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Encyclopedia > Western Front (World War I)
Western Front
Part of World War I
A British trench near the Albert-Bapaume road at Ovillers-La Boisselle, July 1916 during the Battle of the Somme. The men are from A Company, 11th Battalion, The Cheshire Regiment.
For most of World War I, Allied and German Forces were stalled in trench warfare along the Western Front.
Date 1914 – 1918
Location Belgium and northeastern France
Result Allied victory
Combatants
Belgium

British Empire “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Cheshire_Regiment_trench_Somme_1916. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ... This article is about the country. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...

Australia[1]
Canada[2]
India[3]
Newfoundland[4]
New Zealand[5]
South Africa[6]
United Kingdom Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada-1868-Red. ... Image File history File links Imperial-India-Blue-Ensign. ... Image File history File links Newfoundland_Red_Ensign. ... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Anthem: Ode to Newfoundland Capital St. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links South_Africa_Red_Ensign. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ...

France and French Overseas Empire
Portugal[7]
United States Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ...

Germany
Commanders
No unified command until 1918, then Ferdinand Foch MoltkeFalkenhaynHindenburg and Ludendorff → Hindenburg and Groener
Casualties
~4,800,000 Unknown

Following the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the German army opened the Western Front by first invading Luxembourg and Belgium, then gaining military control of important industrial regions in France. The tide of the advance was dramatically turned with the Battle of the Marne. Both sides then dug in along a meandering line of fortified trenches, stretching from the North Sea to the Swiss frontier with France. This line remained essentially unchanged for most of the war. Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Ferdinand Foch OM GCB (October 2, 1851 – March 20, 1929) was a French soldier, military theorist, and writer credited with possessing the most original and subtle mind in the French Army in the early 20th century. ... Helmuth von Moltke Chief of the General Staff Helmuth Johann Ludwig von Moltke (May 25, 1848–June 18, 1916), also known as Moltke the Younger, was a nephew of Field Marshal Count Moltke and served as the Chief of the German General Staff from 1906 to 1914. ... Erich von Falkenhayn Chief of the General Staff Erich von Falkenhayn (11 November 1861 - 8 April 1922) was a German soldier and Chief of the General Staff during World War I. Falkenhayn was a career soldier. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... Ludendorff in 1918 Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865–December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, Generalquartiermeister during World War I, victor of Liege, and, with Paul von Hindenburg, one of the victors of the battle of Tannenberg. ... Wilhelm Groener (November 22, 1867 - May 3, 1939) was a German soldier and politician. ... The Battle of the Frontiers was a series of battles fought along the eastern frontier of France and in southern Belgium shortly after the outbreak of the First World War. ... The Battle of Liège was the opening battle of the German invasion into Belgium, and the first battle of World War I. The siege of the city lasted from August 5 until the 16th when the final fort surrendered. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... The Great Retreat covers the slow retreat by the Allies to the River Marne after their defeat by the Germans at Battle of Mons on 23 August. ... Course of the Race to the Sea showing dates of encounters and highlighting the significant battles. ... The Battles of Neuve Chapelle and Artois was a battle in the First World War. ... Combatants Belgium  Canada France Colonial forces United Kingdom British India  German Empire Commanders Horace Smith-Dorrien[1] Henri Gabriel Putz[2] A.-L.-T. de Ceuninck[3] Albrecht of Württemberg[4] Strength 8 infantry divisions[5] 7 infantry divisions Casualties 70,000 dead, wounded, or missing 35,000 dead... Combatants France United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Joseph Joffre Unknown Strength 9 French & British divisions (initial) Unknown Casualties 100,000 French 11,000 British 75,000 A battle on the Western Front of World War I, the First Battle of Artois was fought at the same time as the Second... The Battle of Hill 70 took place took place near the French city of Lens on 15 August and 16 August 1917 and was fought between the Canadian Corps under the command of Gen. ... Combatants France United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Auguste Dubail John French Crown Prince Rupprecht Strength French Tenth Army 6 British Divisions German Sixth Army Casualties 48,000 French 50,000 British 20,000 German A battle on the Western Front of World War I, the Second Battle of Artois is... The Battle of Loos was one of the major British offensives mounted on the Western Front in 1915 during World War I. The battle was the British component of the combined Anglo-French offensive known as the Second Battle of Artois. ... Combatants  France  German Empire Commanders Philippe Pétain Robert Nivelle Erich von Falkenhayn Strength About 30,000 on 21 February 1916 About 150,000 on 21 February 1916 Casualties 378,000; of whom 120,000 died. ... The Battle of Hulluch was a conflict in World War One, April 27-29, 1916, involving the 16th Division of the British Armys 19th Corps. ... Combatants British Empire Australia Canada New Zealand Newfoundland South Africa United Kingdom France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Joseph Joffre Max von Gallwitz Fritz von Below Strength 13 British & 11 French divisions (initial) 51 British and 48 French divisions (final) 10. ... The Battle of Arras took place from 9 April to 16 May 1917. ... Combatants Canada United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Julian Byng Arthur Currie Ludwig von Falkenhausen Strength 200,000 Unknown Casualties 3,598 dead, 7,004 wounded[1][2] 20,000 dead or wounded, 4,000 captured The Battle of Vimy Ridge was one of the opening battles in a larger British... Combatants France German Empire Commanders Robert Nivelle Charles Mangin François Anthoine Mazel von Boehm Fritz von Below Strength 1. ... The Battle of Messines was launched on June 7, 1917 by British General Herbert Plumers second army, which included the 16th (Irish) Division and the 36th (Ulster) Division, near the villages of Mesen (in French Messines, as it was on most maps at that time) and Wytschaete. ... Passchendaele village, before and after the Battle of Passchendaele The Battle of Passchendaele, otherwise known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was one of the major battles of World War I, fought by British, ANZAC, and Canadian soldiers against the German army near Ypres ( Ieper in Flemish) in West Flanders... -1... This article is about the First World War. ... British and Portuguese captured by German forces in the Flanders region (1918) British 55th (West Lancashire) Division troops blinded by tear gas during the battle, 10 April 1918. ... The Third Battle of the Aisne was a German offensive during World War I that focused on capturing the Chemin des Dames Ridge before the American Expeditionary Force could arrive in France. ... Combatants United States France British Empire German Empire Commanders John J. Pershing James Harbord Crown Prince Wilhelm Strength 2 U.S. divisions French 6th Army (elements) British IX Corps (elements) 5 German divisions (elements) Casualties 9,777 unknown The Battle of Belleau Wood was a battle of the first World... Combatants  France  United Kingdom  United States  German Empire Casualties 168,000 The Second Battle of the Marne, or Battle of Reims, was a major World War I battle fought from July 15 to August 5, 1918, near the Marne River. ... The Battle of Chateau Thierry was fought on July 18, 1918. ... Combatants Australia  United States German Empire Commanders John Monash Casualties 976 KIA, 338 WIA 2000 KIA, 1600 POW The Battle of Hamel (4 July 1918) was a planned attack launched by the Australian Corps of the Australian Imperial Force against German positions in the town of Hamel in northern France... Combatants Belgium British Empire France United States of America German Empire Commanders King Albert I Ferdinand Foch Douglas Haig Philippe Petain John Pershing Erich Ludendorff Casualties 411,636 British 531,000 French 127,000+ American 785,733 The Hundred Days Offensive was the final offensive in World War I by... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants France United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Joseph Joffre John French Helmuth von Moltke Karl von Bülow Alexander von Kluck Strength 1,071,000 1,485,000 Casualties Approximately 263,000: 250,000 French casualties (80,000 dead) 13,000 British casualties (1,700 dead) Approximately 250,000 total... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ...


Between 1915 and 1917 there were several major offensives along this front. The attacks employed massive artillery bombardments and massed infantry advances. However, a combination of entrenchments, machine gun nests, barbed wire, and artillery repeatedly inflicted severe casualties on the attackers and counter attacking defenders. As a result, no significant advances were made. A military front or battlefront is a contested armed frontier between opposing forces. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... Typical modern agricultural barbed wire. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ...


In an effort to break the deadlock, this front saw the introduction of new military technology, including poison gas, aircraft, and tanks. But it was only after the adoption of improved tactics that some degree of mobility was restored. The machine gun was one of the decisive technologies during World War I. Picture: British Vickers machine gun crew on the Western Front. ... A poison gas attack using gas cylinders in World War I. The use of poison gas in World War I was a major military innovation. ... Flying machine redirects here. ...


In spite of the generally stagnant nature of this front, this theater would prove decisive. The inexorable advance of the Allied armies in 1918 persuaded the German commanders that defeat was inevitable, and the government was forced to sue for conditions of an armistice. Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ...

