and into parts of Western and Central India, Gujarat and Rajasthan, from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE. The first... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted... Andhra Pradesh (ఆంధర దేశం), a state in South India, lies between 12°41 and 22°N latitude and 77° and 84°40E longitude . ... , Mathura   (Hindi: मथुरा, Urdu: متھرا) is a holy city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Coin of Rajuvula, AE. Obv: Bust of king Rajuvula, with Greek legend. ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... The Geographia is Ptolemys main work besides the Almagest. ...


Altogether, there were 27 independent Western Satrap rulers during a period of about 350 years. The word Kshatrapa stands for satrap, and its equivalent in Persian Ksatrapavan, which means viceroy or governor of a province. Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Farsi redirects here. ...

Contents

History

Asia in 200 AD, showing the Western Satraps and their neighbors.

The Indo-Scythians ruled parts of northwestern India as far as Mathura. In the south, they took control of the area of Ujjain in the early 1st century BCE, but the area was recovered by the Malva Vikramāditya in 57 BCE, an era that was commemorated by the establishment of the Vikrama era. , Mathura   (Hindi: मथुरा, Urdu: متھرا) is a holy city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... , Ujjain   (Hindi:उज्जैन) (also known as Ujain, Ujjayini, Avanti, Avantikapuri) is an ancient city of central India, in the Malwa region of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River. ... Species Malva is a genus of about 25 species of herbaceous plants in the family Malvaceae (named after it), one of several closely related genera in the family to bear the common English name mallow. ... Vikramaditya (Sanskrit: विक्रमादित्य) is the name of a legendary king of Ujjain, India, famed for his wisdom, valour and magnanimity. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54... The Vikram era, or Vikram samvat is an Indian calendar starting in 57 BCE. The date is supposed to mark the victory of king Vikramaditya over the Sakas, who had invaded Ujjain. ...


The Indo-Scythians (called Sakas by the Indians) later regained the area of Ujjain in Malwa around 78 CE, by defeating the dynasty of king Vikramāditya. After this victory, the Sakas established their own Saka era, which became the official era of the Indian national calendar. They also formed the Western Satraps kingdom, which was to rule the region for more than three centuries.[3] Saka is also the name of a town in Hiroshima, Japan; for information on this town, see Saka, Hiroshima. ... , Ujjain   (Hindi:उज्जैन) (also known as Ujain, Ujjayini, Avanti, Avantikapuri) is an ancient city of central India, in the Malwa region of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River. ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ... For other uses, see number 78. ... Vikramaditya (Sanskrit: विक्रमादित्य) is the name of a legendary king of Ujjain, India, famed for his wisdom, valour and magnanimity. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 Events Romans conquer the Ordovices, located in present-day northern Wales, as well as the Silures. ... The Indian national calendar (sometimes called Saka calendar) is the official civil calendar in use in India. ...


It is thought that the Western Satraps may have been viceroys of the Kushans, but later became independent, although they retained the name of Satraps. Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ...


Their wars and intermarriage with the Satavahanas are notable aspects of their kingdom. Approximate extent of the Satavahana Empire, circa 150 CE. The Sātavāhanas, also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled in Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates...


First expansion: Kshaharata dynasty (2nd century CE)

Coin of Bhumaka (?-119 CE).
Obv:Arrow, pellet, and thunderbolt. Kharoshthi inscription Chaharasada Chatrapasa Bhumakasa: "Ksaharata Satrap Bhumaka".
Rev: Capital of a pillar with seated lion with upraised paw, and wheel (dharmachakra). Brahmi inscription: Kshaharatasa Kshatrapasa Bhumakasa.

The Western Satraps formerly started with the rather short-lived Kshaharata dynasty (also called Chaharada, Khaharata or Khakharata depending on sources).[4] The term Kshaharata is also known from the 6 CE Taxila copper plate inscription, in which it qualifies the Indo-Scytian ruler Liaka Kusulaka. The Nasik inscription of the 19th year of Sri Pulamavi also mentions the Khakharatavasa, or Kshaharata race.[5] The Kharoṣṭhī script, also known as the Gāndhārī script, is an ancient alphabetic script used by the Gandhara culture of historic northwest India to write the Gandhari and Sanskrit languages (the Gandhara kingdom was located along the present-day border between Afghanistan and Pakistan between the Indus River and the... It has been suggested that Dharma-chakra be merged into this article or section. ... BrāhmÄ« refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts, attested from the 3rd century BC. The best known and earliest dated inscriptions in Brahmi are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka. ... The Taxila copper plate (British Museum). ... Liaka Kusulaka (Greek: Λιακο Κοζουλο, Liako Kozoulo, on his coins, Pali: Liaka Kusulaka or Liako Kusuluko) was an Indo-Scythian satrap of the area of Chukhsa in the northwestern South Asia during the 1st century BCE. Liaka Kusulaka is mentioned in the Taxila copper plate (British Museum). ... Nashik or Nasik is a city, and also a district and division, in Indias Maharashtra state. ... Vasisthiputra Sri Pulamavi (r. ...


The Western Satrap Kshaharata dynasty was founded by Bhumaka (?-119), father of Nahapana, who only used on his coins the title of Satrap, and not that of Raja or Raño (king). Bhumaka was the father of the great ruler Nahapana, according to one of the latter's coins. His coins bear Buddhist symbols, such as the eight-spoked wheel (dharmachakra), or the lion seated on a capital, a representation of a pilar of Ashoka. Nahapana (119-124 CE) was an important ruler of the Western Kshatrapas, descendant of the Indo-Scythians, in northwestern India. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... It has been suggested that Dharma-chakra be merged into this article or section. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in...


