FACTOID # 30: If Alaska were its own country, it would be the 26th largest in total area, slightly larger than Iran.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Western Lombard
Insubric
Spoken in: Italy (Province of Milan, Province of Monza, Province of Como, Province of Lecco, Province of Lodi, little part of Province of Cremona, Province of Novara, Province of Pavia, Province of Sondrio, Province of Varese, Province of Verbano Cusio Ossola, little part of Province of Vercelli) and Switzerland (Canton Ticino and some valleys of Canton Grigioni)
Total speakers: ~5,000,000
Language family: Indo-European
 Italic
  Romance
   Italo-Western
    Gallo-Iberian
     Gallo-Romance
      Gallo-Italic
       Lombard
        Insubric
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: roa
ISO 639-3: lmo — Lombard

Western Lombard is a Lombard language spoken in Italy, in Lombard provinces of Milan, Monza, Varese, Como, Lecco, Sondrio, little part of Cremona (Crema and neighbors), Lodi and Pavia, and Piedmont provinces of Novara, Verbano-Cusio-Ossola and little part of Vercelli (Valsesia), and Switzerland (Canton Ticino and part of Grischun). After the name of the region involved, land of the former Duchy of Milan, this language is usually referred of as Insubric. Milan (It. ... Province of Monza e Brianza has been officially created (with part of the province of Milan) on May 12th, 2004, but will be effective in 2009. ... Como (It. ... Lecco (It. ... Lodi (It. ... Cremona (It. ... Novara (It. ... Pavia (It. ... Sondrio (It. ... Varese (It. ... Verbano-Cusio-Ossola (Italian: Provincia del Verbano Cusio Ossola) is the northernmost province in the Italian region of Piedmont. ... Vercelli (It. ... Ticino is the southernmost canton of Switzerland, and almost entirely German-speaking municipality of Italian enclave of Campione dItalia. ... Graubünden or Grisons (German:  ; Italian: Grigioni; Romansh: Grischun, French: Grisons) is the largest and easternmost canton of Switzerland. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families A language family is a group of related languages said to have descended from a common proto-language. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Romance languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, comprise all languages that descended from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Italo-Western is the largest sub-group of Romance languages. ... Gallo-Romance languages Gallo-Italian languages Lombard Piedmontese Emilian-Romagnol Venetian Ligurian Gallo-Rhaetian languages Oïl languages(including French) Burgundian Champenois Franc-Comtois French Gallo Lorrain Norman Anglo-Norman Channel Island Norman Auregnais Dgèrnésiais Jèrriais Sercquiais Picard Poitevin-Saintongeais Walloon Rhaetian languages Friulian Ladin Romansh *Franco... The Gallo-Romance branch of Romance languages includes French, Oïl languages, Catalan, and Occitan, among other languages. ... Gallo-Italic is a language family within the Gallo-Romance languages. ... The term Lombard refers to a group of related dialects spoken mainly in Northern Italy (most of Lombardy and some areas of neighbouring regions), in Southern Switzerland (Ticino and Graubünden). ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is in process of development as an international standard for language codes. ... The term Lombard refers to a group of related dialects spoken mainly in Northern Italy (most of Lombardy and some areas of neighbouring regions), in Southern Switzerland (Ticino and Graubünden). ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ... This chart shows concisely the most common way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is applied to represent the English language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The term Lombard refers to a group of related dialects spoken mainly in Northern Italy (most of Lombardy and some areas of neighbouring regions), in Southern Switzerland (Ticino and Graubünden). ... Ticino is the southernmost canton of Switzerland, and almost entirely German-speaking municipality of Italian enclave of Campione dItalia. ... Graubünden or Grisons (German:  ; Italian: Grigioni; Romansh: Grischun, French: Grisons) is the largest and easternmost canton of Switzerland. ... The Duchy of Milan was a state in northern Italy from 1395 to 1797. ... The Insubres or Insubri were a Celtic population who settled in Insubria, in what is now Lombardy. ...


In Italian-speaking contexts, Western Lombard is often generically called a "dialect". This is often incorrectly understood as to mean a dialect of Italian, which actually is not the case. It has more than some resemblances with French, instead. Western Lombard and Italian are different languages and are not mutually intelligible. The Western Lombard, more than many other languages spoken in Italy, have many varieties, because of the mountain geography and the politic history of divisions. A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ...


Insubric language is divided into four big classes, called by many Italian liguists lombardo alpino (provinces of Sondrio and of Verbania, Sopraceneri of Canton Ticino, Grigioni), lombardo-prealpino occidentale (provinces of Como, Varese and Lecco), basso-lombardo occidentale (Pavia and Lodi), macromilanese (provinces of Milan, Monza and Novara), reminding that lombardo alpino is not completely Insubric but is intermediate between Insubric and Orobic.


