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Encyclopedia > Western Roman Empire
Imperivm Romanvm Pars Occidentalis
Western Roman Empire
Division of the Roman Empire
Flag
286 – 476
Motto
Senatus Populusque Romanus
The Western Roman Empire in 395.
Capital Milan
(286-402)

Ravenna
(402-476)
Language(s) Latin
Religion Christianity
Government Monarchy
Emperor
 - 395–423 Honorius
 - 475-476 Romulus Augustulus
Consul
 - 395 Flavius Anicius Hermogenianus Olybrius, Flavius Anicius Probinus
 - 476 Basiliscus, Flavius Armatus
Legislature Roman Senate
Historical era Late Antiquity
 - Division of Diocletianus 286
 - Deposition of Romulus Augustulus 476
Area
 - 395[1] 4,410,000 km2
1,702,711 sq mi
Currency Solidus, Aureus, Denarius, Sestertius, As
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Roman Empire
Kingdom of Italy
Visigothic Kingdom
Ostrogothic kingdom
Burgundian Kingdom
Vandalic Kingdom
Kingdom of the Sueves
Domain of Soissons
Romano-British Kingdoms
Frankish Empire

The Western Roman Empire is the western half of the Roman Empire after its division by Diocletian in 286. The capital of eastern part was Nicomedia, and from 330 Constantinople. The capital of western part was Mediolanum (now Milan), and from 402 was Ravenna. The Western Empire existed intermittently in several periods between the 3rd century and the 5th century, after Diocletian's Tetrarchy and the reunifications associated with Constantine the Great, and Julian the Apostate. Theodosius I was the last Roman Emperor who ruled over a unified Roman empire. After his death in 395, the Roman Empire was permanently divided. The Western Roman Empire ended officially with the abdication of Romulus Augustus under pressure of Odoacer on 4 September 476, and unofficially with the death of Julius Nepos in 480. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... A motto (from Italian) is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization. ... See also the SPQR series of murder mystery novels and the SPQR board game. ... Image File history File links Extent_of_Western_Roman_Empire_395. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... This article is about the year 286. ... Events Stilicho recalls troops from the frontiers of the Roman Empire to defend Italy against the Visigoths. ... Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... Events Stilicho recalls troops from the frontiers of the Roman Empire to defend Italy against the Visigoths. ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... “Kingdom” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Bronze coin bearing the profile of Honorius Flavius Augustus Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. ... Romulus Augustus (460s/470s - after 511) was the last of the Western Roman Emperors. ... This article is about the highest office of the Roman Republic. ... For the genus of lizards, see Basiliscus (genus). ... Flavius Armatus (d. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ... Julian solidus, ca. ... Aureus minted in 193 by Septimius Severus to celebrate XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix, the legion that proclamed him emperor. ... First row : c. ... The sestertius was an ancient Roman coin. ... The As (plural Asses) was a bronze, and later copper, coin used during the Roman Republic and Roman Empire, named after the homonymous weight unit (12 unciae = ounces), but not immune to weight depreciation. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire. ... A German Map showing the Kingdom of Odoacer in Dark Yellow. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... The Ostrogothic Kingdom was the kingdom built by the Ostrogoths. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe, Germanic as defined by Tacitus, that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Suebi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... In the Late Classical period, two states in the area of modern-day northwest France were termed the Domain of Soissons. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Sub-Roman Britain is a term derived from an archaeologists label for the material culture of Britain in Late Antiquity. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... The Frankish Empire was the territory of the Franks, from the 5th to the 10th centuries, from 481 ruled by Clovis I of the Merovingian Dynasty, the first king of all the Franks. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... This article is about the year 286. ... Nicomedia (modern Ä°zmit, also known as Iznik) was founded by Nicomedes I of Bithynia at the head of the Gulf of Astacus (which opens on the Propontis) in 264 BC. The city has ever since been one of the chief towns in this part of Asia Minor. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Arcadius solidus, from Mediolanum mint, 400s. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 - 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... Flavius Claudius Iulianus (331–June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ... Julius Nepos on a coin. ... Events Odoacer defeats an attempt by Julius Nepos to recapture Italy, and has Julius killed; Odoacer also captured Dalmatia. ...


Despite brief periods of reconquest by its counterpart, the Eastern Roman Empire, widely known as the Byzantine Empire, the Western Roman Empire would not rise again. The Byzantine Empire survived for another millennium before being eventually conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1453. Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... A millennium (pl. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (İstanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish (official); spoken languages include Abkhazian, Adyghe, Albanian, Arabic, Aramaic, Armenian, Azerbaijani... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (İstanbul). ...


As the Western Roman Empire fell, a new era began in Western European history: the Middle Ages. The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...

Contents

Background

As the Roman Republic expanded, it naturally reached a point in which the central government in Rome could not expect to rule effectively the distant provinces. This was because of slow communications and relatively slow transportation methods. The news of an enemy invasion, a revolt, an epidemic outbreak or of a natural disaster was carried by ship or by mounted postal service (the Cursus publicus) and therefore needed quite some time to reach Rome. A similar amount of time was required for a response and a reaction. Therefore the provinces were administrated by governors who de facto ruled them in the name of the Roman republic. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Cursus publicus was the courier service of the Roman Empire. ... A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief adminstator of Roman law throughout one or more of Ancient Romes many provinces. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...


Shortly before the Roman Empire, the territories of the Roman Republic had been divided between the members of the Second Triumvirate, composed by Octavian, Mark Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... ANT AV · III VIR RPC on this denarius minted by Mark Antony to pay his legions. ... For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (Latin: M·AEMILIVS·M·F·Q·N·LEPIDVS[1]), d. ...