Contents

1914: German invasion of France and Belgium

French bayonet charge
French bayonet charge

At the outbreak of the First World War, the German army (consisting in the West of Seven Field Armies) executed a modified version of the Schlieffen Plan, designed to quickly attack France through Belgium before turning southwards to encircle the French army on the German border. Armies under German generals Alexander von Kluck and Karl von Bülow attacked Belgium on August 4, 1914. Luxembourg had been occupied without opposition on August 2. The first battle in Belgium was the Siege of Liège, which lasted from August 5–16. Liège was well fortified and surprised the German army under von Bülow with its level of resistance. Following the fall of Liège, most of the Belgian army retreated to Antwerp and Namur. Although the German army bypassed Antwerp, it remained a threat to their flank. Another siege followed at Namur, lasting from about August 20 until August 23.[8] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (874x523, 137 KB) Summary This image was scanned from The Story of the Great War, Volume III, Francis Joseph Reynolds et al, 1916. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (874x523, 137 KB) Summary This image was scanned from The Story of the Great War, Volume III, Francis Joseph Reynolds et al, 1916. ... For other uses, see bayonet (disambiguation). ... Alfred Graf von Schlieffen For the French counter-plan, see Plan XVII The Schlieffen Plan was the German General Staffs overall strategic plan for victory on the Western Front against France, and was executed to near victory in the first month of World War I; however, a French counterattack... Alexander Heinrich Rudolph von Kluck (May 20, 1846 - October 19, 1934) was a German general during World War I. He was born in Münster, Westphalia. ... Karl von Bülow (April 24, 1846 – August 31, 1921) was a German General commanding the German 2nd Army during World War I from 1914 to 1918. ... The Battle of Liège was the opening battle of the German invasion into Belgium, and the first battle of World War I. The siege of the city lasted from August 5 until the 16th when the final fort surrendered. ... Definition Withdrawing is the act of removing all or part of a military force from combat and moving to a safe location. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... Namur (Nameûr in Walloon, Namen in Dutch) is a city and municipality, capital of the province of Namur and of the region of Wallonia in southern Belgium. ...

German infantry on the march on August 7, 1914.
German infantry on the march on August 7, 1914.

For their part, the French had five Armies deployed on their borders. The pre-war French offensive plan, Plan XVII, was intended to capture Alsace-Lorraine following the outbreak of hostilities. The main offensive was launched on August 14 with attacks by 1st and 2nd Army on Saarburg in Lorraine and Mulhouse in Alsace. In keeping with the Schlieffen Plan, the Germans withdrew slowly while inflicting severe losses upon the French. The French advanced the 3rd and 4th army toward the Saar River and attempted to capture Saarburg before being driven back.[9] The French captured Mulhouse but abandoned it to reinforce the greatly weakened forces in Lorraine. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 307 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 1152 pixel, file size: 696 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 307 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 1152 pixel, file size: 696 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The offensive French military strategy in World War I known as Plan XVII was initially created by Ferdinand Foch. ... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ... Saarburg (pop. ... Mulhouse (French: Mulhouse, pronounced ; Alsatian: Milhüsa; German: Mülhausen) is a town and commune in eastern France close to Swiss and German border. ... Saar loop at Mettlach The Saar (French: Sarre) is a river, that rises in the Vosges mountains in Alsace with two headstreams (Red and White Saar) at the Donon, running through Lorraine and the Saarland, which was named after it. ...


After marching through Belgium, Luxembourg and the Ardennes, the German army advanced, in the latter half of August, into northern France where they met both the French army, under Joseph Joffre, and the initial divisions of the British Expeditionary Force, under Sir John French. A series of engagements known as the Battle of the Frontiers ensued. Key battles included the Battle of Charleroi and the Battle of Mons. In the former battle the French 5th Army was almost destroyed by the German 2nd and 3rd Armies and the latter delayed the German advance by a day. A general Allied retreat followed, resulting in more clashes such as the Battle of Le Cateau, the Siege of Maubeuge and the Battle of St. Quentin (Guise). The Ardennes (IPA pronunciation: ) (Dutch: Ardennen) is a volcanic region of extensive forests and rolling hill country, primarily in Belgium and Luxembourg, but stretching into France (lending its name to the Ardennes département and the Champagne-Ardenne région). ... Joseph Jacques Césaire Joffre (12 January 1852 - 3 January 1931) was a Catalan French general who was Commander-in-Chief of the French Army between 1914 and 1916 during World War I. He is most known for regrouping the retreating allied armies to defeat the Germans at the strategically... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ... The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the British army sent to France and Belgium in World War I and British Forces in Europe from 1939–1940 during World War II. The BEF was established by Secretary of State for War Richard Haldane following the Second Boer War in case the... The Earl of Ypres John Denton Pinkstone French, 1st Earl of Ypres, KP, GCB, OM, GCVO, KCMG, PC (28 September 1852–22 May 1925) was a British Field Marshal, the first commander of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) in World War I. Biography Born in Ripple in Kent, the son... The Battle of the Frontiers was a series of battles fought along the eastern frontier of France and in southern Belgium shortly after the outbreak of the First World War. ... Combatants Germany France Commanders Strength Casualties {{{casualties1}}} {{{casualties2}}} The Battle of Charleroi was fought on August 21, 1914, between French and German forces. ... Combatants United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Sir John French Alexander von Kluck Strength 4 divisions 8 divisions Casualties 1,600 5,000 (estimate) The Battle of Mons (Dutch name for Mons is Bergen) was the first major action of the British Expeditionary Force in World War I. // Following the surrender... On the 25th of September, 1914, the British, French & Belgians retreated from the Battle of Mons & set up defensive positions in Le Cateau. ... The Siege of Maubeuge took place between August 24 and September 7, 1914 when the French garrison of the Maubeuge Fortress finally surrendered to the Germans at the start of World War I on the Western Front. ... The Battle of St. ...

Map of the Western Front and the Race to the Sea, 1914
Map of the Western Front and the Race to the Sea, 1914

The German army came within 43 miles (70 km) of Paris, but at the First Battle of the Marne (September 6–12), French and British troops were able to force a German retreat by exploiting a gap which appeared between the 1st and 2nd Armies, ending the German advance into France. The German army retreated north of the Aisne River and dug in there, establishing the beginnings of a static western front that was to last for the next three years. Following this German setback, the opposing forces tried to outflank each other in the Race for the Sea, and quickly extended their trench systems from the English Channel to the Swiss frontier.[10] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1241x961, 203 KB) Summary Map of the Western Front (World War I), 1914 From the History Department of the US Military Academy West Point - http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1241x961, 203 KB) Summary Map of the Western Front (World War I), 1914 From the History Department of the US Military Academy West Point - http://www. ... Course of the Race to the Sea showing dates of encounters and highlighting the significant battles. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Combatants France United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Joseph Joffre John French Helmuth von Moltke Karl von Bülow Alexander von Kluck Strength 1,071,000 1,485,000 Casualties Approximately 263,000: 250,000 French casualties (80,000 dead) 13,000 British casualties (1,700 dead) Approximately 250,000 total... Aisne is a river in France, tributary of the river Oise. ... Course of the Race to the Sea showing dates of encounters and highlighting the significant battles. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... Swiss redirects here. ...


On the Entente side, the front was occupied by the armies of the allied countries in lengths according to their respective manpower. From the coast in the north, these were Belgium, Portugal, British Empire and France. As the war progressed, however, units were moved to strengthen the efforts of other nations, mainly on the long French front. Here British divisions were fairly prominent and smaller units from Russia and Italy were engaged partially as an expression of political solidarity. For example, British infantry and Italian artillery cooperated with French V Army in the Ardre valley during the Second Battle of the Marne, in July 1918. At this later stage in the war, American forces too, were available to be employed in a similar way, though usually in larger units. The Ardre is a fifth order river in France which flows into the Vesle (left tributary) thence into the Aisne, Oise and Seine. ... Combatants  France  United Kingdom  United States  German Empire Casualties 168,000 The Second Battle of the Marne, or Battle of Reims, was a major World War I battle fought from July 15 to August 5, 1918, near the Marne River. ...


1915—Stalemate

Map of the Western Front, 1915–16
Map of the Western Front, 1915–16

Between the coast and the Vosges was an outward bulge in the trench line, named the Noyon salient for the captured French town at the maximum point of advance near Compiègne. Joffre's plan of attack for 1915 was to attack this salient on both flanks in order to cut it off.[11] The British would form the northern attack force by pressing eastward in Artois, while the French attacked in Champagne. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1233x946, 189 KB) Summary Map of the Western Front (World War I), 1915-1916 From the History Department of the US Military Academy West Point - http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1233x946, 189 KB) Summary Map of the Western Front (World War I), 1915-1916 From the History Department of the US Military Academy West Point - http://www. ... Vosges is a French department, named after the Vosges mountain range. ... Noyon is a small but historic French city in the Oise département, Picardie, on the Oise Canal, approximately 60 miles north of Paris. ... Compiègne is a commune in the Oise département of France, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Artois is a former province of northern France. ... Location of the Champagne province in France Champagne is one of the most traditional provinces of France, a region of France that is best known for the production of the sparkling white wine that bears the regions name. ...