Nahapana succeeded to him, and became a very powerful ruler. He occupied portions of the Satavahana empire in western and central India. Nahapana held sway over Malwa, Southern Gujarat, and Northern Konkan, from Broach to Sopara and the Nasik and Poona districts.[6] His son-in-law, the Saka Ushavadata (married to his daughter Dakshamitra), is known from inscriptions in Nasik and Karle to have been viceroy of Nahapana, ruling over the southern part of his territory.[7] Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... It has been suggested that History of the Konkan be merged into this article or section. ... A broach is a series of chisel points mounted on one piece of steel. ... Sopara was an ancient port town near the present day Bombay exurb of Nala Sopara. ... Nashik or Nasik is a city, and also a district and division, in Indias Maharashtra state. ... Pune, formerly called Poona, is the second largest city (after Mumbai) in the state of Maharashtra, India. ... Nashik or Nasik is a city, and also a district and division, in Indias Maharashtra state. ... Karla Caves, an example of Indian rock cut architecture, is a complex of cave shrines built by Buddhist monks around 3rd to 2nd century B.C. It is located in Karli near Lonavala, a hill station, in the western state of Maharashtra between the cities of Mumbai and Pune in...

Coin of Nahapana (119-124 CE).
Obv: Bust of king Nahapana with a legend in Greek script "PANNIΩ IAHAPATAC NAHAΠANAC", transliteration of the Prakrit Raño Kshaharatasa Nahapanasa: "King Kshaharata Nahapana".
Rev: Thunderbolt and arrow, within a Prakrit Brahmi legend to right: Rajno Ksaharatasa Nahapanasa: Prakrit Kharoshti legend to left: Rano Ksaharatasa Nahapanasa.

Nahapana is mentioned in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea under the name Nambanus,[8] as ruler of the area around Barigaza: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Nahapana (119-124 CE) was an important ruler of the Western Kshatrapas, descendant of the Indo-Scythians, in northwestern India. ... Events Roman Empire Roman Emperor Hadrian stations the Legio VI Victrix in Roman Britain, to assist in quelling a local rebellion. ... Events Roman emperor Hadrian begins to rebuild the Olympeion in Athens. ... Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... BrāhmÄ« refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts, attested from the 3rd century BC. The best known and earliest dated inscriptions in Brahmi are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka. ... Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... The Kharoṣṭhī script, also known as the Gāndhārī script, is an ancient alphabetic script used by the Gandhara culture of historic northwest India to write the Gandhari and Sanskrit languages (the Gandhara kingdom was located along the present-day border between Afghanistan and Pakistan between the Indus River and the... Names, routes and locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. ... , Early Middle Ages map showing Western trade regions serviced by this ancient and historical port. ...

41. "Beyond the gulf of Baraca is that of Barygaza and the coast of the country of Ariaca, which is the beginning of the Kingdom of Nambanus and of all India. That part of it lying inland and adjoining Scythia is called Abiria, but the coast is called Syrastrene. It is a fertile country, yielding wheat and rice and sesame oil and clarified butter, cotton and the Indian cloths made therefrom, of the coarser sorts. Very many cattle are pastured there, and the men are of great stature and black in color. The metropolis of this country is Minnagara, from which much cotton cloth is brought down to Barygaza." Gulf of Kutch on the left. ... Bharuch is a city and a municipality in Bharuch district in the state of Gujarat, India. ... Abiria was a region of India described by Classical authors, mainly Ptolemy. ... Saraostus (also Surastrene, modern Saurashtra in India) was the name given by the Greeks to the area of Saurashtra and the Surat area, the southern part of todays Indian state of Gujarat, bordering the city of Bombay. ... Minnagara was a city of the Indo-Scythian kingdom, located on the Indus river in modern Pakistan, north of the coastal city of Barbaricum. ...

Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, Chap. 41 [9]

Under the Western Satraps, Barigaza was one of the main centers of Roman trade with India. The Periplus describes the many goods exchanged: Roman trade with India according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, 1st century CE. A Greco-Roman gladiator on a glass vessel, Begram, 2nd century AD Roman trade with India started around the beginning of the Common Era (CE) following the reign of Augustus and his conquest of Egypt...

49. There are imported into this market-town (Barigaza), wine, Italian preferred, also Laodicean and Arabian; copper, tin, and lead; coral and topaz; thin clothing and inferior sorts of all kinds; bright-colored girdles a cubit wide; storax, sweet clover, flint glass, realgar, antimony, gold and silver coin, on which there is a profit when exchanged for the money of the country; and ointment, but not very costly and not much. And for the King there are brought into those places very costly vessels of silver, singing boys, beautiful maidens for the harem, fine wines, thin clothing of the finest weaves, and the choicest ointments. There are exported from these places spikenard, costus, bdellium, ivory, agate and carnelian, lycium, cotton cloth of all kinds, silk cloth, mallow cloth, yarn, long pepper and such other things as are brought here from the various market-towns. Those bound for this market-town from Egypt make the voyage favorably about the month of July, that is Epiphi." Laodicea is a Hellenistic name that can apply to at least six cities named for a Seleucid queen of the 3rd century BCE. They include: Laodicea ad Mare modern Latakia, Syria Laodicea ad Lycum near modern Denizli, Turkey was the metropolis of Phrygia Pacatiana. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Orpiment and Realgar Realgar is an arsenic sulfide mineral with formula: As4S4. ... This article is about the element. ... Binomial name Nardostachys grandiflora DC. Spikenard (also nard and muskroot) is a flowering plant of the Valerian family that grows in the Himalayas of India and Nepal. ... The plant known to the Ancient Romans as costus is probably Saussurea lappa Costus is a genus of perennial tropical herbs. ... Bedellium (Hebrew bedolach) was probably an aromatic gum like balsam that was exuded from a tree, probably one of several species in the genus Commiphora. ... Imprint of a carnelian seal with Brahmi inscription Kusumadasasya (Flowers servant). 4-5th century CE, probably Punjab. ... Species About 100, including: Lycium afrum Lycium barbarum - wolfberry Lycium carolinianum Lycium chilense Lycium depressum Lycium europaeum Lycium ferocissimum Lycium pallidum Lycium ruthenicum Lycium tetrandrum Boxthorn (Lycium) is a genus of about 100 species of plants in the Solanaceae, native throughout most of the tropical and warm temperate zones of...

Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, Chapter 48.[10]
The Western Satraps under Nahapana, with their harbour of Barigaza, were among the main actors of the 1st century CE international trade according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.

Goods were also brought down in quantity from Ujjain, the capital of the Western Satraps: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 439 pixelsFull resolution (3496 × 1918 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 439 pixelsFull resolution (3496 × 1918 pixel, file size: 1. ... Names, routes and locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. ... , Ujjain   (Hindi:उज्जैन) (also known as Ujain, Ujjayini, Avanti, Avantikapuri) is an ancient city of central India, in the Malwa region of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River. ...

48. Inland from this place and to the east, is the city called Ozene, formerly a royal capital; from this place are brought down all things needed for the welfare of the country about Barygaza, and many things for our trade : agate and carnelian, Indian muslins and mallow cloth, and much ordinary cloth.

Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, Chapter 48.[11]

Some ships were also fitted out from Barigaza, to export goods westward across the Indian ocean: This article is about the water body. ...

"Ships are also customarily fitted out from the places across this sea, from Ariaca and Barygaza, bringing to these far-side market-towns the products of their own places; wheat, rice, clarified butter, sesame oil, cotton cloth, (the monache and the sagmatogene), and girdles, and honey from the reed called sacchari. Some make the voyage especially to these market-towns, and others exchange their cargoes while sailing along the coast."

Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, Chapter 14.[12]

Nahapana also established the Kshatrapa coinage.


Nahapana and Ushavadata were ultimately defeated by the powerful Satavahana king Gautamiputra Satakarni in 125. Gautramiputra drove the Sakas from Malwa and Western Maharashtra, forcing Nahapana west to Gujarat. Gautamiputra restruck many of Nahapana's coins. Gautamiputra Satkarni (c. ...


Kardamaka dynasty, family of Castana (2nd-4th century)

Coin of the Western Satrap Chastana (c. 130 CE).
Obv: King in profile. The legend typically reads "PANNIΩ IATPAΠAC CIASTANCA" (corrupted Greek script), transliteration of the Prakrit Raño Kshatrapasa Castana: "King and Satrap Castana".
Rev: Chaitya with moon, star and river. Brahmi legend Rajno Mahakshatrapasa Ghsamotikaputrasa Casthanasa: "King and Great Satrap Chastana, son of Ghsamotika.

A new dynasty, called the Bhadramukhas or Kardamaka dynasty, was established by the "Satrap" Castana circa 130 CE, which would last continuously until the 4th century. Castana was satrap of Ujjain during that period. A statue found in Mathura together with statues of the Kushan king Kanishka and Vima Kadphises, and bearing the name "Shastana" is often attributed to Castana himself, and suggests Castana may have been a feudatory of the Kushans. Conversely, the Rabatak inscription also claims Kushan dominion over Western Satrap territory (by mentionning Kushan control over the capital Ujjain), during the reign of Kanishka (120-150 CE). For other uses, see number 130. ... A chaitya-griha (stupa hall) is a meeting or assembly often used for purposes similar to a stupa. ... BrāhmÄ« refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts, attested from the 3rd century BC. The best known and earliest dated inscriptions in Brahmi are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka. ... , Ujjain   (Hindi:उज्जैन) (also known as Ujain, Ujjayini, Avanti, Avantikapuri) is an ancient city of central India, in the Malwa region of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Kanishka (Kushan language: , Ancient Chinese: 迦腻色伽) was a king of the Kushan Empire in South Asia, ruling an empire extending from Northern India to Central Asia in the 2nd century of the common era, famous for his military, political, and spiritual achievements. ... Coin of Vima Kadphises. ... The Rabatak inscription is an inscription written on a rock in the Bactrian language and the Greek script, which was found in 1993 at the site of Rabatak, near Surkh Kotal in Afghanistan. ... , Ujjain   (Hindi:उज्जैन) (also known as Ujain, Ujjayini, Avanti, Avantikapuri) is an ancient city of central India, in the Malwa region of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River. ... Kanishka (Kushan language: , Ancient Chinese: 迦腻色伽) was a king of the Kushan Empire in South Asia, ruling an empire extending from Northern India to Central Asia in the 2nd century of the common era, famous for his military, political, and spiritual achievements. ...


Territory under Chastana

The territory of the Western Satraps at the time of Chastana is described extensively by the geographer Ptolemy in his "Geographia", where he qualifies them as "Indo-Scythians". He describes this territory as starting from Patalene in the West, to Ujjain in the east ("Ozena-Regia Tiastani", "Ozene, capital of king Chastana"), and beyond Barigaza in the south. This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... Sindh (Sind) سندھ is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Sindhis and various other groups. ... , Ujjain   (Hindi:उज्जैन) (also known as Ujain, Ujjayini, Avanti, Avantikapuri) is an ancient city of central India, in the Malwa region of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River. ... , Early Middle Ages map showing Western trade regions serviced by this ancient and historical port. ...

Moreover the region which is next to the western part of India, is called Indoscythia. A part of this region around the (Indus) river mouth is Patalena, above which is Abiria. That which is about the mouth of the Indus and the Canthicolpus bay is called Syrastrena. (...) In the island formed by this river are the cities Pantala, Barbaria. (...) The Larica region of Indoscythia is located eastward from the swamp near the sea, in which on the west of the Namadus river is the interior city of Barygaza emporium. On the east side of the river (...) Ozena-Regia Tiastani (...) Minnagara". In Roman mythology, Patalena was the goddess of flowers. ... Abiria was a region of India described by Classical authors, mainly Ptolemy. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Barbarikon port during Kushan empire, c. ... The Narmada River in central India The Narmada (Gujarati: નર્મદા Devanagri: नर्मदा or Nerbudda (Narbada) is a river in central India in Indian subcontinent. ... Bharuch is located in Bharuch District, Gujarat. ... , Ujjain   (Hindi:उज्जैन) (also known as Ujain, Ujjayini, Avanti, Avantikapuri) is an ancient city of central India, in the Malwa region of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River. ... Minnagara was a city of the Indo-Scythian kingdom, located on the Indus river in modern Pakistan, north of the coastal city of Barbaricum. ...