Antony received all the provinces in the East, namely Achaea, Macedonia and Epirus (roughly modern Greece), Bithynia, Pontus and Asia (roughly modern Turkey), Syria, Cyprus and Cyrenaica. This part had been previously conquered by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC, and a large portion of the local aristocracy were of Greek and Macedonian origin. The majority of the royal dynasties were in fact descendants of his generals. This region had been assimilated to a large degree by the Greek culture, and Greek was the lingua-franca in most of the larger cities. The Roman Empire 120 CE, the province of Achaea highlighted. ... Epirus (Greek Ήπειρος, Ípiros) is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in south-eastern Europe. ... Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine (today Black Sea). ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... Roman conquest of Asia minor The Roman province of Asia was the administrative unit added to the late Republic, a Senatorial province governed by a proconsul who was an ex-consul, an honor granted only to Asia and the other rich province of Africa. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The term aristocracy refers to a form of government where power is hereditary, and split between a small number of families. ... For the magazine, see Lingua Franca. ...

The Roman Republic before the conquests of Octavian

Octavian, on the other hand, had obtained the Roman provinces of the West: Italia (modern Italy), Gaul (modern France), Gallia Belgica (parts of modern Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) and Hispania (modern Spain and Portugal). This part also had many Greek and Carthaginian colonies on the coastal areas, but the area had been culturally dominated by the Celtic tribes like the Gauls and the Celtiberians. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 489 pixelsFull resolution (1020 × 624 pixel, file size: 17 KB, MIME type: image/png) Map of the Roman provinces in 44 BC. Territories where the extent of Roman control is uncertain (Ilyria) are marked with a lighter colour of green. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 489 pixelsFull resolution (1020 × 624 pixel, file size: 17 KB, MIME type: image/png) Map of the Roman provinces in 44 BC. Territories where the extent of Roman control is uncertain (Ilyria) are marked with a lighter colour of green. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... The Roman Province of Gallia Belgica in 58 BCE The Roman Province of Gallia Belgica around 120 CE Gallia Belgica was a Roman province located in what is now the southern part of the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northeastern France, and western Germany. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... This article is about the European people. ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Botorrita: Bronze plate with inscription. ...


Lepidus was given the minor province of Africa (modern Tunisia) to govern. After some political and military developments, Octavian took the province of Africa away from Lepidus and took possession of the Greek-colonized island of Sicilia (modern Sicily). Roman North Africa The Roman Empire ca. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...


After the defeat of Mark Antony, the victorious Octavian controlled the whole Roman Empire from Rome. During his reign, his friend Agrippa temporarily ruled over the eastern provinces as his personal representative. This happened again during the rule of Tiberius who sent his heir-apparent Germanicus to the east. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire. ... Agrippa may refer to: Menenius Agrippa, a Roman consul in 503 BC. Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (63–12 BC), Roman statesman and general, friend of Augustus Caesar. ... Tiberius Caesar Augustus, born Tiberius Claudius Nero (November 16, 42 BC – March 16 AD 37), was the second Roman Emperor, from the death of Augustus in AD 14 until his own death in 37. ... The term Heir Apparent is most often used to refer to someone who is first in the order of succession to a throne and who, unlike an Heir Presumptive, cannot lose this status by the birth of any other person. ... Germanicus Julius Caesar (24 May 15 BC–October 10, 19 AD) was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty of the early Roman Empire. ...


The Roman Empire had many different cultures, and all of them were subject to a gradual process of Romanization. Greek was also spoken in the West and Latin was also spoken the East. Greek culture as a whole was hardly an antagonist to Latin culture, in fact it helped to unify culturally the Roman Empire and both of these cultures were equal partners in the Greco-Roman world. Nevertheless, later military developments with its political consequences divided the Roman Empire, and much later the Byzantine Empire would regroup around Greek culture. Romanization was a gradual process of cultural assimilation, in which the conquered barbarians (non-Greco-Romans) gradually adopted and largely replaced their own native culture (which in many cases were quite developed, like the culture of the Gauls or Carthage) with the culture of their conquerors - the Romans. ... In modern Olympic and amateur wrestling, Greco-Roman wrestling is a particular style and variation. ...


Rebellions, uprisings and political consequences

In peacetime, it was relatively easy to rule the empire from its capital city Rome. An eventual rebellion was expected and would happen from time to time: a general or a governor would gain the loyalty of his officers through a mixture of personal charisma, promises and simple bribes. A conquered tribe would rebel, or a conquered city would revolt. The legions were spread around the borders and the rebel leader would, in normal circumstances, have only one or two legions under his command. Loyal legions would be detached from other points of the empire and would eventually drown the rebellion in blood. This happened even more easily in case of a small local native uprising as the rebels would normally have no great military experience. Unless the emperor was weak, incompetent, hated, and/or universally despised, these rebellions would be local and isolated events. Look up rebellion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


During real wartime, however, which could develop from a rebellion or an uprising, like the massive Great Jewish Revolt, this was totally and dangerously different. In a full-blown military campaign, the legions under the command of generals like Vespasian were of a much greater number. Therefore to be certain of the commander's loyalty, a paranoid or wise emperor would hold some members of the general's family as hostages. In effect, Nero held Domitian and Quintus Petillius Cerialis the governor of Ostia, who were respectively the younger son and the brother-in-law of Vespasian. The rule of Nero only ended with the revolt of the Praetorian Guard who had been bribed in the name of Galba. The Praetorian Guard was a figurative "sword of Damocles" whose loyalty was bought and who became increasingly greedy. Following their example, the legions at the borders also increasingly participated in the civil wars. Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 1,100,000? Casualties Unknown 1,100,000? (majority Jewish civilian casualties) The first Jewish-Roman War (years 66–73 CE), sometimes called The... In the military sciences, a military campaign encompasses related military operations, usually conducted by a defense or fighting force, directed at gaining a particular desired state of affairs, usually within geographical and temporal limitations. ... See also Legion software and Legion forummer. ... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... Police often train to recover hostages taken by force, as in this exercise For the 2005 film, see Hostage (film). ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ... Quintus Petilius Cerialis Caesius Rufus (born around 30 AD) was a Roman general of the 1st century. ... Ostia Antica was the harbor of ancient Rome and perhaps its first colonia. ... The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ... Servius Sulpicius Galba (December 24, 3 BC – January 15, 69) was Roman Emperor from June 8, 68 until his death. ... The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ... In Richard Westalls Sword of Damocles, 1812, the pretty boys of Ciceros anecdote have been changed to maidens for a neoclassical patron, Thomas Hope. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ...