On 10 March, as part of what was intended as a larger offensive in the Artois region, the British and Canadian army attacked at Neuve Chapelle in an effort to capture the Aubers Ridge. The assault was made by four divisions along a 2 mile (3 km) front. Preceded by a concentrated bombardment lasting 35 minutes, the initial assault made rapid progress, and the village was captured within four hours. However, the assault slowed because of problems with logistics and communications. The Germans then brought up reserves and counter-attacked, forestalling the attempt to capture the ridge. Since the British had used about one-third of their total supply of artillery shells,[12] General Sir John French blamed the failure on the shortage of shells, despite the success of the initial attack.[13] March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battles of Neuve Chapelle and Artois was a battle in the First World War. ... A bombardment is an attack by artillery fire directed against fortifications, troops or towns and buildings. ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Communication is a process that allows organisms to exchange information by several methods. ... The Military Reserves are an organization that is associated with the military but is not in active duty. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A shell is a payload-carrying projectile, which, as opposed to a bullet, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage includes large solid projectiles previously termed shot (AP, APCR, APCNR, APDS, APFSDS and Proof shot). ...


Gas warfare

An artist's rendition of Canadian troops at the Second Battle of Ypres.
An artist's rendition of Canadian troops at the Second Battle of Ypres.

Despite the German plans to maintain the stalemate with the French and British, German commanders planned an offensive at the Belgian town of Ypres, which the British had captured in November 1914 during the First Battle of Ypres. This was in order to divert attention away from major offensives in the Eastern Front while disrupting Franco-British planning and to test a new weapon. After a two-day bombardment, on 22 April, the Germans released chlorine gas onto the battlefield which drifted into the British trenches.[14] The green-yellow cloud asphyxiated the defenders and those in the rear fled in panic creating an undefended four-mile-wide gap in the Allied line. However, the Germans were unprepared for the level of their success and lacked sufficient reserves to exploit the opening. Canadian troops quickly arrived and drove back the German advance. This Second Battle of Ypres marked the first large-scale use of chemical weapons, where 170 tonnes were dropped on the allied lines, resulting in the deaths of 5,000 men within minutes, despite being prohibited by the Hague Convention of 1899.[15] Image File history File links The_Second_Battle_of_Ypres. ... Image File history File links The_Second_Battle_of_Ypres. ... Combatants Belgium  Canada France Colonial forces United Kingdom British India  German Empire Commanders Horace Smith-Dorrien[1] Henri Gabriel Putz[2] A.-L.-T. de Ceuninck[3] Albrecht of Württemberg[4] Strength 8 infantry divisions[5] 7 infantry divisions Casualties 70,000 dead, wounded, or missing 35,000 dead... A poison gas attack using gas cylinders in World War I. The use of poison gas in World War I was a major military innovation. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province West Flanders Arrondissement Ypres Coordinates , , Area 130. ... Combatants United Kingdom France German Empire Commanders John French Ferdinand Foch Erich von Falkenhayn Strength UK: 7 infantry divisions, 3 cavalry divisions France: ? Fourth and Sixth Armies Casualties UK: 58,000 France: 50,000 130,000 The First Battle of Ypres, also called the Battle of Flanders, was the last... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Suffocation redirects here, for the band, see Suffocation (band). ... Panic is the primal urge to run and hide in the face of imminent danger. ... Combatants Belgium  Canada France Colonial forces United Kingdom British India  German Empire Commanders Horace Smith-Dorrien[1] Henri Gabriel Putz[2] A.-L.-T. de Ceuninck[3] Albrecht of Württemberg[4] Strength 8 infantry divisions[5] 7 infantry divisions Casualties 70,000 dead, wounded, or missing 35,000 dead... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ... A tonne or metric ton (symbol t), sometimes referred to as a metric tonne, is a measurement of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms. ... The longtime status of Netherlands as a largely neutral nation in international conflicts and the corresponding ascendance of The Hague as a primary location for diplomatic and international conferences has led to several negotiated conventions over the years being termed the Hague Convention: The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907...


The gas attack was repeated two days later and caused a three-mile (5 km) withdrawal of the Franco-British line. But the opportunity had been lost. The success of this attack would not be repeated, as the Allies countered by introducing gas masks and other countermeasures. An example of the success of these measures came a year later, on 27 April, when, at Hulluch, 25 miles (40 km) to the south of Ypres, the 16th (Irish) Division's troops were able to withstand determined German gas attacks.[16] RNAFs F-16, firing countermeasures (flares) during a solo display at Radom Air Show 2005 A countermeasure is a system (usually for a military application) designed to prevent sensor-based weapons from acquiring and/or destroying a target. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... The Battle of Hulluch was a conflict in World War One, April 27-29, 1916, involving the 16th Division of the British Armys 19th Corps. ... (Redirected from 16th (Irish) Division) The British 16th (Irish) Division was a New Army division formed in Ireland in September 1914 as part of the K2 Army Group. ...


Air warfare

This year also saw the introduction of airplanes specifically modified for aerial combat. While planes had already been used in the war for scouting, on April 1 the French pilot Roland Garros became the first to shoot down an enemy plane by using machine guns that fired forward through the propeller blades. This was achieved by crudely reinforcing the blades so bullets which hit them were deflected away.[17] is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Roland Garros Roland Garros (October 6, 1888 – October 25, 1918) was an early French aviator and a fighter aircraft pilot during World War I. Garros was born in Saint-Denis, Réunion. ...


Several weeks later Garros was forced to land behind German lines. His plane was captured and sent to Dutch engineer Anthony Fokker, who soon developed a significant improvement, the interrupter gear, in which the machine gun is synchronized with the propeller so it fires in the intervals when the blades of the revolving propeller are out of the line of fire. This advance was quickly ushered into service, in the Fokker E.I (Eindecker, or monoplane, Mark 1), the first single seat fighter aircraft to combine a reasonable maximum speed with an effective armament; Max Immelmann scored the first kill in an Eindecker on 1 August. Anton Herman Gerard Anthony Fokker (April 6, 1890 – December 23, 1939), was born in Kediri (Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia) and became a Dutch aircraft manufacturer. ... Damaged propeller from a Sopwith Baby aircraft circa 1916/17 with evidence of bulletholes from a machine gun fired behind the propeller without an Interruptor. ... Max Immelmann of Feldflieger Abteilung 62 in the cockpit of his Fokker E.I. The Fokker E.I was the first successful fighter aircraft, entering combat with the German Army Air Service in mid-1915 which marked the start of a period known as the Fokker Scourge during which the... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... Max Immelmann Max Immelmann (September 21, 1890 - June 18, 1916) was a German World War I Flying ace. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


This started a back-and-forth arms race, as both sides developed improved weapons, engines, airframes, and materials, which continued until the end of the war. It also inaugurated the cult of the ace, the most famous being the Red Baron. Contrary to the myth, however, antiaircraft fire claimed more kills than fighters.[18] The Red Baron, Manfred von Richthofen, perhaps the most famous ace of all The first ace, Adolphe Pegoud being awarded the Croix de Guerre A flying ace or fighter ace is a military aviator credited with shooting down five or more enemy aircraft during aerial combat. ... Red Baron redirects here. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft warfare, or air defense, is any method of engaging military aircraft in combat from the ground. ...


Continued Allied attacks

The ruins of Carency after it was recaptured by France.
The ruins of Carency after it was recaptured by France.

