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Encyclopedia > Western European Union
Union de l'Europe Occidentale
Western European Union
Flag of the Western European Union
Location of the Western European Union
Members • Associate members • Observers • Associate partners
Membership 10 member states
6 associate member states
5 observer countries
7 associate partner countries
Establishment Treaty of Brussels
 -  Signed 17 March 1948 

The Western European Union (WEU) is a partially dormant European defence and security organization, established on the basis of the Treaty of Brussels of 1948 with the accession of West Germany and Italy in 1954. It should not be confused with the European Union (EU). Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is on the 1948 treaty, which served as a basis for the Western Union. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Western European Union. ...

Contents

Treaty of Brussels

Main article: Treaty of Brussels 1948.

The Treaty of Brussels was signed by the United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands on March 17, 1948. It was a mutual intergovernmental self defence treaty which also promoted economic, cultural and social collaboration. As a result of the failure of the European Defence Community on October 23, 1954 the WEU was established by the Paris Accords with the incorporation of the then West Germany and Italy. The signatories of the Paris Agreements clearly stated their three main objectives in the preamble to the modified Brussels Treaty: It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Western European Union. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... The European Defence Community (EDC) was a plan proposed by René Pleven, the French prime minister at the time, in response to the American call for the rearmament of West Germany. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • To create in Western Europe a firm basis for European economic recovery;
  • To afford assistance to each other in resisting any policy of aggression;
  • To promote the unity and encourage the progressive integration of Europe.

The WEU is led by a Council of Ministers, assisted by a Permanent Representatives Council on ambassadorial level. A Parliamentary Assembly (composed of the delegations of the member states to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe) would oversee the work of the Council. Social and cultural aspects of the Brussels Treaty were handed to the Council of Europe to avoid duplication of responsibilities within Europe.[1] Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 6 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General  Terry Davis  -  Commissioner for Human Rights   Establishment  -  Treaty of London 5...


President

The WEU has a rotating 6 month presidency. When the President of the Council of the EU belongs to a country that is also a member of the WEU then that member is also the President of the WEU, and when a non member heads the EU a different member state takes over the presidency. From January 1, 2005 until July 1, 2005 Luxembourg was President. It was then handed over to the UK, which unusually continued as President for a second term on January 1, 2006 when non-member Austria took over the EU presidency. Presidency of the Council of the European Union refers to the responsibility of presiding over all aspects of the Council of the European Union, when exercised collectively by a government, on a pre-established rota of the member states, of the European Union. ... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Secretary-General

The organisation's Secretary-General is Javier Solana, appointed on November 20, 1999. He is also the European Union's High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy and head of the European Defence Agency. Javier Solana Francisco Javier Solana Madariaga (born July 14, 1942 in Madrid, Spain) is the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the Secretary-General of both the Council of the European Union (EU) and the Western European Union (WEU). ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy or CFSP was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1997. ... The European Defence Agency (EDA), based in Brussels, Belgium, is an agency under the Council of the European Union. ...


Current status and future

EDA logo
Defence of the
European Union
Politics
High Representative
Javier Solana
Foreign and Security
Security and Defence
Defence Initiative
Petersberg tasks
Foreign relations
Defence bodies
Defence Agency
EUISS
Satellite Centre
Military Committee
Military Staff
Defence Procurement
Military Forces
Rapid Reaction Force
EUFOR
Battlegroups
Gendarmerie
Eurocorps
Deployments
Related Organisations
WEU
NATO