The main enemy in the West was arguably the Germanic tribes behind the rivers Rhine and Danube. Octavian had tried to conquer them but ultimately failed - they were greatly feared. Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... The Rhine (German: ; Dutch: ; French: ; Italian: ; Romansh: ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe at 1,320 kilometres (820 miles), with an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ...

the empire of Parthia, the arch-rival of Rome, at its greatest extent, c. 60 BC
the empire of Parthia, the arch-rival of Rome, at its greatest extent, c. 60 BC

Parthia, in the East, on the other hand, was too far away to be conquered. Any Parthian invasion was confronted and usually defeated, but the threat itself was ultimately impossible to destroy. Image File history File links The location of ancient Parthia, an Iranian kingdom, c. ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf...


In the case of a Roman civil war these two enemies would seize the opportunity to invade Roman territory in order to raid and plunder. The two respective military frontiers became a matter of major political importance because of the high number of legions stationed there. The local generals would often rebel and start new civil wars. To control the western border from Rome was reasonably easy since it was relatively close. To control both frontiers at the same time during wartime was difficult. If the emperor was near the border in the East, chances were high that an ambitious general would rebel in the West and vice-versa. Emperors were increasingly near the troops in order to control them, and no single emperor could be at the two frontiers at the same time. This problem plagued the ruling emperors, and many future emperors followed this path to power. This page lists direct English translations of common Latin phrases, such as veni vidi vici and et cetera. ...


Economic stagnation in the West

Rome and the Italian peninsula began to experience an economic slowdown as industries and money began to move outward. By the beginning of the 2nd century AD, the economic stagnation of Italia was seen in the provincial-born Emperors, such as Trajan and Hadrian. Economic problems increased in strength and frequency. Satellite view of the Peninsula in spring The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1,000 km from the Alps in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ... Provincial has several meanings and may refer to: Provincial examinations: Bi-annual province-wide examinations for students between the grades of 10 to 12 in the province of British Columbia Anything related to a province, a formal geographical division; Anything related to the provinces, the parts of a country outside... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 – July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English was Roman emperor from 117 – 138, as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ...


Crisis of the 3rd century

Starting on the 18 March 235, with the assassination of the Emperor Alexander Severus, the Roman Empire fell into a period of fifty years of civil war, known today as the Crisis of the Third Century. The rise of the warlike Sassanid dynasty in Parthia had created a major threat to Rome in the east. Demonstrating the increased danger, Emperor Valerian was captured by Shapur I in 259. His eldest son and heir-apparent, Gallienus, succeeded and was fighting in the eastern frontier. The son of Gallienus, Saloninus, and the Praetorian Prefect Silvanus, were residing in Colonia Agrippina (modern Cologne) trying to maintain the loyalty of the local legions. Nevertheless, the local governor of the German provinces, Marcus Cassianius Latinius Postumus rebelled and assaulted Colonia Agrippina, killing Saloninus and the prefect. In the confusion that followed an independent state known as the Gallic Empire emerged. March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... Events Maximinus Thrax becomes Roman Emperor. ... Alexander Severus Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexandrus (October 1, 208- March 18?, 235), commonly called Alexander Severus, Roman emperor from 222 to 235, was born at Arca Caesarea in Palestine. ... Emperor Maximinus Thrax, ruled 235-238, was the first of the emperors during the Crisis of the Third Century. ... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... Valerian on a coin celebrating goddess Fortuna, associated with health and wealth. ... A coin of Shapur I Shapur I, son of Ardashir I, was king of Persia from 241 to 272. ... Valerian (david neiman was here) captured by the Alamanni (possibly 260) The Franks who invaded the Roman Empire near Cologne in 257, reach Tarraco in Hispania Pope Dionysius elected. ... Gallienus depicted on a lead seal Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus (218-268) ruled the Roman Empire as co-emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260, and then as the sole Roman Emperor from 260 to 268. ... Publius Licinius Cornelius Saloninus (242 - 260) was Roman Emperor in 260. ... Praetorian prefect (Latin Praefectus praetorio) was the constant title of a high office in the Roman state that changed fundamentally in nature. ... For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... Marcus Cassianius Latinius Postumus was emperor of the Gallic Empire from AD 259 to 268. ... The Gallic Empire (in Latin, imperium Galliarum) is the modern name for the independent realm that lived a brief existence during the Roman Empires Crisis of the Third Century, from 260 to 274. ...


Its capital was Augusta Treverorum (modern Trier), and it quickly expanded its control over the German and Gaulish provinces and over all of Hispania and Britannia. It had its own senate, and a partial list of its consuls still survives. It maintained Roman religion, language, and culture, and was far more concerned with fighting the Germanic tribes than other Romans. However, in the reign of Claudius Gothicus (268 to 270), large expanses of the Gallic Empire were returned to Roman rule. This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... Trier (French: ; Luxembourgish Tréier) is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle River. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... Britannia on a 2005 £2 coin. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... Consul (abbrev. ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... Marcus Aurelius Claudius Gothicus (May 10, 213/214 - January, 270) , more often referred to as Claudius II, ruled the Roman Empire for less than two years (268 - 270), but during that brief time, he was so successful and beloved by the people of Rome that he attained divine status. ...


At roughly the same time, the eastern provinces seceded as the Empire of Palmyra, under the rule of Queen Zenobia. A general view of the site Palmyra was in the ancient times an important city of central Syria, located in an oasis 215 km northeast of Damascus and 120 km southwest of the Euphrates. ... This article is about the Queen of the Palmyrene Empire. ...


In 272, Emperor Aurelian finally managed to subdue Palmyra and reclaim its territory for the empire. With the East secure, he turned his attention to the West, and in the next year, the Gallic Empire also fell. Because of a secret deal between Aurelian and the Gallic Emperor Tetricus I and his son Tetricus II, the Gallic army was swiftly defeated. In exchange, Aurelian spared their lives and gave the two former rebels important positions in Italy. Events Roman emperor Aurelian reconquers the kingdom of Palmyra (Egypt and large parts of Asia Minor), forcing queen Zenobia to flee to Parthia. ... Lucius Domitius Aurelianus[1] (September 9, 214–September 275), known in English as Aurelian, Roman Emperor (270–275), was the second of several highly successful soldier-emperors who helped the Roman Empire regain its power during the latter part of the third century and the beginning of the fourth. ... Tertricus Coin Caius Pius Esuvius Tetricus was emperor of the Gallic Empire from 270/271 to 273, following the murder of Victorinus. ... Caius Pius Esuvius Tetricus was emperor of the Gallic Empire from 270/271 to 273, following the murder of Victorinus. ...