The final Allied offensive of the spring was fought at Artois, with the goal of trying to capture the Vimy Ridge. The French 10th Army attacked on 9 May after a six-day bombardment and advanced 3 miles (5 km). However, they retreated as they had come into sights of machine gun nests and the German reinforcements fired artillery at the attackers. By 15 May the offensive had ground to a halt. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x805, 268 KB) Aftermath of the fighting in the French town of Carency during the Second Battle of Artois, May 1915. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x805, 268 KB) Aftermath of the fighting in the French town of Carency during the Second Battle of Artois, May 1915. ... Carency is a village of northern France, in the Pas-de-Calais départment. ... Combatants France United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Joseph Joffre Unknown Strength 9 French & British divisions (initial) Unknown Casualties 100,000 French 11,000 British 75,000 A battle on the Western Front of World War I, the First Battle of Artois was fought at the same time as the Second... The Battle of Vimy Ridge was one of the opening battles in a larger British campaign known as the Battle of Arras. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


During autumn of 1915, the "Fokker Scourge" began to have an effect on the battlefront as Allied spotter planes were nearly driven from the skies. These reconnaissance planes were used to direct gunnery and photograph enemy fortifications, but now the Allies were nearly blinded by German fighters.[19] The Fokker Scourge, a term coined by the British press, was a period of time in World War I in the summer of 1915. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In September 1915 the Allies launched major offensives with the French attacking at Champagne and the British at Loos. The French had spent the summer preparing for this action, with the British assuming control of more of the front in order to free up French troops. The bombardment, which had been carefully targeted by means of aerial photography,[20] began on 22 September. The main assault was launched on 25 September and, at least at first, made good progress in spite of surviving wire entanglements and machine gun posts. However, foreseeing this attack, the Germans had developed defensive lines 2 and 4 miles (3.2 and 6.4 km) behind the front lines and were able to defend against the French attack which lasted into November. The Battle of Champagne is the name of three battles fought in the Champagne region of northern France during the First World War. ... There are things that have the name Loos in France: Communes Loos, in the Nord département Related Loos-en-Gohelle, in the Pas-de-Calais département Persons Adolf Loos François Loos (José Miguel García Loos) writer, book edited in 1997 Personal Marketing in Venezuela. ... The Georgian terrace of Royal Crescent (Bath, England) from a hot air balloon Intersection of E42 and E451 from an aircraft soon after takeoff from Frankfurt International Airport Moreton Island in Queensland, Australia Aerial photography is the taking of photographs from the air with a camera mounted, or hand held... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Also on 25 September, the British began their assault at Loos, which was meant to supplement the larger Champagne attack. The attack was preceded by a four-day artillery bombardment of 250,000 shells and a release of 5,100 cylinders of chlorine gas.[21] The attack involved two corps in the main assault and two more corps performing diversionary attacks at Ypres. The British suffered heavy losses, especially due to machine gun fire, during the attack and made only limited gains before they ran out of shells. A renewal of the attack on 13 October fared little better. In December, British General John French was replaced by Douglas Haig as commander of the British forces.[22] is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants France United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Auguste Dubail John French Crown Prince Rupprecht Strength French Tenth Army 6 British Divisions German Sixth Army Casualties 48,000 French 50,000 British 20,000 German A battle on the Western Front of World War I, the Second Battle of Artois is... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Earl of Ypres John Denton Pinkstone French, 1st Earl of Ypres, KP, GCB, OM, GCVO, KCMG, PC (28 September 1852–22 May 1925) was a British Field Marshal, the first commander of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) in World War I. Biography Born in Ripple in Kent, the son... Field Marshal Lord Haig Field Marshal Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, KT, GCB, OM, GCVO, KCIE, ADC (June 19, 1861 – January 28, 1928) was a British soldier and senior commander (Field Marshal) during World War I. He was commander of the British Expeditionary Force during the Battle of the Somme...


1916 — Artillery duels and attrition

The German Chief of Staff, Erich von Falkenhayn, believed that a breakthrough might no longer be possible, and instead focused on forcing a French capitulation by inflicting massive casualties.[23] His new goal was to "bleed France white". Erich von Falkenhayn Chief of the General Staff Erich von Falkenhayn (11 November 1861 - 8 April 1922) was a German soldier and Chief of the General Staff during World War I. Falkenhayn was a career soldier. ...


As such, he adopted two new strategies. The first was the use of unrestricted submarine warfare to cut off Allied supplies arriving from overseas. The second would be targeted, high-casualty attacks against the French ground troops. To inflict the maximum possible casualties, he planned to attack a position from which the French could not retreat for reason of both strategic positions and national pride and thus trap the French. The town of Verdun was chosen for this because it was an important stronghold, surrounded by a ring of forts, that lay near the German lines and because it guarded the direct route to Paris. The operation was codenamed Gericht, German for "court", but meant "place of execution". Unrestricted submarine warfare is a kind of naval warfare in which submarines sink merchant ships without warning. ... Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ... Verdun (German: Wirten, official name before 1970 Verdun-sur-Meuse) is a city and commune in the Lorraine région, northeast France, in the Meuse département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


Falkenhayn limited the size of the front to 3–4 miles (4.8–6.4 km) to concentrate their firepower and to prevent a breakthrough from a counteroffensive. He also kept tight control of the main reserve, feeding in just enough troops to keep the battle going.[24] In preparation for their attack, the Germans had amassed a concentration of aircraft near the fortress. In the opening phase, they swept the air space of enemy spotters which allowed the accurate German artillery spotters and bombers to operate without interference. However, by May, the French countered by deploying escadrilles de chasse with superior Nieuport fighters. The tight air space over Verdun turned into an aerial battlefield, and illustrated the value of tactical air superiority, as each side sought to dominate air reconnaissance.[25] Nieuport 17 C.1 fighter of World War I Nieuport is a French aeroplane company famous for racers before World War I (WWI) and fighter aircraft during WWI and between the wars. ... Air superiority is the dominance in the air power of one side air forces of another side during a military campaign. ...


Battle of Verdun

The remains of German soldiers at Verdun.
Main article: Battle of Verdun

The Battle of Verdun began on 21 February 1916 after a nine-day delay due to snow and blizzards. After a massive eight-hour artillery bombardment, the Germans did not expect much resistance as they slowly advanced on Verdun and its forts.[26] However, heavy French resistance was countered by the introduction of flamethrowers by the Germans. The French lost control of almost all of their forts, including Fort Douaumont. Nonetheless, French reinforcements halted the German advance by 28 February.[27] Image File history File links German dead at the battle of Verdun Downloaded from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links German dead at the battle of Verdun Downloaded from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Combatants  France  German Empire Commanders Philippe Pétain Robert Nivelle Erich von Falkenhayn Strength About 30,000 on 21 February 1916 About 150,000 on 21 February 1916 Casualties 378,000; of whom 120,000 died. ... Combatants  France  German Empire Commanders Philippe Pétain Robert Nivelle Erich von Falkenhayn Strength About 30,000 on 21 February 1916 About 150,000 on 21 February 1916 Casualties 378,000; of whom 120,000 died. ... Riverboat of the U.S. Brownwater Navy shooting ignited napalm from its mounted flamethrower during the Vietnam war. ... Douaumont is a village and a commune in the Meuse département in France, near Verdun. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Germans turned their focus to Le Mort Homme to the north from which the French were successfully shelling them. After some of the most intense fighting of the campaign, the hill was taken by the Germans in late May. After a change in French command at Verdun from the defensive-minded Philippe Pétain to the offensive-minded Robert Nivelle the French attempted to re-capture Fort Douaumont on 22 May but were easily repulsed. The Germans captured Fort Vaux on 7 June and, with the aid of the gas phosgene, came within 1,200 yards (1 km) of the last ridge over Verdun before stopping on 23 June. Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general, later Chief of State of Vichy France (Chef de lÉtat Français), from 1940 to 1944. ... Robert Georges Nivelle (October 15, 1857 - March 22, 1924) was a French military commander during World War I. Born in Tulle, France, to a French father and English mother, Nivelle graduated from the École Polytechnique in 1878 and served in Indochina, Algeria, and China as an artillery officer. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fort Vaux, located in Vaux-Devant-Damloup, Meuse, France, became the second Fort to fall in the Battle of Verdun. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Phosgene is a highly toxic chemical compound with the formula COCl2. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Over the summer, the French slowly advanced. With the development of the rolling barrage, the French recaptured Fort Vaux in November, and by December 1916 they had pushed the Germans back 1.3 miles (2 km) from Fort Douaumont, in the process rotating 42 divisions through the battle. The Battle of Verdun—also known as the 'Mincing Machine of Verdun' or 'Meuse Mill'[28]—became a symbol of French determination and sacrifice.[29] German barrage on Allied trenches at Ypres. ...


Battle of the Somme

Main article: Battle of the Somme

In the spring allied commanders had been concerned about the ability of the French army to withstand the enormous losses at Verdun. The original plans for an attack around the river Somme were modified to let the British make the main effort. This would serve to relieve pressure on the French, as well as the Russians who had also suffered great losses. On 1 July, after a week of heavy rain, British divisions in Picardy launched an attack around the river Somme, supported by five French divisions on their right flank. The attack had been preceded by seven days of heavy artillery bombardment. The experienced French forces were successful in advancing but the British artillery cover had neither blasted away barbed wire, nor destroyed German trenches as effectively as was planned. They suffered the greatest number of casualties (killed, wounded and missing) in a single day in the history of the British army, about 57,000.[30] For other battles known as Battle of the Somme, see Battle of the Somme (disambiguation). ... wazzup Categories: | ... For other battles known as Battle of the Somme, see Battle of the Somme (disambiguation). ...


Having assessed the air combat over Verdun, the Allies had new aircraft for the attack in the Somme valley. The Verdun lesson learnt, the Allies' tactical aim became the achievement of air superiority and the German planes were, indeed, largely swept from the skies over the Somme. The success of the Allied air offensive caused a reorganization of the German air arm, and both sides began using large formations of aircraft rather than relying on individual combat.[31] Air superiority is the dominance in the air power of one side air forces of another side during a military campaign. ...