Ptolemy Geographia, Book Seven, Chapter I

Victory against the Satavahanas: Rudradarman I (130-160 CE)

Around 130 CE, Rudradaman I, grandson of Chastana, took the title "Mahakshatrapa" ("Great Satrap"), and defended his kingdom from the Satavahanas. The conflict between Rudradaman and Satavahanas became so gruelling, that in order to contain the conflict, a matrimonial relationship was concluded by giving Rudradaman's daughter to the Satavahana king Vashishtiputra Satakarni. Rudradaman I was the Saka (Scythian) ruler of Malwa circa 50 BC. He was the grandson of the celebrated Scythian king Chastana. ... Approximate extent of the Satavahana Empire, circa 150 CE. The Sātavāhanas, also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled in Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates... Silver coin of king Vashishtiputra Sātakarni (c. ...

Silver coin of Rudradaman I.
Obv: Bust of Rudradaman, with corrupted Greek legend "OVONIΛOOCVΛCHΛNO".
Rev: Three-arched hill or Chaitya with river, crescent and sun. Brahmi legend: Rajno Ksatrapasa Jayadamasaputrasa Rajno Mahaksatrapasa Rudradamasa: "King and Great Satrap Rudradaman, son of King and Satrap Jayadaman"
16mm, 2.0 grams.

The Satavahanas and the Western Satraps remained at war however, and Rudradaman I defeated the Satavahanas twice in these conflicts, only sparing the life of Vashishtiputra Satakarni due to their family alliance: Rudradaman I was the Saka (Scythian) ruler of Malwa circa 50 BC. He was the grandson of the celebrated Scythian king Chastana. ... A chaitya-griha (stupa hall) is a meeting or assembly often used for purposes similar to a stupa. ... Brāhmī refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts, attested from the 3rd century BC. The best known and earliest dated inscriptions in Brahmi are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka. ...

"Rudradaman (...) who obtained good report because he, in spite of having twice in fair fight completely defeated Satakarni, the lord of Dakshinapatha, on account of the nearness of their connection did not destroy him." Ancient Buddhist and Brahmanical texts reveal that expression Dakshinpatha, in general was used as a name both for the southern high road as also for the region lying south of Majjhimdesa or Mid India. ...

Junagadh rock inscription [13]

Rudradaman regained all the previous territories held by Nahapana, except for the southern areas of Poona and Nasik: Pune, formerly called Poona, is the second largest city (after Mumbai) in the state of Maharashtra, India. ... Nashik or Nasik is a city, and also a district and division, in Indias Maharashtra state. ...

"Rudradaman (...) who is the lord of the whole of eastern and western Akaravanti (Akara: East Malwa and Avanti: West Malwa), the Anupa country, Anarta, Surashtra, Svabhra (northern Gujarat) Maru (Marwar), Kachchha (Cutch), Sindhu-Sauvira (Sindh and Multan districts), Kukura (Eastern Rajputana), Aparanta ("Western Border" - Northern Konkan), Nishada (an aboriginal tribe, Malwa and parts of Central India) and other territories gained by his own valour, the towns, marts and rural parts of which are never troubled by robbers, snakes, wild beasts, diseases and the like, where all subjects are attached to him, (and) where through his might the objects of [religion], wealth and pleasure [are duly attained]". Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Avanti (India). ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ... Saurashtra in between Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Khambat. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... Marwar (मारवाड़) is a region of southwestern Rajasthan state in western India. ... Kutch (also Cutch or Kachh) is a district of Gujarat state in western India. ... The Indus (सिन्‍धु नदी) (known as Sindhu in ancient times) is the principal river of Pakistan. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... Multan shown on a 1669 world map   (Urdu: ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. ... Rajputana (or Raj(prut)tana), which means Land of the Rajputs rajput love old rotten cheese wanna see whitch cheese we like go to this web page http://home. ... It has been suggested that History of the Konkan be merged into this article or section. ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ... The geography of India is extremely diverse, with landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to deserts, plains, hills and plateaus. ...

Junagadh rock inscription.[14] Geographical interpretations in parenthesis from Rapson.[15]

Recently discovered pillar inscriptions describe the presence of a Western Satrap named Rupiamma in the Bhandara district of the area of Vidarbha, in the extreme northeastern area of Maharashtra, where he erected the pillars.[16]. Bhandara is an administrative district in the state of Maharashtra in India. ... Map of the districts comprising the Vidarbha region. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ...


Rudradarman is known for his sponsoring of the arts. He is known to have written poetry in the purest of Sanskrit, and made it his court language. His name is forever attached to the inscription by Sudharshini lake.


He had at his court a Greek writer named Yavanesvara ("Lord of the Greeks"), who translated from Greek to Sanskrit the Yavanajataka ("Saying of the Greeks"), an astrological treatise and India's earliest Sanskrit work in horoscopy.[17] Yavanesvara (Sanskrit for Lord (Svara) of the Greeks (Yavanas)) was a man who lived in the Gujarat region of India under the rule of the Western Kshatrapa Saka king Rudrakarman I. In 149-150 CE, Yavanesvara translated from Greek to Sanskrit the Yavanajataka (Saying of the Greeks), one of the... The Yavanajataka (Sanskrit for Saying (Jataka) of the Greeks (Yavanas)) is the earliest writing of Indian astrology. ...


Rudrasena II (256-278 CE)

Coin of Rudrasena I (200-222).