Tetrarchy

Sculpture of the Roman Tetrarchy.
Main article: Tetrarchy

The external borders were mostly quiet for the remainder of the Crisis of the Third Century, although between the death of Aurelian in 275 and the accession of Diocletian ten years later, at least eight emperors or would-be emperors were killed, many assassinated by their own troops. Statue of the Tetrarchs, St Marks Basilica, Venice (better quality image) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Statue of the Tetrarchs, St Marks Basilica, Venice (better quality image) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... Events Eutychian elected pope (probable date) September 25 - Marcus Claudius Tacitus appointed emperor by the senate Births Eusebius of Caesarea (approximate date) Saint George, soldier of the Roman Empire and later Christian martyr (or 280, approximate date). ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ...


Under Diocletian, the political division of the Roman Empire began. In 286, through the creation of the Tetrarchy, he gave the western part to Maximian as Augustus and named Constantius Chlorus as his subordinate (Caesar). This system effectively divided the empire into four parts and created separate capitals besides Rome as a way to avoid the civil unrest that had marked the 3rd century. In the West, the capitals were Maximian's Milan and Constantius' Trier. On 1 May 305, the two senior Augusti stepped down and were replaced by their respective Caesars. Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... This article is about the year 286. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... Maximian Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius (c. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... On the reverse of this argenteus struck in Antioch under Constantius Chlorus, the tetrarcs are sacrificing to celebrate a victory against the Sarmatians. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Trier (French: ; Luxembourgish Tréier) is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle River. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... Events May 1 - Diocletian and Maximian, emperors of Rome, retire from office. ...


Constantine

The system of the Tetrarchy quickly ran aground when the Western Empire's Constantius died unexpectedly in 306, and his son Constantine was proclaimed Augustus of the West by the legions in Britain. A crisis followed as several claimants attempted to rule the Western half. In 308, the Augustus of the East, Galerius, arranged a conference at Carnuntum which revived the Tetrarchy by dividing the West between Constantine and a newcomer named Licinius. Constantine was far more interested in reconquering the whole empire. Through a series of battles in the East and the West, Licinius and Constantine stabilized their respective parts of the Roman Empire by 314, and they now competed for sole control of a reunified state. Constantine emerged victorious in 324 after the surrender and the murder of Licinius following the Battle of Chrysopolis. Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... Events July 25 - Constantine I proclaimed Roman Emperor by his troops. ... Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... Events November 11 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare Maxentius Augustus, and rival contender Constantine I is declared Caesar (junior emperor of Britain and Gaul) Births Deaths Categories: 308 ... Galerius Maximianus ( 250–5 May 311), formally Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus was Roman Emperor from 305 to 311. ... // Heidentor (pagan gate). ... As of Licinius Aureus of Licinius, celebrating his tenth year of reign and the fifth year of his son Licinius (on the obverse). ... Events August 30 - Council of Arles, which confirmed the pronouncement of Donatism as a schism, and passed other canons. ... Events Constantine becomes the sole emperor of the Roman Empire. ... After the defeat of the superior fleet of Licinius by Flavius Julius Crispus, Constantine’s eldest son, he withdrew to Bithynia, where a last stand was made; the Battle of Chrysopolis, near Chalcedon, resulted in his final submission. ...


The Tetrarchy was dead, but the idea of dividing the Roman Empire between two emperors had been proven too good to be simply ignored and forgotten. Very strong emperors would reunite it under their single rule, but with their death the Roman Empire would be divided again and again between the East and the West.


Second division

The Roman Empire was under the rule of a single Emperor, but with the death of Constantine in 337, civil war erupted among his three sons, dividing the empire into three parts. The West was reunified in 340, and a complete reunification of the whole empire occurred in 353, with Constantius II. September 9 - Constantine II, Constantius II, and Constans succeed their father Constantine I and rule as co-emperors of the Roman Empire. ... Events Constantine II attacks his brother Constans near Aquileia, aiming for sole control of the western half of the Roman Empire, but is defeated. ... Events Battle of Mons Seleucus - Constantius II defeats the usurper Magnentius. ... Flavius Iulius Constantius, known in English as Constantius II, (7 August 317 - 3 November 361) was a Roman Emperor (337 - 361) of the Constantinian dynasty. ...


Constantius II focused most of his power in the East, and is often regarded as the first emperor of the Byzantine Empire. Under his rule, the city of Byzantium, only recently refounded as Constantinople, was fully developed as a capital. Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... Map of Constantinople. ...


In 361, Constantius II became ill and died, and Constantius Chlorus' grandson Julian, who had served as Constantius II's Caesar, took power. Julian was killed carrying on Constantius II's war against Persia in 363 and was replaced by Jovian who ruled only until 364. Events Emperor Ai succeeds Emperor Mu as emperor of China. ... Flavius Claudius Iulianus (331–June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Events Perisapora is destroyed by Emperor Julian. ... This siliqua of Jovian, ca 363, celebrates his fifth year of reign, as a good omen. ... Events February 28 - Valentinian I is elected Roman emperor by the army. ...