British infantry advance near Gingy.
British infantry advance near Gingy.

After regrouping, the battle continued throughout July and August, with some success for the British despite the reinforcement of the German lines. By August General Haig had concluded that a breakthrough was unlikely, and instead switched tactics to a series of small unit actions. The effect was to straighten out the front line, which was thought necessary in preparation for a massive artillery bombardment with a major push. British infantry advancing in support during the Battle of Morval, 25 September 1916 -- part of the Battle of the Somme. ... British infantry advancing in support during the Battle of Morval, 25 September 1916 -- part of the Battle of the Somme. ... A military unit is an organisation within an armed force. ...


The final phase of the battle of the Somme saw the first use of the tank on the battlefield. The Allies prepared an attack that would involve 13 British and Imperial divisions and four French corps. The attack made early progress, advancing 3,500–4,500 yards (3.2–4.1 km) in places, but the tanks had little effect due to their lack of numbers and mechanical unreliability. The final phase of the battle took place in October and early November, again producing limited gains with heavy loss of life. All told, the Somme battle had made penetrations of only five miles (8 km), and failed to reach the original objectives. The Allies had suffered over 600,000 casualties and the Germans over 460,000, though these figures are disputed.


The Somme led directly to major new developments in infantry organization and tactics; despite the terrible losses of 1 July, some divisions had managed to achieve their objectives with minimal casualties. In examining the reasons behind losses and achievements, the British, and the Colonial contingents, reintroduced the concept of the infantry platoon, following in the footsteps of the French and German armies who were already groping their way towards the use of small tactical units. At the time of the Somme, British senior commanders insisted that the company (120 men) was the smallest unit of maneuver; less than a year later, the section of 10 men would be so.[32][dubious ] is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Hindenburg line

Main article: Hindenburg Line

In August 1916 the German leadership along the western front had changed as Falkenhayn resigned and was replaced by Generals Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff. The new leaders soon recognized that the battles of Verdun and the Somme had depleted the offensive capabilities of the German army. They decided that the German army in the west would go over to the strategic defensive for most of 1917, while the Central powers would attack elsewhere. The Hindenburg Line was a vast system of defences in Northern France constructed by the Germans during the winter of 1916– 17 during World War I; the Germans called it the Siegfried Line. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... Ludendorff in 1918 Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865–December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, Generalquartiermeister during World War I, victor of Liege, and, with Paul von Hindenburg, one of the victors of the battle of Tannenberg. ...


During the Somme battle and through the winter months, the Germans created a prepared defensive position behind a section of their front that would be called the Hindenburg Line. This was intended to shorten the German front, freeing a number of divisions for other duties. This line of fortifications ran from Arras south to St Quentin. British long-range reconnaissance aircraft first spotted the construction of the Hindenburg Line in November 1916. For the fortification of food, see Food fortification. ... Arras (Dutch: ) is a town and commune in northern France, préfecture (capital) of the Pas-de-Calais département. ... Saint-Quentin is a commune of northern France. ...


1917—British Empire takes the lead

Map of the Western Front, 1917
Map of the Western Front, 1917

The staged withdrawal to the Hindenburg Line was named Operation Alberich by the Germans.[33] It was begun on 9 February and completed 5 April, leaving behind a devastated territory to be occupied by the Allies. The withdrawal ranged from 6 to 31 miles (10 to 50 km) from the original front lines. This withdrawal negated the French strategy of attacking both flanks of the Noyon salient, as it no longer existed. However, offensive advances by the British continued as the High Command claimed, with some justice, that this withdrawal resulted from the battering the Germans received during the Battle of the Somme. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1242x961, 228 KB) Summary Map of the Western Front (World War I), 1917 From the History Department of the US Military Academy West Point - http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1242x961, 228 KB) Summary Map of the Western Front (World War I), 1917 From the History Department of the US Military Academy West Point - http://www. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the computer game, see Scorched Earth (computer game). ... Old War Office Building, seen from Whitehall, London - the former location of the War Office The War Office was a former department of the British Government, responsible for the administration of the British Army between the 17th century and 1963, when its functions were transferred to the Ministry of Defence. ...


Meanwhile, on 6 April the United States declared war on Germany. Back in early 1915 following the sinking of the Lusitania, Germany had stopped their unrestricted submarine warfare in the Atlantic because of concerns of drawing the United States into the conflict. With the growing discontent of the German public due to the food shortages, however, the government resumed unrestricted submarine warfare in February 1917. They had calculated that a successful submarine siege of Britain would force that country out of the war within six months, while American forces would take a year to become a serious factor on the western front. The submarine had a brief period of success before Britain resorted to the convoy system, bringing a dramatic reduction in shipping losses.[34] is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... RMS Lusitania was a British luxury ocean liner owned by the Cunard Steamship Line Shipping Company and built by John Brown and Company of Clydebank, Scotland. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ...

A Benet-Mercier machine gun section of 2nd Rajput Light Infantry of British Indian Army in action in Flanders, during the winter of 1914-15.

In April 1917 the British Empire forces launched an attack starting the Battle of Arras. Despite the success of the Canadian Corps and the British 5th Infantry Division, in breaking through German lines at Vimy Ridge, the Allies could not capitalize due to the refusal to provide reinforcements to the region. Image File history File links Indian_Army_WW.jpg‎ source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Indian_Army_WW.jpg‎ source: http://www. ... Soldiers with a M1909 The Benet-Mercie Machine Rifle, Caliber . ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... Rajput is a Hindu Kshatriya caste which decendend from India . ... Traditionally light infantry (or skirmishers) were soldiers whose job was to provide a skirmishing screen ahead of the main body of infantry, harassing and delaying the enemy advance. ... A group of native Indian Muslim soldiers posing for volley firing orders. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... The Battle of Arras took place from 9 April to 16 May 1917. ... The Canadian Corps was a World War I Canadas soldiers in September of 1915 after the arrival of the 2nd Canadian Division in France. ... Unit history Formation 13th Brigade  2nd Battalion, the Kings Own Scottish Borderers 1st Battalion, The Royal West Kent Regiment 2nd Battalion, the Kings Own Yorkshire Light Infantry (until December 1915) 2nd Battalion, The Duke of Wellingtons (West Riding Regiment) (until January 1916) 1/9th (City of London... Combatants Canada United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Julian Byng Arthur Currie Ludwig von Falkenhausen Strength 200,000 Unknown Casualties 3,598 dead, 7,004 wounded[1][2] 20,000 dead or wounded, 4,000 captured The Battle of Vimy Ridge was one of the opening battles in a larger British...


During the winter of 1916–17, German air tactics had been improved, a fighter training school was opened at Valenciennes and better aircraft with twin guns were introduced. The result was near disastrous losses for Allied air power, particularly for the British, who were struggling with outmoded aircraft, poor training and weak tactics. As a result the Allied air successes over the Somme would not be repeated, and heavy losses were inflicted by the Germans. During their attack at Arras, the British lost 316 air crews compared to 114 lost by the Germans.[35] This became known to the RFC as Bloody April. Valenciennes (Dutch: Valencijn, Latin: Valentianae) is a town and commune in northern France in the Nord département on the Escaut river. ... Aircrew redirects here. ... During the First World War, the month of April 1917 was known as Bloody April by the Allied air forces. ...


French morale

The same month, French General Robert Nivelle ordered a new offensive against the German trenches, promising that it would be a war-winner. The attack, dubbed the Nivelle Offensive (also known as Chemin des Dames, after the area where the offensive took place), would be 1.2 million men strong, to be preceded by a week-long artillery bombardment and accompanied by tanks. However, the operation proceeded poorly as the French troops had to negotiate rough, upward-sloping terrain. In addition, detailed planning had been dislocated by the voluntary German withdrawal to the Hindenburg Line, secrecy had been compromised, and German planes gained control of the sky making reconnaissance difficult. This allowed the creeping barrage to move too far ahead of the advancing troops. Within a week 100,000 French troops were dead. Despite the heavy casualties and his promise to halt the offensive if it did not produce a breakthrough, Nivelle ordered the attack continued into May. Robert Georges Nivelle (October 15, 1857 - March 22, 1924) was a French military commander during World War I. Born in Tulle, France, to a French father and English mother, Nivelle graduated from the École Polytechnique in 1878 and served in Indochina, Algeria, and China as an artillery officer. ... The Nivelle Offensive was a 1917 Allied attack on the Western Front in World War I. The offensive was a costly failure. ... The Chemin des Dames, literally, the Ladies Way, was a pleasure walk along a ridge offering views across the Aisne and the surrounding landscape, and designated by the French king, Louis XV for the amusement of his daughters. ...