The Kshatrapa dynasty seems to have reached a high level of prosperity under the rule of Rudrasena II (256-278), 19th ruler of Kshatrapa. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 402 pixelsFull resolution (1348 × 678 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 402 pixelsFull resolution (1348 × 678 pixel, file size: 1. ... Coin of Rudrasena I (200-222). ... For other uses, see number 200. ... This article is about the year 222. ...


The last Kshatrapa ruler of the Chastana family was Visvasena (Vishwasen), brother and successor to Bhratadarman and son of Rudrasena II. A new family took over, started by the rule of Rudrasimha II, son of Lord (Svami) Jivadaman. Coin of the Western Kshatrapa ruler Bhratadaman (278 to 295). ...


Defeat by the Guptas (c. 400 CE)

A new family took control under Rudrasimha III. A fragment from the Natya-darpana mentions the Gupta king Ramagupta, the elder brother of Chandragupta II, decided to expand his kingdom by attacking the Western Satraps in Gujarat. Rudrasimha III was the last ruler of the Western Satraps in India, in the 4th century CE. A fragment from the Natya-darpana mentions the Gupta king Ramagupta, the elder brother of Chandragupta II, decided to expand his kingdom by attacking the Western Satraps in Gujarat. ... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in the world. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Coins of Chandragupta II. The period of prominence of the Gupta dynasty is very often referred to as the Golden Age of India. ... This article is for the Indian state. ...

Coin of the last Western Satrap ruler Rudrasimha III (388-395 CE).

The campaign soon took a turn for the worse and the Gupta army was trapped. The Saka king, Rudrasimha III, demanded that Ramagupta hand over his wife Dhruvadevi in exchange for peace. To avoid the ignominy the Guptas decide to send Madhavasena, a courtesan and a beloved of Chandragupta, disguised as the queen. However, Chandragupta changes the plan and himself goes to the Saka King disguised as the queen. He then kills Rudrasimha and later his own brother, Ramagupta. Dhruvadevi is then married to Chandragupta. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Rudrasimha III was the last ruler of the Western Satraps in India, in the 4th century CE. A fragment from the Natya-darpana mentions the Gupta king Ramagupta, the elder brother of Chandragupta II, decided to expand his kingdom by attacking the Western Satraps in Gujarat. ... // Events Bahram IV becomes king of Persia. ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ...


The Western Satraps were eventually conquered by emperor Chandragupta II. This brought and end to the rule of the Shakas on the subcontinent.


Coinage

The Kshatrapas have a very rich and interesting coinage. It was based on the coinage of the earlier Indo-Greek Kings, with Greek or pseudo-Greek legend and life-like profiles of royal busts on the obverse. The reverse of the coins however is original and typically depict a thunderbolt and an arrow, and later, a chaitya or three-arched hill and river symbol with a crescent and the sun, within a legend in Brahmi. These coins are very informative, since they record the name of the King, of his father, and the date of issue, and have helped clarify the early history of India. Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 BCE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek...


Regnal dates

Coin of the Western Kshatrapa ruler Bhratadarman (278 to 295).
Obv: Bust of Bhratadarman, with corrupted Greek legend "..OHIIOIH.." (Indo-Greek style).
Rev: Three-arched hill or Chaitya, with river, crescent and sun, within Prakrit legend in Brahmi script:Rajno Mahaksatrapasa Rudrasenaputrasa Rajnah Ksatrapasa Bhartrdamnah "King and Satrap Bhratadaman, son of King and Great Satrap Rudrasena".

From the reign of Rudrasimha I, the date of minting of each coin, reckoned in the Saka era, is usually written on the obverse behind the king's head in Brahmi numerals, allowing for a quite precise datation of the rule of each king.[18] This is a rather uncommon case in Indian numismatics. Some, such as the numismat R.C Senior considered that these dates might correspond to the much earlier Azes era instead. Coin of the Western Kshatrapas Bhratadaman (278 to 295 CE). ... Coin of the Western Kshatrapas Bhratadaman (278 to 295 CE). ... Coin of the Western Kshatrapa ruler Bhratadaman (278 to 295). ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 278 ... Events Roman Empire Diocletian beseiges Achilleus in Egypt, capturing him. ... Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 BCE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek... A chaitya-griha (stupa hall) is a meeting or assembly often used for purposes similar to a stupa. ... Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... Brāhmī refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts, attested from the 3rd century BC. The best known and earliest dated inscriptions in Brahmi are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 Events Romans conquer the Ordovices, located in present-day northern Wales, as well as the Silures. ... The Brahmi numerals are an indigenous Indian numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens). ...


Also the father of each king is systematically mentioned in the reverse legends, which allows to reconstruct the regnal succession.


Languages

Kharoshthi, a script in use in more northern territories (area of Gandhara), is employed together with the Brahmi script and the Greek script on the first coins of the Western Satraps, but is finally abandoned from the time of Chastana.[19] From that time, only the Brahmi script would remain, together with the Greek script on the facing, to write the Prakrit language employed by the Western satraps. The Kharoṣṭhī script, also known as the Gāndhārī script, is an ancient alphabetic script used by the Gandhara culture of historic northwest India to write the Gandhari and Sanskrit languages (the Gandhara kingdom was located along the present-day border between Afghanistan and Pakistan between the Indus River and the... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... BrāhmÄ« refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts, attested from the 3rd century BC. The best known and earliest dated inscriptions in Brahmi are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka. ... Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ...


The coins of Nahapana bears the Greek script legend "PANNIΩ IAHAPATAC NAHAΠANAC", transliteration of the Prakrit "Raño Kshaharatasa Nahapanasa": "In the reign of Kshaharata Nahapana". The coins of Castana also have a readable legend "PANNIΩ IATPAΠAC CIASTANCA", transliteration of the Prakrit "Raño Kshatrapasa Castana": "In the reign of the Satrap Castana". After these two rulers, the legend in Greek script becomes denaturated, and seems to loose all signification, only retaining an esthetic value. By the 4th century, the coins of Rudrasimha II exhibit the following type of meaningless legend in corrupted Greek script: "...ΛIOΛVICIVIIIΛ...".[20] Nahapana (119-124 CE) was an important ruler of the Western Kshatrapas, descendant of the Indo-Scythians, in northwestern India. ...