Final division

The division of the Empire after the death of Theodosius I, ca.395 AD superimposed on modern borders.      Western Roman Empire      Eastern Roman Empire
The division of the Empire after the death of Theodosius I, ca.395 AD superimposed on modern borders.      Western Roman Empire      Eastern Roman Empire

Following the death of Jovian, the empire fell again into a new period of civil war similar to the Crisis of the Third Century. In 364 Valentinian I emerged. He immediately divided the empire once again, giving the eastern half to his brother Valens. Stability was not achieved for long in either half as the conflicts with outside forces intensified, especially with the Huns and the Goths. A serious problem in the West was a political reaction caused by the indigenous paganism against the Christianizing emperors. In 379 Valentinian I's son and successor Gratian declined to wear the mantle of pontifex maximus, and in 382 he rescinded the rights of pagan priests and removed the pagan altar from the Roman Curia, and gave the title of Pontifex Maximus to the Pope. Image File history File links Theodosius_I's_empire. ... Image File history File links Theodosius_I's_empire. ... This siliqua of Jovian, ca 363, celebrates his fifth year of reign, as a good omen. ... Events February 28 - Valentinian I is elected Roman emperor by the army. ... Flavius Valentinianus, known in English as Valentinian I, (321 - November 17, 375) was a Roman Emperor (364-375). ... Solidus minted by Valens in 376. ... The Huns were a confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... January 19 - Theodosius I is elevated as Roman Emperor at Sirmium. ... Flavius Valentinianus, known in English as Valentinian I, (321 - November 17, 375) was a Roman Emperor (364-375). ... A coin of Gratian. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ... Events October 3 - Theodosius I commands his general Saturninus to conclude a peace treaty with the Visigoths, allowing them to settle south of the Danube. ... A Curia in early Roman times was a subdivision of the people, i. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope of Rome...


In 388, a powerful and popular general named Magnus Maximus seized power in the west and forced Gratian's son Valentinian II to flee to the east and ask for the aid of the Eastern Emperor Theodosius I who quickly restored him to power. He also caused a ban on the native paganism to be implemented in the west in 391, enforcing Christianity. In 392 the Frankish and pagan magister militum Arbogast assassinated Valentinian II, and a senator named Eugenius was proclaimed emperor until he was defeated in 394 by Theodosius I, who, having ruled both East and West for a year, died in 395. This was the last time in which a single ruler ruled over both parts of the Roman Empire. // Events Bahram IV becomes king of Persia. ... Magnus Maximus. ... A marble statue of Emperor Valentinian II, Aphrodisias Geyre (Aydin, Anatolia), 387–390. ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... Events All non-Christian temples in the Roman Empire are closed Quintus Aurelius Symmachus is urban prefect in Rome, and petitions Theodosius I to re-open the pagan temples. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... August 22 - Arbogast elevates Eugenius as Emperor, after assassinating Valentinian II in response to Valentinians removal of Arbogast as military leader in Gaul. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Magister militum (Latin for Master of the Soldiers) was a top-level command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. ... Flavius Arbogastes (d. ... Eugenius wearing imperial insigna, on a coin celebrateing the VIRTVS ROMANORVM, the (military) value of the Romans. Flavius Eugenius (d. ... Events September 6 - Battle of the Frigidus: The christian Roman Emperor Theodosius I defeats and kills the pagan usurper Eugenius and his Frankish magister militum Arbogast. ...


A short period of stability under Emperor Flavius Augustus Honorius (controlled by Flavius Stilicho) ended at Stilicho's death in 408. After this, the two empires truly diverged, as the East began a slow recovery and consolidation, while the West began to collapse entirely. Bronze coin bearing the profile of Honorius Flavius Augustus Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. ... Flavius Stilicho (c. ... Events Theodosius II succeeds his father Arcadius as Emperor of the Eastern half of the Roman Empire In the summer of this year, the usurper Constantine III captures Spain, destroying the loyalist forces defending it. ...


Economic factors

Germanic and Hunnic invasions of the Roman Empire, 100-500 AD
Germanic and Hunnic invasions of the Roman Empire, 100-500 AD

While the West was experiencing an economic decline throughout the late empire, the East was not so economically decadent, especially as Emperors like Constantine the Great and Constantius II began pouring vast sums of money into the eastern economy. The economic decline of the West aided in the eventual collapse of this area of the empire. Without sufficient taxes, the state could not maintain an expensive professional army and resorted to hiring mercenaries. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3948x2827, 1311 KB) See also Image:Karte völkerwanderung. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3948x2827, 1311 KB) See also Image:Karte völkerwanderung. ... Constantine. ... Flavius Iulius Constantius, known in English as Constantius II, (7 August 317 - 3 November 361) was a Roman Emperor (337 - 361) of the Constantinian dynasty. ...


As the central power weakened, the State also lost control of its borders and provinces and the vital control over the Mediterranean Sea. Roman Emperors tried to keep outside forces away from controlling sections of the sea, but once the Vandals conquered North Africa, the imperial authorities had to cover too much ground with too few resources. The Roman institutions collapsed along with the economic stability. Most invaders required a third of the land they conquered from their Roman subjects, and this could turn into much more, as different tribes conquered the same province. Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe, Germanic as defined by Tacitus, that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic North Africa, including the UN subregion North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided politically from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...


Tens of square kilometres of carefully developed land was abandoned due to lack of economic viability and of political stability. Because most of the economy of Classical antiquity was based upon agriculture, this was a severe economic blow. This occurred because most plots of land require a certain investment of time and money in simple maintenance to maintain production. Unfortunately, this meant that any attempt to recover the West by the East was very difficult, and the huge decline in the local economy made these new reconquests too expensive to maintain. Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD...


Conquest of Rome and fall of the Western Roman Empire

The Western and Eastern Roman Empires by 476
The Western and Eastern Roman Empires by 476