On 3 May the weary French 2nd Colonial Division, veterans of the Battle of Verdun, refused their orders, arriving drunk and without their weapons. Their officers lacked the means to punish an entire division, and harsh measures were not immediately implemented. Thereupon the mutinies afflicted 54 French divisions and saw 20,000 men desert.[36] However, appeals to patriotism and duty, as well as mass arrests and trials, encouraged the soldiers to return to defend their trenches, although they refused to participate in further offensive action.[37] By 15 May Nivelle was removed from command, replaced by General Henri Philippe Pétain, who suspended large-scale attacks. The French would go on the defensive for the next year, leaving the burden of attack to Britain and her Empire. is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 - Execution at Verdun at the time of the mutinies The French Army Mutinies of 1917 took place in the Champagne section of the Western Front and started just after the conclusion of the disastrous Second Battle of the Aisne. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Philippe Pétain Marshal Henri Philippe Pétain (April 24, 1856 - July 23, 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French soldier and leader of Vichy France. ...


British offensives, American troops arrive

On 7 June a British offensive was launched on Messines ridge, south of Ypres, to retake the ground lost in the First Battle of Ypres in 1914. Since 1915 engineers had been digging tunnels under the ridge, and 455 tonnes (1,000,000 lb) of ammonal explosives had been planted in 21 mines under the enemy lines. Following four days of heavy bombardment, the explosives in 19 of these mines were set off resulting in the deaths of 10,000 Germans. The offensive that followed again relied on heavy bombardment, but these failed to dislodge the Germans. The offensive, though initially stunningly successful, faltered due to the flooded, muddy ground, and both sides suffered heavy casualties.[38] is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Messines was launched on June 7, 1917 by British General Herbert Plumers second army, which included the 16th (Irish) Division and the 36th (Ulster) Division, near the villages of Mesen (in French Messines, as it was on most maps at that time) and Wytschaete. ... A tonne or metric ton (symbol t), sometimes referred to as a metric tonne, is a measurement of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms. ... The avoirdupois (IPA: ; French IPA: ) system is a system of weights (or, properly, mass) based on a pound of sixteen ounces. ...


On 11 July 1917 during this battle, the Germans introduced a new weapon into the war when they fired gas shells delivered by artillery. The limited size of an artillery shell required that a more potent gas be deployed, and so the Germans employed mustard gas, a powerful blistering agent. The artillery deployment allowed heavy concentrations of the gas to be used on selected targets. Mustard gas was also a persistent agent, which could linger for up to several days at a site, an additional demoralizing factor for their opponents.[39] Along with phosgene, gas would be used lavishly by both German and Allied forces in later battles, as the Allies also began to increase production of gas for chemical warfare. is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... The sulfur mustards, of which mustard gas is a member, are a class of related cytotoxic, vesicant chemical warfare agents with the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin. ... Phosgene is a highly toxic chemical compound with the formula COCl2. ... A poison gas attack using gas cylinders in World War I. The use of poison gas in World War I was a major military innovation. ...


On 25 June the first U.S. troops began to arrive in France, forming the American Expeditionary Force. However, the American units did not enter the trenches in divisional strength until October. The incoming troops required training and equipment before they could join in the effort, and for several months American units were relegated to support efforts.[40] In spite of this, however, their presence provided a much-needed boost to Allied morale. is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Officers of the American Expeditionary Forces and the Baker mission The American Expeditionary Forces or AEF was the United States military force sent to Europe in World War I.(In France, AEF is a news agency specialised in Education and Formation) The AEF fought alongside allied forces against imperial German... The 1st Infantry Division of the United States Army —nicknamed “The Big Red One” after its shoulder patch—is the oldest continuously serving division in the United States Army. ...


Beginning in late July and continuing into October the struggle around Ypres was renewed with the Battle of Passchendaele (technically the Third Battle of Ypres, of which Passchendaele was the final phase). The battle had the original aim of pushing through the German lines and threatening the submarine bases on the Belgian coast, but was later restricted to advancing the British Army onto higher (and drier) ground around Ypres, no longer constantly under observation from German artillery. Canadian veterans from the Battle of Vimy Ridge and the Battle of Hill 70 joined the depleted ANZAC and British forces and took the village of Passchendaele on 30 October despite extremely heavy rain and casualties (suffering around 16,000 casualties). Again the offensive produced large numbers of casualties for relatively little gain, though the British made small but inexorable gains during periods of drier weather. The ground was generally muddy and pocketed by shell craters, making supply missions and further advancement very difficult. Both sides lost a combined total of over a half million men during this offensive. The battle has become a byword for bloody and futile slaughter among British historians, whilst the Germans called Passchendaele "the greatest martyrdom of the War". It is one of the two battles (the other is the Battle of the Somme) which have done most to earn British Commander in Chief Sir Douglas Haig his controversial reputation. Passchendaele village, before and after the Battle of Passchendaele The Battle of Passchendaele, otherwise known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was one of the major battles of World War I, fought by British, ANZAC, and Canadian soldiers against the German army near Ypres ( Ieper in Flemish) in West Flanders... Combatants Canada United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Julian Byng Arthur Currie Ludwig von Falkenhausen Strength 200,000 Unknown Casualties 3,598 dead, 7,004 wounded[1][2] 20,000 dead or wounded, 4,000 captured The Battle of Vimy Ridge was one of the opening battles in a larger British... The Battle of Hill 70 took place took place near the French city of Lens on 15 August and 16 August 1917 and was fought between the Canadian Corps under the command of Gen. ... The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (popularly abbreviated as ANZAC) was originally an army corps of Australian and New Zealand troops who fought in World War I at Gallipoli against the Turks. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Field Marshal Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig (June 19, 1861 - January 28, 1928) was a British soldier and senior commander during World War I. He had independent wealth: his family manufactured Haig & Haig whisky. ...


Battle of Cambrai

Main article: Battle of Cambrai

On 20 November the British launched the first massed tank attack during the Battle of Cambrai. The British attacked with 324 tanks, with one-third held in reserve, and twelve divisions, against two German divisions. To maintain surprise, there was no preparatory bombardment; only a curtain of smoke was laid down before the tanks. The machines carried fascines on their fronts to bridge trenches and 4 m-wide (12-foot-wide) German tank traps. Except for the 51st (Highland) Division, who did not advance in columns behind the tanks but as a line across the field, the initial attack was a success for the British. The British forces penetrated further in six hours than had been achieved at the Third Ypres in four months, and at a cost of only 4,000 British casualties.[41]-1... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... -1... A Churchill VIII AVRE carrying a fascine on its front. ... The British 51st (Highland) Division was a Territorial Force division that fought on the Western Front in France during the First World War. ...


However, the advance produced an awkward salient and a surprise German counteroffensive on 30 November drove the British back to their starting lines. Despite the reversal, the attack had been seen as a success by the Allies as it proved that tanks could overcome trench defenses. The battle had also seen the first massed use of German stosstruppen on the western front, which used infantry infiltration tactics to successfully penetrate the allied lines. is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The term Stormtrooper refers to special military troops which were formed in the last year of World War I as the German army developed new methods of attacking enemy trenches, called infiltration tactics. Men trained in these methods were known as Sturmmann (Stormtroopers), formed into companies of Sturmtruppen (Storm Units). ... In warfare, infiltration tactics involve small, lightly-equipped infantry forces attacking enemy rear areas while bypassing enemy front-line strongpoints, isolating them for attack by follow-on friendly troops with heavier weapons. ...


1918—Final offensives

Map of the final German offensives, 1918
Map of the final German offensives, 1918

Following the successful Allied attack and penetration of the German defences at Cambrai, Ludendorff determined that the only opportunity for German victory now lay in a decisive attack along the western front during the spring, before American manpower became a significant presence. On 3 March 1918, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed, and Russia withdrew from the war. This would now have a dramatic effect on the conflict as 44 divisions were now released from Eastern Front for deployment to the west. This would give them an advantage of 192 divisions to the Allied 173 divisions, which allowed Germany to pull veteran units from the line and retrain them as sturmtruppen. In contrast, the Allies still lacked a unified command and suffered from morale and manpower problems: the British and French armies were sorely depleted, and American troops had not yet transitioned into a combat role. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1242x961, 224 KB) Summary Map of the final German offensives on the Western Front (World War I, 1918 From the History Department of the US Military Academy West Point - http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1242x961, 224 KB) Summary Map of the final German offensives on the Western Front (World War I, 1918 From the History Department of the US Military Academy West Point - http://www. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... For other meanings of stormtrooper see Stormtrooper (disambiguation). ...


Ludendorff's strategy would be to launch a massive offensive against the British designed to separate them from the French and drive them back to the channel ports. The attack would combine the new storm troop tactics with ground attack aircraft and a carefully planned artillery barrage that would include gas attacks.


German spring offensives

Main article: Spring Offensive

Operation Michael,[42] the first of the German spring offensives, very nearly succeeded in driving the French and British armies apart, advancing about 40 miles (65 km) during the first eight days and moving the front lines more than 60 miles (100  km) west, within shelling distance of Paris for the first time since 1914. This article is about the First World War. ... This article is about the First World War. ...