Insubric belongs to the Lombard group, part of the Gallo-Italic group, Italy's part of Gallo-Romance group, eastern section of the Gallo-Iberian group, in the Italo-Western group which is almost the totality of Romance languages (derived from Latin). The term Lombard refers to a group of related dialects spoken mainly in Northern Italy (most of Lombardy and some areas of neighbouring regions), in Southern Switzerland (Ticino and Graubünden). ... Gallo-Italic is a language family within the Gallo-Romance languages. ... The Gallo-Romance branch of Romance languages includes French, Oïl languages, Catalan, and Occitan, among other languages. ... Gallo-Romance languages Gallo-Italian languages Lombard Piedmontese Emilian-Romagnol Venetian Ligurian Gallo-Rhaetian languages Oïl languages(including French) Burgundian Champenois Franc-Comtois French Gallo Lorrain Norman Anglo-Norman Channel Island Norman Auregnais Dgèrnésiais Jèrriais Sercquiais Picard Poitevin-Saintongeais Walloon Rhaetian languages Friulian Ladin Romansh *Franco... Italo-Western is the largest sub-group of Romance languages. ... The Romance languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, comprise all languages that descended from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


As per today, Western Lombard does not have any official status either in Lombardy or anywhere else: the only official language in Lombardy is Italian. Lombardy (Italian: Lombardia, Lombard: Lumbardìa) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ...


Various dictionaries, a few grammars, extensive literature and a recent translation of the Gospels are available. For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ...


Examples of Western Lombard dialects are:

  • Milanese or Meneghin (macromilanese)
  • bustocco e legnanese
  • Brianzöö (lombardo-prealpino occidentale - macromilanese)
    • Canzés
  • Comasco (lombardo-prealpino occidentale)
    • Laghée
  • Vallassinese (lombardo-prealpino occidentale)
  • Lecchese (lombardo-prealpino occidentale)
  • Nuaresat (lombardo-prealpino occidentale - macromilanese)
  • Ossolano (Western lombardo alpino)
  • Ticinese (lombardo alpino)
  • Varesino or Bosino (lombardo-prealpino occidentale)
  • Valtellinese (lombardo alpino, intermediate Insubric-Orobic dialect)
  • Chiavennasco (lombardo alpino, intermediate Insubric-Orobic dialect)
  • Pavese (basso-lombardo occidentale)
  • Lodigiano (basso-lombardo occidentale)

The most important orthography in literature is the Milanese classic one, used for example by Carlo Porta and, in 20th century, by Delio Tessa, and perfectionated by the Circolo Filologico di Milano. Other orthographies are the Ticinese, the Como's, the Bosina, the Novara's ones and others. Milanese (milanes, milanées, meneghin, meneghìn) is a variety of Western Lombard spoken in the city of Milan and in its province. ... ... Canzés is a variety of Brianzöö spoken in the commune of Canz, Italy. ... Ticinese (ticines, ticinées) is a common denomination for Lombard language varieties spoken in Canton Ticino (Tessin). ... Eastern Lombard (sometimes also called Orobic) is a group of dialects spoken in the eastern side of Lombardy, mainly in the provinces of Bergamo, Brescia and Mantua and in the area around Crema. ... Eastern Lombard (sometimes also called Orobic) is a group of dialects spoken in the eastern side of Lombardy, mainly in the provinces of Bergamo, Brescia and Mantua and in the area around Crema. ... Pavese may refer to: The Italian writer and poet, Cesare Pavese; The province of Pavia (Oltrepo Pavese), in Italy Categories: | ... Milanese (milanes, milanées, meneghin, meneghìn) is a variety of Western Lombard spoken in the city of Milan and in its province. ... Statue of Carlo Porta. ... Delio Tessa (1886 - 1939) was an Italian poet from Milan. ...


See also

Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The general lines of diachronics of Western Lombard plural declension are drawn here (referring to Milanese orthography): The bulk of feminine words ends with desinence -a; plural feminine is adesinential. ... Milanese (milanes, milanées, meneghin, meneghìn) is a variety of Lombard spoken in the city of Milan and in its province. ...

Bibliography

  • Andrea Rognoni, Grammatica dei dialetti della Lombardia, Oscar Mondadori, 2005.
  • AA. VV., Parlate e dialetti della Lombardia. Lessico comparato, Mondadori, Milano 2003.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Lombard (linguistics) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1139 words)
The Lombard variety with the oldest literary tradition (dating back to the thirteenth century) is that of Milan, where nowadays Milanese, the native Lombard variety of the area, has almost completely been superseded by Italian.
Ticinese is a comprehensive denomination for the Lombard varieties spoken in Canton Ticino (Tessin), while the Ticinese koiné is the Western Lombard koiné used by speakers of local dialects (particularly those diverging from the koinè itself) when communicating with speakers of other Lombard dialects of Ticino, the Grisons or Italian Lombardy.
Il galloitalico di Sicilia, varieties with Gallo-Romance traits spoken in 5 provinces and 24 villages in Sicily by the descendants of Lombard emigrants.
Lombard - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (319 words)
Lombard banking - a historical term for a type of banking developed in the Middle ages.
A member of the Lombards - the Germanic tribe that dominated Austria, parts of Switzerland and most of Northern Italy from the 6th century to the 8th century.
Peter Lombard - a scholastic philosopher and bishop of the 12th century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m