With the death of Stilicho in 408, Honorius was left in charge, and although he ruled until his death in 423, his reign was filled with usurpations and invasions, particularly by the Vandals and Visigoths. In 410, Rome was sacked by outside forces for the first time since the Gallic invasions of the 4th century BC. The instability caused by usurpers throughout the Western Empire helped these tribes in their conquests, and in the 5th century the Germanic tribes became usurpers themselves. In 475, Orestes, a former secretary of Attila the Hun drove Emperor Julius Nepos out of Ravenna and proclaimed his own son Romulus Augustus as emperor. Image File history File links 628px-Western_and_Eastern_Roman_Empires_476AD(3). ... Image File history File links 628px-Western_and_Eastern_Roman_Empires_476AD(3). ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Image File history File links RomulusAugustus. ... Image File history File links RomulusAugustus. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Tremissis was a currency of the Late Ancient Rome, equal to one-third of solidus. ... Julius Nepos. ... Julius Nepos. ... Julius Nepos on a coin. ... Tremissis was a currency of the Late Ancient Rome, equal to one-third of solidus. ... Events Theodosius II succeeds his father Arcadius as Emperor of the Eastern half of the Roman Empire In the summer of this year, the usurper Constantine III captures Spain, destroying the loyalist forces defending it. ... See: Flavius Augustus Honorius, western Roman emperor 395-423 Saint Honorius, archbishop of Canterbury 627-655 Pope Honorius I, pope 625-638 Pope Honorius II, pope 1124-1130 Pope Honorius III, pope 1216-1227 Pope Honorius IV, pope 1285-1287 Antipope Honorius II, 1061-1064 This is a disambiguation page... Events On the death of Honorius, the primicerius notariorum Joannes seizes the throne of the Western Roman Empire, and is declared emperor. ... Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... Events Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Roman Emperor. ... The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 - 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... See also 475 (number) Events Orestes forces western Roman emperor Julius Nepos to flee and declares his son Romulus Augustus to be emperor. ... Flavius Orestes (d. ... Attila (AD 406 - 453), also known as Attila the Hun was Khan of the Hun people from 434 until his death and leader of the Hunnic Empire. ... Julius Nepos on a coin. ... Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ...


In 476, Orestes refused to grant the Heruli led by Odoacer federated status, and Odoacer sacked Rome and sent the imperial insignia to Constantinople, installing himself as king over Italy. Although some isolated pockets of Roman rule continued even after 476, the city of Rome itself was under the rule of the barbarians, and the control of Rome over the West had effectively ended, and these remnants were conquered in a decade. Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ... The Heruli (spelled variously in Latin and Greek) were a nomadic Germanic people, who were subjugated by the Ostrogoths, Huns, and Byzantines in the 3rd to 5th centuries. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Last emperor

Historical convention has determined that the Western Roman Empire ended on 4 September 476, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus. However, the issue in practice is not clear-cut. September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ...


Julius Nepos still claimed to be Emperor of the West, ruling the rump state of Dalmatia, and was recognized as such by Byzantine Emperor Zeno and by Syagrius, who had managed to preserve a Roman enclave in northern Gaul, known today as the Domain of Soissons. Odoacer proclaimed himself ruler of Italy and began to negotiate with Zeno. The Byzantine emperor eventually did grant Odoacer patrician status as a recognition of his authority and accepted him as his own viceroy of Italy. Zeno however insisted that Odoacer payed homage to Nepos as western emperor. Odoacer accepted this condition and even issued coins in Nepos' name throughout Italy. This however was mainly an empty political gesture as Odoacer never returned any real power or territories to Nepos. Nepos was eventually murdered in 480 and Odoacer quickly invaded and conquered Dalmatia. A rump state is the remnant of a once-larger government, left with limited powers or authority after a disaster, invasion or military occupation. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Flavius Zeno (c. ... The captured Syagrius is brought before Alaric II who orders him sent to Clovis I Afranius Syagrius (born 430, died 486 or 487) was the son of Aegidius, the last Roman magister militum per Gallias, who had preserved a rump state around Soissons after the collapse of central rule in... This cites very few or no references or sources. ... In the Late Classical period, two states in the area of modern-day northwest France were termed the Domain of Soissons. ... This article is about the social and political class in ancient Rome. ... Events Odoacer defeats an attempt by Julius Nepos to recapture Italy, and has Julius killed; Odoacer also captured Dalmatia. ...


Theodoric

The Ostrogothic Kingdom, which rose from the ruins of the late Western Roman Empire
The Ostrogothic Kingdom, which rose from the ruins of the late Western Roman Empire

The last hope for a reunited Empire came in 493, as Odoacer was replaced by the Ostrogoth Theodoric the Great. Theodoric had been recruited by Zeno to reconquer the western portion of the empire, Rome most importantly. While in principle he was a subordinate, a viceroy of the emperor of the East, actually he was an equal. Image File history File links Ostrogothic_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Ostrogothic_Kingdom. ... The Ostrogothic Kingdom was the kingdom built by the Ostrogoths. ... Events February 25 - Odoacer agrees to a mediated peace with Theodoric the Great, and is later killed by him personally. ... Map of Ostrogothic Kingdom The Ostrogoths (Greuthung, Gleaming Goths or Eastern Goths), along with the Visigoths (Noble Goths or Western Goths) were branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe that played a major role in the political events of the late Roman Empire. ... Theodoric the Great (454 - August 30, 526), known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the Ostrogoths (488-526), ruler of Italy (493-526), and regent of the Visigoths (511-526). ... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ...


Following Theodoric's death in 526, the West no longer resembled the East. The West was now fully controlled by invading outside tribes, while the East had retreated and Hellenized. While the East would make some attempts to recapture the West, it was never again the old Roman Empire. Events May 20 - Syria and Antioch. ...


Byzantine reconquest

Throughout the Middle Ages, the eastern Byzantine Empire laid claims on areas of the West which had been occupied by several tribes. In the 6th century, the Byzantine Empire managed to reconquer large areas of the former Western Roman Empire. The most successful were the campaigns of the Byzantine generals Belisarius and Narses on behalf of Emperor Justinian I from 533 to 554. The Vandal-occupied former Roman territory in North Africa was regained, particularly the territory centred around the city of Carthage. The campaign eventually moved into Italy and reconquered it completely. Minor territories were taken as far west as the southern coast of the Iberian Peninsula. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Belisarius is thought to be the figure to the right of Emperor Justinian I in the mosaic in the Church of San Vitale Ravenna that celebrates the reconquest of Italy, performed by the Byzantine army under the skillful leadership of Belisarius himself. ... Narses (478-573) was, along with Belisarius, one of the two great generals in the service of the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. during the so-called Reconquest that took place during the Justinians reign. ... Justinian depicted on one of the famous mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale. ... Events February 1 - John becomes Pope, succeeding Pope Boniface II, who had died in 532. ... Events The Byzantine general Narses reconquers all of Italy. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic North Africa, including the UN subregion North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided politically from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Carthage (Greek: , from the Phoenician meaning new town, Arabic: , Latin: ) refers both to an ancient city in North Africa located in modern day Tunis and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ...