As a result of the battle, the two Allies finally agreed on a unified system of command. General Ferdinand Foch was appointed commander of all Allied forces in France. The unified Allies were now better able to respond to each of the German drives, and the offensive turned into a battle of attrition. Ferdinand Foch OM GCB (October 2, 1851 – March 20, 1929) was a French soldier, military theorist, and writer credited with possessing the most original and subtle mind in the French Army in the early 20th century. ...


In May, the American divisions also began to play an increasing role, winning their first victory in the Battle of Cantigny. By summer, 300,000 American soldiers were arriving every month. A total of 2.1 million American troops would be deployed on this front before the war came to an end. The rapidly increasing American presence served as a counter for the large numbers of redeployed German forces. The Battle of Cantigny, fought on 28 May 1918, the second day of the great German offensive was first American offensive of World War I. A regiment of the U.S. 1st Infantry Division (some 4,000 troops), under Major-General Robert Lee Bullard, captured the village of Cantigny, from...


Final allied offensives

A Belgian machinegunner on the front lines in 1918.
A Belgian machinegunner on the front lines in 1918.

In July, Foch initiated an offensive against the Marne salient produced during the German attacks, eliminating the salient by August. A second major offensive was launched two days after the first, ending at Amiens to the north. This attack included Franco-British forces, and was spearheaded by Australian and Canadian troops,[43] along with 600 tanks and supported by 800 aircraft. The assault proved highly successful, leading Hindenburg to name 8 August as the "Black Day of the German Army".[44] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 554 pixelsFull resolution (868 × 601 pixel, file size: 64 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 554 pixelsFull resolution (868 × 601 pixel, file size: 64 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Combatants  France  United Kingdom  United States  German Empire Casualties 168,000 The Second Battle of the Marne, or Battle of Reims, was a major World War I battle fought from July 15 to August 5, 1918, near the Marne River. ... Combatants United Kingdom, France, Canada, Australia Germany Commanders Henry Rawlinson Georg von der Marwitz Strength 4 Aus. ... Amiens is a city and commune in the north of France, 120 km north of Paris. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Map of the final Allied offensives
Map of the final Allied offensives

The German army's manpower had been severely depleted after four years of war, and its economy and society were under great internal strain. The Hundred Days Offensive beginning in August proved the final straw, and following this string of military defeats, German troops began to surrender in large numbers. As the Allied forces broke the German lines at great cost, the Chief QuarterMaster-General of the army, Ludendorff (who had wielded almost dictatorial power in 1917–18), was forced to step aside to allow peace feelers to be extended to the Allies.[citation needed] Fighting was still continuing, but the German armies were in retreat when the German Revolution put a new government in power that quickly signed an armistice which stopped all fighting on the Western Front on Armistice Day (11 November 1918).[45] The German Imperial Monarchy collapsed as Ludendorff's successor General Groener agreed, for fear of a revolution like that in Russia the previous year, to support the moderate Social Democratic Government under Ebert rather than sustain the Hohenzollern Monarchy.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1242x961, 195 KB) Summary Map of the final Allied offensives on the Western Front (World War I, 1918 From the History Department of the US Military Academy West Point - http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1242x961, 195 KB) Summary Map of the final Allied offensives on the Western Front (World War I, 1918 From the History Department of the US Military Academy West Point - http://www. ... Combatants Belgium British Empire France United States of America German Empire Commanders King Albert I Ferdinand Foch Douglas Haig Philippe Petain John Pershing Erich Ludendorff Casualties 411,636 British 531,000 French 127,000+ American 785,733 The Hundred Days Offensive was the final offensive in World War I by... “November Revolution” redirects here. ... A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ... Armistice Day Celebrations in Toronto, Canada - 1918 Armistice Day is the anniversary of the official end of World War I, November 11, 1918. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... German Emperor Wilhelm (born Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albrecht, Prince of Prussia 27 January 1859–4 June 1941), was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (de: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. ...


Consequences

The war along the western front led the German government and its allies to sue for peace in spite of German success elsewhere. As a result the terms of the peace were dictated by France, Britain and the United States, during the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The result was the Treaty of Versailles, signed in June 1919 by a delegation of the new German government. Woodrow Wilson and the American peace commissioners during the negotiations on the Treaty of Versailles. ... Map of the World with the Participants in World War I. The Allies are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in grey. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ...


The terms of the treaty would effectively cripple Germany as an economic and military power. The Versailles treaty returned the border provinces of Alsace-Lorraine to France, thus limiting the coal required by German industry. It also severely limited the German armed forces by restricting the size of the army to 100,000 and disallowing a navy or air force. The navy was sailed to Scapa Flow under the terms of surrender but was later scuttled as an act of defiance by its crews.[citation needed] The west bank of the Rhine would be demilitarized and the Kiel Canal opened to international traffic. The treaties also drastically reshaped Eastern Europe.[46] It has been suggested that Gutter Sound be merged into this article or section. ... German battlecruiser Derfflinger scuttled at Scapa Flow. ... The Kiel Canal (in German Nord-Ostsee-Kanal, formerly Kaiser-Wilhelm-Kanal) is a 98 kilometre long waterway linking the North Sea at Brunsbüttel, Germany to the Baltic Sea at Kiel-Holtenau, Germany. ...

Comparison of Casualties from
Major Western Front Battles
Battle Year Allies German
1st Marne 1914 263,000 250,000
Verdun 1916 377,000+ 336,000+
Somme 1916 623,907 465,000+
2nd Aisne 1917 187,000 168,000
Michael 1918 255,000 239,000

Germany in 1919 was bankrupt, the people living in a state of semi-starvation, and having no commerce with the remainder of the world. The allies occupied the Rhine cities of Cologne, Koblenz and Mainz, with restoration dependent on payment of reparations. Among the German populace, the myth arose—openly cultivated by President Ebert and by the Army Chief of Staff Hindenburg[citation needed]—that the German army had not been defeated, which would later be exploited by Nazi party propaganda to partly justify the overthrow of the Weimar Republic. (See Dolchstoßlegende.) Combatants France United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Joseph Joffre John French Helmuth von Moltke Karl von Bülow Alexander von Kluck Strength 1,071,000 1,485,000 Casualties Approximately 263,000: 250,000 French casualties (80,000 dead) 13,000 British casualties (1,700 dead) Approximately 250,000 total... Combatants  France  German Empire Commanders Philippe Pétain Robert Nivelle Erich von Falkenhayn Strength About 30,000 on 21 February 1916 About 150,000 on 21 February 1916 Casualties 378,000; of whom 120,000 died. ... For other battles known as Battle of the Somme, see Battle of the Somme (disambiguation). ... Combatants France German Empire Commanders Robert Nivelle Charles Mangin François Anthoine Mazel von Boehm Fritz von Below Strength 1. ... This article is about the First World War. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Magazine title from 1924, example of a propaganda illustration in support of the legend The Stab-in-the-back myth (German: Dolchstoßlegende, literally Dagger stab legend) refers to a social myth and persecution-propaganda theory popular in Germany in the period after World War I through World War II...


France suffered heavy damage in the war. In addition to losing more casualties relative to its population than any other great power, the industrial north-east of the country had been devastated by the war. The provinces overrun by Germany had produced 40% of the nation's coal and 58% of its steel output.[47] Once it was clear that Germany was going to be defeated, Ludendorff had ordered the destruction of the mines in France and Belgium.[48] His goal was to cripple the industries of Germany's main European rival. In order to prevent similar German aggression in the future, France later built a massive series of fortifications along the German border known as the Maginot Line.[49] The Maginot Line (IPA: [maʒinoː], named after French minister of defence André Maginot) was a line of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, machine gun posts and other defences which France constructed along its borders with Germany and with Italy, in the light of experience from World War I, and...


The war in the trenches left a generation of maimed soldiers and war widows. The unprecedented loss of life had a lasting effect on popular attitudes toward war, resulting later in an Allied reluctance to pursue an aggressive policy toward Adolf Hitler[50] (himself a decorated veteran of the war). The repercussions of that struggle are still being felt to this day. Hitler redirects here. ...


Maps

American Operations

The American Battle Monuments Commission (ABMC) is a small independent agency of the Executive Branch of the United States federal government. ... The American Battle Monuments Commission (ABMC) is a small independent agency of the Executive Branch of the United States federal government. ... The American Battle Monuments Commission (ABMC) is a small independent agency of the Executive Branch of the United States federal government. ...