Influences

The Guptas imitated Western Satrap coins for their silver coinage. Here, a coin of the Gupta king Kumaragupta I (414-455) CE (Western territories).

The coins of the Kshatrapas were also very influential and imitated by neighbouring or later dynasties, such as the Satavahanas, and the Guptas. Silver coins of the Gupta kings Chandragupta II and his son Kumaragupta I adopted the Western Satrap design (itself derived from the Indo-Greeks) with bust of the ruler and pseudo-Greek inscription on the obverse, and a peacock replacing the chaitya hill with star and crescent on the reverse.[21] Coin of the Gupta king Kumara Gupta I. Obv: Bust of King Kumaragupta with headband decorated with crescents. ... Coin of the Gupta king Kumara Gupta I. Obv: Bust of King Kumaragupta with headband decorated with crescents. ... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in the world. ... Kumaragupta I (Mahendraditya) was ruler of the Gupta Empire from 415-455 CE. Like his father and predecessor, Chandragupta II, Kumaragupta was an able ruler. ... Gupta (Hindi: गुप्ता) is a surname of Indian origin. ... Coins of Chandragupta II. The period of prominence of the Gupta dynasty is very often referred to as the Golden Age of India. ... Kumaragupta I (Mahendraditya) was ruler of the Gupta Empire from 415-455 CE. Like his father and predecessor, Chandragupta II, Kumaragupta was an able ruler. ... Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 BCE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek... A chaitya-griha (stupa hall) is a meeting or assembly often used for purposes similar to a stupa. ...


The Western Satrap coin design was also adopted by the subsequent dynasty of the Traikutakas (388-456).


Vassalage to the Kushans?

It is still unclear whether the Western Satraps were independent rulers or vassals of the Kushans. The continued use of the word "Satrap" on their coin would suggest a recognized sujetion to a higher ruler, possibly the Kushan emperor.[22] Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Also, a statue of Chastana was found in Mathura at the Temple of Mat together with the famous statues of Vima Kadphises and Kanishka. This also would suggest at least alliance and friendship, if not vassality. Finally Kanishka claims in the Rabatak inscription that his power extends to Ujjain, the classical capital of the Western Satrap realm. This combined with the presence of the Chastana statue side-by-side with Kanishka would also suggest Kushan suzerainty over the Western Satraps. , Mathura   (Hindi: मथुरा, Urdu: متھرا) is a holy city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Coin of Vima Kadphises. ... Kanishka (Kushan language: , Ancient Chinese: 迦腻色伽) was a king of the Kushan Empire in South Asia, ruling an empire extending from Northern India to Central Asia in the 2nd century of the common era, famous for his military, political, and spiritual achievements. ... The Rabatak inscription is an inscription written on a rock in the Bactrian language and the Greek script, which was found in 1993 at the site of Rabatak, near Surkh Kotal in Afghanistan. ... , Ujjain   (Hindi:उज्जैन) (also known as Ujain, Ujjayini, Avanti, Avantikapuri) is an ancient city of central India, in the Malwa region of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River. ...


Finally, "Northern" Indo-Scythian satraps who ruled in the area of Mathura, the "Great Satrap" Kharapallana and the "Satrap" Vanaspara, are known from an inscription in Sarnath to have been feudatories of the Kushans.[23] , Mathura   (Hindi: मथुरा, Urdu: متھرا) is a holy city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Sarnath (also Mrigadava, Migadāya, Rishipattana, Isipatana) is the deer park where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma, and where the Buddhist Sangha came into existence through the enlightenment of Kondanna. ...


Generally the orientation taken by modern scholorship is that the Western Satraps were vassals of the Kushan, at least in the early period until Rudradaman I conquered the Yaudheyas who are usually thought themselves as Kushan vassals. The question is not considered as perfectly settled. Rudradaman I was the Saka (Scythian) ruler of Malwa circa 50 BC. He was the grandson of the celebrated Scythian king Chastana. ... Coin of the Yaudheyas. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Kharapallana and Vanaspara are known from an inscription discovered in Sarnath, and dated to the 3rd year of Kanishka, in which they were paying allegiance to the Kushanas. Source: "A Catalogue of the Indian Coins in the British Museum. Andhras etc..." Rapson, p ciii
  2. ^ Ptolemy, "Geographia", Chap 7
  3. ^ "The dynastic art of the Kushans", John Rosenfield, p130
  4. ^ Rapson, p. CVII
  5. ^ "Kharoshthi inscription, Taxila copper plate of Patika", Sten Konow, p25
  6. ^ "The Satavahanas did not hold the western Deccan for long. They were gradually pushed out of the west by the Sakas (Western Khatrapas). The Kshaharata Nahapana's coins in the Nasik area indicate that the Western Kshatrapas controlled this region by the first century A.D. By becoming master of wide regions including Malwa, Southern Gujarat, and Northern Konkan, from Broach to Sopara and the Nasik and Poona districts, Nahapana rose from the status of a mere Kshatrapa in the year 41 (58 A.D.) to that of Mahakshatrapa in the year 46 (63 A.D.)." in "History of the Andhras"
  7. ^ "Catalogue of Indian coins of the British Museum. Andhras etc..." Rapson. p. LVII
  8. ^ "History of the Andhras", Durga Prasad Source
  9. ^ Source
  10. ^ Source
  11. ^ Source
  12. ^ Source
  13. ^ Source
  14. ^ Source
  15. ^ Rapson, "Indian coins of the British Museum" p.lx
  16. ^ "Vidarbha also was under the rule of another Mahakshatrapa named Rupiamma, whose pillar inscription was recently discovered at Pavni in the Bhandara district [Mirashi, Studies in Indology, Vol. IV, p. 109 f.]. It records the erection of a chhaya-stambha or sculptured pillar at the place. The Satavahanas had, Therefore, to leave Western Maharashtra and Vidarbha. They seem to have repaired to their capital Pratishthana where they continued to abide waiting for a favourable opportunity to oust the Shaka invaders." Source
  17. ^ Mc Evilley "The shape of ancient thought", p385 ("The Yavanajataka is the earliest surviving Sanskrit text in astrology, and constitute the basis of all later Indian developments in horoscopy", himself quoting David Pingree "The Yavanajataka of Sphujidhvaja" p5)
  18. ^ Rapson CCVIII
  19. ^ Rapson p. CIV
  20. ^ Rapson, "A Catalogue of Indian coins in the British Museum. Andhras etc...", p.cxcii
  21. ^ "Evidence of the conquest of Saurastra during the reign of Chandragupta II is to be seen in his rare silver coins which are more directly imitated from those of the Western Satraps... they retain some traces of the old inscriptions in Greek characters, while on the reverse, they substitute the Gupta type (a peacock) for the chaitya with crescent and star." in Rapson "A catalogue of Indian coins in the British Museum. The Andhras etc...", p.cli
  22. ^ "The titles "Kshatrap" and "Mahakshatrapa" certainly show that the Western Kshatrapas were originally feudatories" in Rapson, "Coins of the British Museum", p.cv
  23. ^ Kharapallana and Vanaspara are known from an inscription discovered in Sarnath, and dated to the 3rd year of Kanishka, in which they were paying allegiance to the Kushanas. Source: "A Catalogue of the Indian Coins in the British Museum. Andhras etc..." Rapson, p ciii