Byzantine Empire in 550. The re-conquests of Justinian I are in green
Byzantine Empire in 550. The re-conquests of Justinian I are in green

It appeared at the time that perhaps Rome could be reconstituted. However, the tribal influence had caused far too much damage to these former Roman provinces, both economically and culturally. Not only were they extremely costly to maintain, the invasion and propagation of the Germanic tribes throughout these territories meant that much of the Roman culture and identity that had held the empire together had been destroyed or severely damaged.[citation needed] Map of the Byzantine Empire around 550. ... Map of the Byzantine Empire around 550. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Events By Place Byzantine Empire Silk reaches Constantinople (approximate date). ... Justinian depicted on one of the famous mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale. ...


Although some eastern emperors occasionally attempted to reconquer some parts of the West, none were as successful as Justinian. The division between the two areas grew, resulting in a growing rivalry. While the Eastern Roman Empire continued after Justinian, the eastern emperors focused mainly on defending its traditional territory. The East no longer had the necessary military strength, spelling the end of any hope for reunification. Justinian may refer to: Justinian I, a Roman Emperor; Justinian II, a Byzantine Emperor; Justinian, a storeship sent to the convict settlement at New South Wales in 1790. ...


Legacy

Further information: Roman Catholic Church,  Romance languages,  Corpus Juris Civilis,  Civil law (legal system), and Latin alphabet

As the Western Roman Empire crumbled, the new Germanic rulers who had conquered the provinces felt the need to uphold many Roman laws and traditions as they felt appropriate. Many of the invading Germanic tribes were already Christianised, but most of them were followers of Arianism. They quickly converted to the Catholic faith, gaining more loyalty by the local Romanized population and at the same time recognition and support by the powerful Roman Catholic Church. Although they initially continued to recognise their indigenous tribal laws, they were more influenced by Roman Law and gradually incorporated it as well. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church... The Romance languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, comprise all languages that descended from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) also known as Codex Justinianus is a fundamental work in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor. ... Civil law or continental law is the predominant system of law in the world. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Image File history File links from en:Latin Europe File links The following pages link to this file: Latin Europe ... Image File history File links from en:Latin Europe File links The following pages link to this file: Latin Europe ... The Romance languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, comprise all languages that descended from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... This article is about theological views like those of Arius. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome. ...


Roman Law, particularly the Corpus Juris Civilis collected by order of Justinian I, is the ancient basis on which the modern Civil law stands. In contrast, Common law is based on the Germanic Anglo-Saxon law. Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) also known as Codex Justinianus is a fundamental work in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor. ... Civil law or continental law is the predominant system of law in the world. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Anglo-Saxon law is a body of legal rules and customs which obtained in England before the Norman conquest, and which constitute, with the Scandinavian laws, the most genuine expression of Teutonic legal thought. ...


Latin as a language never really disappeared. It combined with neighboring Germanic and Celtic languages, giving origin to many modern Romance languages such as: Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian and Romansh, and influenced many Germanic languages such as English, German, Dutch and many others to a certain extent. It survives in its "purer" form as the language of the Roman Catholic Church (the Mass was spoken exclusively in Latin until 1965) and was used as a lingua franca between many nations. It remained the language of medicine, law, diplomacy (most treaties were written in Latin), of intellectuals and scholarship. Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The Romance languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, comprise all languages that descended from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Romansh (also spelled Rumantsch, Romansch or Romanche) is one of the four national languages of Switzerland, along with German, Italian and French. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Germanic languages form one of the branches of the Indo-European (IE) language family, spoken by the Germanic peoples who settled in northern Europe along the borders of the Roman Empire. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A Medieval Low Mass by a bishop. ... The term Ecclesiastical Latin (sometimes called Church Latin) refers to the Latin language as used in documents of the Roman Catholic Church and in its Latin liturgies. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ...


The Latin alphabet was expanded with the letters J, K, W and Z and is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. Roman numerals continue to be used but were mostly replaced by Arabic numerals. The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Roman numerals are a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... Numerals sans-serif Arabic numerals, known formally as Hindu-Arabic numerals, and also as Indian numerals, Hindu numerals, Western Arabic numerals, European numerals, or Western numerals, are the most common symbolic representation of numbers around the world. ...


The ideal of the Roman Empire as a mighty Christian Empire with a single ruler continued to seduce many powerful rulers. Charlemagne, King of the Franks and Lombards, was even crowned as Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in 800. Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire like Frederick I Barbarossa, Frederick II and Charles V, and mighty Sultans like Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire, among others, tried to a certain extent to resurrect it, but none of their attempts were successful. A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Leo III (died June 12, 816) was Pope from 795 to 816. ... Events December 25, Rome, coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as emperor by Pope Leo III. Celtic monks begin work on the Book of Kells on the Island of Iona. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Frederick Barbarossa in a 13th century chronicle. ... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... Charles V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Burgundian Netherlands (1506-1555), King of Spain (1516-1556), King of Naples and Sicily (1516-1554), Archduke of Austria (1519-1521), King of the Romans (or German King), (1519-1556 but did not formally abdicate until 1558) and... Suleyman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; formally Kanuni Sultan Süleyman in Turkish) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest‐serving Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (İstanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish (official); spoken languages include Abkhazian, Adyghe, Albanian, Arabic, Aramaic, Armenian, Azerbaijani...


A very visible legacy of the Western Roman Empire is the Roman Catholic Church. The Church slowly began to replace Roman institutions in the West, even helping to negotiate the safety of Rome during the late 5th Century. As Rome was invaded by Germanic tribes, many assimilated, and by the middle of the medieval period (c.9th and 10th centuries) the central, western and northern parts of Europe had been largely converted to the Roman Catholic Faith and acknowledged the Pope as the Vicar of Christ. Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 - 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ...