Dramatizations

Aces High is a 1976 1st World War film starring Malcolm McDowell, Christopher Plummer and Simon Ward. ... Mulk Raj Anand (December 12, 1905 - September 28, 2004) was an Indian English language author, who depicted the lives of the poorer castes in traditional Indian society. ... For the films, see All Quiet on the Western Front (1930 film) and All Quiet on the Western Front (1979 film). ... Erich Maria Remarque (June 22, 1898 – September 25, 1970) was the pseudonym of Erich Paul Remark, a German author. ... All Quiet on the Western Front is an Academy Award-winning film based on the Erich Maria Remarque novel All Quiet on the Western Front. ... All Quiet on the Western Front is a 150 minute television movie in full color that was released on November 14, 1979, starring actors Richard Thomas from The Waltons fame, and Ernest Borgnine. ... The Big Parade is a 1925 silent film which tells the story of an idle rich boy who is shipped off to France to fight World War I, becomes friends with two working class men, experiences the horrors of trench warfare, and finds love with a French girl. ... Birdsong is a 1993 war novel by the English author Sebastian Faulks. ... Charlotte Gray (1929), 2004 Vintage paperback edition Sebastian Faulks is a highly acclaimed British novelist. ... Blackadder Goes Forth was the fourth and final series of the BBC situation comedy Blackadder, written by Richard Curtis and Ben Elton, which aired from 28 September to 2 November 1989. ... For the BBC Radio 2 show often referred to as the Dawn Patrol, see Sarah Kennedy The Dawn Patrol is a 1930 World War I film starring Richard Barthelmess and Douglas Fairbanks Jr. ... The General may refer to: The General (locomotive), a locomotive stolen in the Great Locomotive Chase of the American Civil War The General (1927 film), a Buster Keaton film about the train chase The General (1998 film), a John Boorman drama about Dublin criminal mastermind Martin Cahill The General (novel... Cecil Scott Forester is the pen name of Cecil Smith (August 27, 1899 - April 2, 1966), an English novelist whose rose to fame with tales of adventure with military themes, notably the 11-book Horatio Hornblower series (being filmed with Ioan Gruffudd as Horatio Hornblower) about naval warfare during the... Generals Die in Bed is a anti-war novel by the Canadian-American writer Charles Yale Harrison. ... Charles Yale Harrison was an American-Canadian novelist and journalist, best known for his 1930 anti-war novel Generals Die in Bed. ... Johnny Got His Gun is a novel written in 1938 (published 1939) by American novelist and screenwriter Dalton Trumbo. ... Legends of the Fall is a 1994 film based on the 1979 novella of the same title by Jim Harrison. ... The Lost Battalion is the 1919 film about the U.S. Armys 77th Division penetrating deep into the Argonne Forest of France during World War I. The film was directed by Burton L. King and was released June 2, 1919 in North America. ... Passchendaele is the name of a film project spearheaded by Canadian actor and director Paul Gross. ... Paths of Glory (1957) is a debatedly anti-war black and white film by Stanley Kubrick based on the novel of the same name by Humphrey Cobb. ... Alan Fisher is a journalist, currently working as the London correspondent for Al Jazeera International. ... For the unsuccessful U.S. weapon system, see M247 Sergeant York. ... Westfront 1918 is German director G.W. Pabsts 1930 film about World War I in Germany based on the novel Vier von der Infanterie by Ernst Johannsen. ... See also: 1929 in film 1930 1931 in film 1930s in film 1920s in film years in film film // Events Top grossing films The Indians Are Coming Madam Satan Der Blaue Engel Academy Awards Best Picture: All Quiet on the Western Front - Universal Studios Best Actress: Norma Shearer - The Divorcee... What Price Glory stars James Cagney as Captain Flagg. ... Wings is a 1927 silent movie about World War I fighter pilots produced and released by Paramount Pictures. ... The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles is a TV series that ran from 1992 to 1996. ...

Notes

  1. ^ First World War 1914 – 1918. Australian War Memorial. Retrieved on 2006-12-05.
  2. ^ Canada in the First World War and the Road to Vimy Ridge (English). Veteran Affairs Canada (1992). Retrieved on 2006-12-05.
  3. ^ Corrigan, Gordon (1999). Sepoys in the Trenches: The Indian Corps on the Western Front 1914–15. Spellmount Ltd.. ISBN 1-86227-354-5. 
  4. ^ See The Royal Newfoundland Regiment
  5. ^ New Zealand and the First World War - Overview. New Zealand's History Online. Retrieved on 2007-01-26.
  6. ^ Uys, I.S.. The South Africans at Delville Wood. The South African Military History Society. Retrieved on 2007-01-26.
  7. ^ Rodrigues, Hugo. Portugal in World War I. The First World War. Retrieved on 2007-01-26.
  8. ^ Griess, 22–24, 25–26.
  9. ^ Griess, 29–30.
  10. ^ Griess, 31–37.
  11. ^ Fuller, 165.
  12. ^ Lyons, 112.
  13. ^ Fuller, 166–7
  14. ^ Fuller, 172–3
  15. ^ Heller, Charles E. (September 1984). Chemical Warfare in World War I: The American Experience, 1917-1918. Combat Studies Institute. Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
  16. ^ Jones, Simon (2002). World War I Gas Warfare Tactics and Equipment. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1846031516. 
  17. ^ Spick, Mike (2002). The Illustrated Directory of Fighters. Zenith Imprint, pp. 326–327. ISBN 0760313431. 
  18. ^ Granatstein, Jack; Morton, Desmond (2003). Canada and the Two World Wars. Toronto: Key Porter, p. 40. 
  19. ^ Campbell, 26–27.
  20. ^ War correspondent E. Alexander Powell, Battle in the Champagne, "Vive la France", 1916.
  21. ^ Palazzo, Albert (2000). Seeking Victory on the Western Front: The British Army and Chemical Warfare in World War I. U of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0803287747. 
  22. ^ Wiest, Andrew A. (2005). Haig: The Evolution of a Commander. Brassey's. ISBN 1574886843. 
  23. ^ Lyons, 141.
  24. ^ Marshall, 236–7.
  25. ^ Campbell, 40.
  26. ^ Lyons, 143.
  27. ^ Martin, William (2001). Verdun 1916: They Shall Not Pass. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 185532993X. 
  28. ^ Foley, Robert T. (2005). German Strategy and the Path to Verdun: Erich Von Falkenhayn and the Development of Attrition 1870-1916. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521841933. 
  29. ^ Lichfield, John. "Verdun: Myths and Memories", The Independent, February 21, 2006. 
  30. ^ Griess, 71–72.
  31. ^ Campbell, 42.
  32. ^ WikiSysop (March 19, 2007). Infantry Section. Canadian Soldiers wiki. Retrieved on 2007-10-10.
  33. ^ Marshall, 288–9.
  34. ^ Griess, 144–5.
  35. ^ Campbell, 71.
  36. ^ Lyons, 243.
  37. ^ Marshall, 292.
  38. ^ Griess, 124.
  39. ^ Fuller, 173–4.
  40. ^ Griess, 124.
  41. ^ Marshall, 317.
  42. ^ Marshall, 353–7.
  43. ^ Amiens 1918, McWilliams & Steel
  44. ^ Griess, 155–156.
  45. ^ Griess, 163.
  46. ^ Duffy, Michael (July 2000). Primary Documents: Treaty of Versailles, 28 June 1919. FirstWorldWar.com. Retrieved on 2007-10-16.
  47. ^ Chickering, Roger; Stig Förster (2000). Great War, Total War: Combat and Mobilization on the Western Front, 1914-1918. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521773520. 
  48. ^ Marshall, 460.
  49. ^ Alexander, Martin S. (1992). The Republic in Danger: General Maurice Gamelin and the Politics of French Defence, 1933–1940. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521524296. 
  50. ^ Adamthwaite, Anthony P. (1989). The Making of the Second World War. Routledge. ISBN 0415907160. 

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Newfoundland Regiment, No. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Campbell, Christopher (1981). Aces and Aircraft of World War I. Dorset: Blandford Press Ltd.. ISBN 0713709545. 
  • Fuller, John F. C. (1992). The Conduct of War, 1789–1961: A study of the impact of the French, Industrial and Russian revolutions on war and its conduct. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0306804670. 
  • Griffiths, William R. (1986). in Thomas E. Griess: The Great War. Wayne, NJ: Avery Publishing Group. ISBN 0895293129. 
  • Lyons, Michael J. (2000). World War I: A Short History, 2nd edition, Prentice Hall. ISBN 0130205516. 
  • Marshall, Samuel L. A. (1964). The American Heritage History of World War I. American Heritage: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0517385554. 

J.F.C. Fuller (September 1, 1878 – February 10, 1966), full name John Frederick Charles Fuller, was a British Major General, military historian and strategist, notable as an early theorist of modern armoured warfare, including categorising principles of warfare. ... Samuel Lyman Atwood Slam Marshall (July 18, 1900 – December 17, 1977) was a chief U.S. Army combat historian during World War II and the Korean War. ...

See also

World War I Portal
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