Sarnath (also Mrigadava, Migadāya, Rishipattana, Isipatana) is the deer park where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma, and where the Buddhist Sangha came into existence through the enlightenment of Kondanna. ... Kanishka (Kushan language: , Ancient Chinese: 迦腻色伽) was a king of the Kushan Empire in South Asia, ruling an empire extending from Northern India to Central Asia in the 2nd century of the common era, famous for his military, political, and spiritual achievements. ... Bhandara is an administrative district in the state of Maharashtra in India. ... Saurashtra in between Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Khambat. ... Coins of Chandragupta II. The period of prominence of the Gupta dynasty is very often referred to as the Golden Age of India. ... A chaitya-griha (stupa hall) is a meeting or assembly often used for purposes similar to a stupa. ... Sarnath (also Mrigadava, Migadāya, Rishipattana, Isipatana) is the deer park where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma, and where the Buddhist Sangha came into existence through the enlightenment of Kondanna. ... Kanishka (Kushan language: , Ancient Chinese: 迦腻色伽) was a king of the Kushan Empire in South Asia, ruling an empire extending from Northern India to Central Asia in the 2nd century of the common era, famous for his military, political, and spiritual achievements. ...

References

  • Rapson, "A Catalogue of Indian coins in the British Museum. Andhras etc..."
  • John Rosenfield, "The dynastic art of the Kushans", 1976
  • Claudius Ptolemy, "The geography", Translated and edited by Edward Luther Stevenson, Dover Publications Inc., New York, ISBN 0486268969

Main rulers

Kshaharata dynasty

  • (Yapirajaya)
  • (Hospises)
  • (Higaraka)
  • (Abhiraka) (Aubhirakes)
  • Bhumaka (?-119)
  • Nahapana (119-124)

Nahapana (119-124 CE) was an important ruler of the Western Kshatrapas, descendant of the Indo-Scythians, in northwestern India. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Bhadramukhas or Kardamaka dynasty

Family of Chastana:

  • Chastana (c 120), son of Ghsamotika
  • Jayadaman, son of Chastana
  • Rudradaman I (c 130-150), son of Jayadaman
  • Damajadasri I (170-175)
  • Jivadaman (175 d 199)
  • Rudrasimha I (175-188 d 197)
  • Isvaradatta (188-191)
  • Rudrasimha I (restored) (191-197)
  • Jivadaman (restored) (197-199)
  • Rudrasena I (200-222)
  • Samghadaman (222-223)
  • Damasena (223-232)
  • Damajadasri II (232-239) with
  • Viradaman (234-238)
  • Yasodaman I (239)
  • Vijayasena (239-250)
  • Damajadasri III (251-255)
  • Rudrasena II (255-277)
  • Visvasimha (277-282)
  • Bhratadarman (282-295) with
  • Visvasena (293-304)

Family of Rudrasimha II: Rudradaman I was the Saka (Scythian) ruler of Malwa circa 50 BC. He was the grandson of the celebrated Scythian king Chastana. ... Coin of Rudrasena I (200-222). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 402 pixelsFull resolution (1348 × 678 pixel, file size: 1. ... Coin of the Western Kshatrapa ruler Bhratadaman (278 to 295). ... Coin of the Western Kshatrapas Bhratadaman (278 to 295 CE). ...

  • Rudrasimha II, son of Lord (Svami) Jivadaman (304-348) with
  • Yasodaman II (317-332)
  • Rudradaman II (332-348)
  • Rudrasena III (348-380)
  • Simhasena (380- ?)
  • Rudrasena IV (382-388)
  • Rudrasimha III (388-395)
Middle kingdoms of India
Timeline: Northern Empires Southern Dynasties Northwestern Kingdoms

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 2nd century
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10th century
11th century Rudrasimha III was the last ruler of the Western Satraps in India, in the 4th century CE. A fragment from the Natya-darpana mentions the Gupta king Ramagupta, the elder brother of Chandragupta II, decided to expand his kingdom by attacking the Western Satraps in Gujarat. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and...





Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Shishunaga dynasty of north India ruled the Magadhan Empire from 684 BCE to 424 BCE. Its dynastic succession was: Shishunaga (ruled from around 684 BCE) Kakavarna Kshemadharman Kshatraujas Bimbisara 544 BCE - 491 BCE Ajatashatru 491 BCE - 461 BCE Darshaka Udayin Nandivardhana Mahanandin Mahavira and Gautama Buddha lived during the period... The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under Dhana Nanda circa 323 BC. The Nanda dynasty ruled Magadha during the 5th and 4th centuries BC. It is said to have been established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. ... Kalinga in 265 B.C. Kalinga was an ancient Indo-Aryan kingdom of central-eastern India, in the province of Orissa. ... A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... The Sunga Empire (or Shunga Empire) is a Magadha dynasty that controlled North-central and Eastern India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. ... Silver coin of the Kuninda Kingdom, c. ...







The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in the world. ... Harsha or Harshavardhana (606-648) was an Indian emperor who ruled northern India as paramount monarch for over forty years. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ... For the English cricketer, See Vikram Solanki The Solanki or Chalukya is a Hindu Gurjar,Rajput dynasty of India, who ruled the kingdom of Gujarat from the 10th to the 13th centuries. ... The Sena dynasty ruled Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries. ... The Pandyan kingdom பாண்டியர் was an ancient Tamil state in South India of unknown antiquity. ... The Chola Dynasty (Tamil: , IPA: ) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century. ... The Chera dynasty (Tamil: சேரர்) was one of the ancient Tamil dynasties that ruled southern India from ancient times until around the fifteenth century CE. The Early Cheras ruled over the Malabar Coast, Coimbatore, Karur and Salem Districts in South India, which now forms part of the modern day Kerala and... The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted...

(Persian rule)
(Greek conquests)


Kalabhras were the South Indian dynasty who between the 3rd and the 6th century C.E. ruled over entire Tamil country, displacing the ancient Chola, Pandya and Chera dynasties. ...  Extent of Kadamba Empire, 500 CE Capital Banavasi Language(s) Sanskrit, Kannada Religion Hindu Government Monarchy King  - 345 - 365 Mayurasharma Krishna Varma II History  - Earliest Kadamba records 450  - Established 345  - Disestablished 525 Kadamba Dynasty (Kannada:ಕದಂಬರು) (345 - 525 CE) was an ancient royal dynasty of Karnataka that ruled from Banavasi in... The Pallava kingdom (Tamil: பல்லவர்) was an ancient South Indian kingdom. ... Virupaksha temple, Pattadakal, built 740 Badami Chalukya Territories in the reign of Pulakesi II, 640 The Chalukya dynasty (Sanskrit/Marathi[1]:चालुक्य राजवंश,Kannada:ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು) IPA: ) was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. ... Jain cave in Ellora The Rastrakutas (Sanskrit:राष्ट्रकूट, Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ) were a dynasty which ruled the southern and the central parts or the Deccan, India during the 8th - 10th century. ... Extent of Western Chalukya Empire, 1121 CE Capital Manyakheta, Basavakalyan Language(s) Kannada Religion Hindu Government Monarchy King  - 957 – 997 Tailapa II  - 1184 – 1189 Somesvara IV History  - Earliest records 957  - Established 973  - Disestablished 1189 The Western Chalukya Empire (Kannada:ಪಶ್ಚಿಮ ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ) ruled most of the western deccan, South India, between the 10th... Extent of Hoysala Empire, 1200 CE Capital Belur, Halebidu Language(s) Kannada Religion Hindu Government Monarchy King  - 1026 – 1047 Nripa Kama II  - 1292 – 1343 Veera Ballala III History  - Earliest Hoysala records 950  - Established 1026  - Disestablished 1343 The Hoysala Empire (Kannada: ಹೊಯ್ಸಳ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ) (pronunciation: in Kannada) was a prominent South Indian empire that... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... In ancient times, trade between India and Greece flourished with silk, spices and gold being traded. ...

  • Indo-Greeks


(Islamic invasions)
The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom[2]) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenic and Hellenistic kings,[3] often in conflict with each other. ... The Indo-Scythians are a branch of the Indo-Iranian Sakas (Scythians), who migrated from southern Siberia into Bactria, Sogdiana, Arachosia, Gandhara, Kashmir, Punjab, and into parts of Western and Central India, Gujarat and Rajasthan, from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE. The first... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Coin of the Indo-Sassanid kushansha Varhran I (early 4th century). ... Coin of Kidara (reigned circa 360-380 CE), founder of the Kidarite Kingdom Obv: King Kidara standing. ... The Hephthalite bowl, NFP Pakistan, 5-6th century CE. British Museum. ... The Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent took place during the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, during the 7th to the 12th centuries. ...

(Islamic empires) Coin of the Shahi king Spalapati Deva, circa 750-900. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ...

External links

  • History of the Andhras, with many references to Western Satrap rule.
  • Coins of the Western Kshatrapas
  • Other coins of the Western Kshatrapas
  • The Kshatrapas in Nasik

See also

The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom[2]) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenic and Hellenistic kings,[3] often in conflict with each other. ... The Indo-Scythians are a branch of the Indo-Iranian Sakas (Scythians), who migrated from southern Siberia into Bactria, Sogdiana, Arachosia, Gandhara, Kashmir, Punjab, and into parts of Western and Central India, Gujarat and Rajasthan, from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE. The first... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 AD), first king of the Indo-Parthians kingdom. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Following is a list of rulers of Malwa since the Kshatrapas: Kshatrapa Empire Nahapana (119-124 CE) Castanafl (c 120) Rudradaman I (c 130-150) Damajadasri I (170-175) Jivadaman (175 d 199) Rudrasimha I (175-188 d 197) Isvaradatta (188-191) Rudrasimha I (restored)]] (191-197) Jivadaman (restored)]] (197...

 
 

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