List of Western Roman emperors

Gallic Emperors (259 to 273)

Marcus Cassianius Latinius Postumus was emperor of the Gallic Empire from AD 259 to 268. ... Ulpius Cornelius Laelianus was a usurper to Postumus, the emperor of the Gallic Empire. ... Marcus Aurelius Marius was emperor of the Gallic Empire in 268. ... Marcus Piav(v)onius Victorinus was emperor of the successionist Gallic Empire from 268 to 270 or 271, following the brief reign of Marius. ... Domitianus was a Roman military commander who declared himself emperor of the secessionist Gallic Empire (the provinces of Gaul (France and the Rhineland) and Britain) for a short time in about 271. ... Tertricus Coin Caius Pius Esuvius Tetricus was emperor of the Gallic Empire from 270/271 to 273, following the murder of Victorinus. ... Caius Pius Esuvius Tetricus was emperor of the Gallic Empire from 270/271 to 273, following the murder of Victorinus. ...

Tetrarchy (293 to 313)

Augusti are shown with their Caesares and regents further indented

Maximian Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius (c. ... On the reverse of this argenteus struck in Antioch under Constantius Chlorus, the tetrarcs are sacrificing to celebrate a victory against the Sarmatians. ... On the reverse of this argenteus struck in Antioch under Constantius Chlorus, the tetrarcs are sacrificing to celebrate a victory against the Sarmatians. ... Flavius Valerius Severus as caesar. ... Flavius Valerius Severus as caesar. ... Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius ( 278-28 October 312) was Western Roman Emperor from 306 to 312. ... Maximian Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius (c. ... As of Licinius Aureus of Licinius, celebrating his tenth year of reign and the fifth year of his son Licinius (on the obverse). ... Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius ( 278-28 October 312) was Western Roman Emperor from 306 to 312. ... Domitius Alexander on a follis. ...

Constantinian dynasty (313 to 363)

Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... Constantine II as caesar. ... Bronze coin bearing the profile of Constans Flavius Julius Constans (AD 320 - January 18, 350), was a Roman emperor who ruled from 337 to 350. ... Magnentius (ruled AD January 18, 350–August 11, 353), was a Roman usurper. ... Flavius Iulius Constantius, known in English as Constantius II, (7 August 317 - 3 November 361) was a Roman Emperor (337 - 361) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... Flavius Claudius Iulianus (331–June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... Flavius Claudius Iulianus (331–June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. ...

Non-dynastic (363 to 364)

This siliqua of Jovian, ca 363, celebrates his fifth year of reign, as a good omen. ...

Valentinian dynasty (364 to 392)

Flavius Valentinianus, known in English as Valentinian I, (321 - November 17, 375) was a Roman Emperor (364-375). ... A coin of Gratian. ... A coin of Gratian. ... A marble statue of Emperor Valentinian II, Aphrodisias Geyre (Aydin, Anatolia), 387–390. ... Magnus Maximus. ... A marble statue of Emperor Valentinian II, Aphrodisias Geyre (Aydin, Anatolia), 387–390. ...

Non-dynastic (392 to 394)

Eugenius wearing imperial insigna, on a coin celebrateing the VIRTVS ROMANORVM, the (military) value of the Romans. Flavius Eugenius (d. ...

Theodosian dynasty (394 to 455)

An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... Bronze coin bearing the profile of Honorius Flavius Augustus Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. ... Flavius Stilicho (c. ... The phrase power behind the throne refers to a person or group that informally exercises the real power of an office. ... Costantius on a solidus. ... Roman coin, with Constantine III portrayed on its face Constantine III (died 411 by September 18) was a Roman general who declared himself Western Roman Emperor in 407, abdicating in 411 (and being killed soon after). ... Priscus Attalus was an important senator in Rome (serving as Urban Prefect in 409). ... Jovinus Jovinus was a Gallo-senator and claimed to be Roman Emperor (411 - 413). ... Solidus minted in Thessalonica to celebrate the marriage of Valentinian III to Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of the Eastern Emperor Theodosius II. On the reverse, the three of them in wedding dresses. ... Portrait of Galla Placidia, from her mausoleum in Ravenna. ... Flavius Aëtius or simply Aetius, ( 396–454), was a Roman general of the closing period of the Western Roman Empire. ... Joannes, Roman Emperor (423 - 425) On the death of the Emperor Honorius (August 27, 423), Theodosius II, the remaining ruler of the House of Theodosius hesitated for some time in announcing his uncles death and in the interregum Honorius patrician at the time of his death, Castinus, elevated Joannes...

Non-dynastic (455 to 480)

Flavius Orestes was killed by revolting Germanic mercenaries. Their chieftain, Odoacer, assumed control of Italy as a de jure representative of Julius Nepos and Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno. Petronius Maximus on a coin. ... Avitus on a tremissis. ... Ricimers monogram is struck on the reverse of this coin by Libius Severus. ... Majorian on an bronze coin. ... Libius Severus was a Western Roman Emperor. ... Procopius Anthemius (c. ... Anicius Olybrius, Western Roman Emperor (July 11 - October 23, 472), was a member of a noble family and a native of Rome. ... Glycerius (c. ... Julius Nepos on a coin. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Flavius Orestes (d. ... A mercenary, is a person who takes part in an armed conflict and is motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by the desire for private gain and, in fact, is promised, by or on behalf of a Party to the conflict, material compensation substantially in excess of that... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Flavius Zeno (c. ...


External links

History of Ancient Rome edit
Founding | Roman Kingdom | Roman Republic | Roman Empire | Western Roman Empire | Eastern Roman Empire - Byzantine Empire | Decline

  Results from FactBites:
 
Roman Empire: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (8561 words)
The Roman Empire was a phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government.
The extent of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire.
The Western Roman Empire was divided among the eldest son Constantine II and the youngest son Constans.
Roman Empire - MSN Encarta (1075 words)
At his death in 395, he left the eastern portion of the empire to his 18-year-old son, Arcadius, and the western portion to his 10-year-old son, Honorius.
Constantinople and the Eastern Roman Empire remained strong, while the Western Roman Empire began a steady decline in the face of economic disintegration, weak emperors, and invading Germanic tribes.
Odoacer, who was the first Germanic ruler of the empire, deposed the young emperor, Romulus Augustulus, gave him a generous pension, and sent his imperial regalia to Constantinople.
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