Originally, under the Amsterdam Treaty, the WEU was given an integral role in giving the EU an independent defence capability, playing a major role in the Petersberg tasks, however that situation has now been changing. On 13 November 2000, WEU Minister met in Marseille and agreed to begin transferring the organisation's capabilities and functions to the European Union, under its developing Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP)[2]. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ... The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy or CFSP was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1997. ... Javier Solana Francisco Javier Solana Madariaga (born July 14, 1942 in Madrid, Spain) is the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the Secretary-General of both the Council of the European Union (EU) and the Western European Union (WEU). ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ... The European Security and Defence Policy or ESDP is a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy pillar of the European Union (EU). ... The European Defence Initiative is a proposal for enhanced European Union defence cooperation presented by France, Germany, Belgium and Luxembourg in Brussels on 29 April 2004. ... The European Security and Defence Policy or ESDP is considered a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy pillar of the European Union (EU). ... Foreign relations of the European Union Foreign relations of Austria Foreign relations of Belgium Foreign relations of Cyprus Foreign relations of the Czech Republic Foreign relations of Denmark Foreign relations of Estonia Foreign relations of Finland Foreign relations of France Foreign relations of Germany Foreign relations of Greece Foreign relations... The European Defence Agency (EDA), based in Brussels, Belgium, is an agency under the Council of the European Union. ... The European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS) came into being on July 20, 2001 as a replacement to the Western European Union Institute for Security Studies, and thus represents a part of the transfer of functions from the Western European Union (WEU) to the European Union EU, and more... The European Union Satellite Centre (EUSC) was set up in 2002 in order to replace the Western Union Satellite Centre and thus represents a part of the transfer of functions from the Western European Union (WEU) to the European Union EU, and more specifically to the Common Foreign and Security... We dont have an article called European Union Military Committee Start this article Search for European Union Military Committee in. ... More on the Council of the European Union; General Secretariat of the Council of the European Union; Private office; Departments attached to the Secretary-General/High Representative; See also Military of the European Union External links http://www. ... European defence procurement refers to the collective armaments purchasing polices of European nations. ... The European Union is not a state and does not have its own dedicated military forces, although there are a number of multi-national military and peacekeeping forces which are ultimately under the command of the EU. An early attempt (1952) to form a European Defence Community failed, and no... This article is about European Union military force. ... EUFOR former Commander General David Leakey. ... The European Union battlegroups is a project done in the context of the European Security and Defence Policy. ... The European Gendarmerie Force or EGF was launched by an agreement between five members of the European Union (France, Italy, Spain, Portugal and the Netherlands) and its purpose was the creation of a European intervention force which would have military police (gendarmerie) functions, and be specialized in crisis management. ... The badge of the Eurocorps Eurocorps is a force which consists of up to 60,000 soldiers drawn from the armies of Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg and Spain. ... The European Security and Defence Policy or ESDP is a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy pillar of the European Union (EU). ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts The Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, commonly known as the Amsterdam Treaty, was signed on... The European Security and Defence Policy or ESDP is considered a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy pillar of the European Union (EU). ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban Community of Marseille Provence M... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ... The European Security and Defence Policy or ESDP is a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy pillar of the European Union (EU). ...


For example, on 1 January 2002, the WEU's Security Studies Institute and the Satellite Centre were transferred to the EU and became the European Union Institute for Security Studies and the European Union Satellite Centre. Notably, the role given to the WEU in the Amsterdam Treaty, was removed by the Nice Treaty and the European Constitution gives the role of collective defence to NATO[3]. However the defence commitment, of Article 4 of the Brussels Treaty, has not been subsumed.[4] is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS) came into being on July 20, 2001 as a replacement to the Western European Union Institute for Security Studies, and thus represents a part of the transfer of functions from the Western European Union (WEU) to the European Union EU, and more... The European Union Satellite Centre (EUSC) was set up in 2002 in order to replace the Western Union Satellite Centre and thus represents a part of the transfer of functions from the Western European Union (WEU) to the European Union EU, and more specifically to the Common Foreign and Security... The Treaty of Nice is a treaty adopted in Nice by the European Council to amend the two founding treaties of the European Union: the Treaty on European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, which introduced the Euro and the 3-pillar structure of the EU; the Treaty of Rome, which established... The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, commonly referred to as the European Constitution, is an international treaty intended to create a constitution for the European Union. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ...


A summary of some of the moves towards a merger of the WEU into the EU;

With the transfer of responsibilities, the WEU's Parliamentary assembly was urged to dissolve itself, as it had a mandate to supervise WEU politics, not the EU's ESDP politics. But the Assembly saw itself as playing an important role, particularly with greater right of scrutiny, membership, experience and expertise in defence policy. Therefore, it renamed itself the "Interim European Security and Defence Assembly" and urged the European Convention to include it as a second chamber within the EU's institutional framework. Hence it argued it could effectively scrutinise the ESDP, help improve EU-NATO relations and be more suited, being composed of national parliamentarians, to the intergovernmental style of the ESDP. November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... Javier Solana Francisco Javier Solana Madariaga (born July 14, 1942 in Madrid, Spain) is the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the Secretary-General of both the Council of the European Union (EU) and the Western European Union (WEU). ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ... The European Security and Defence Policy or ESDP is considered a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy pillar of the European Union (EU). ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar). ... The Amsterdam Treaty (in full: Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts) which was signed on October 2, 1997, and entered into force on May 1, 1999, made substantial changes to the Treaty on European Union which... The European Security and Defence Policy or ESDP is a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy pillar of the European Union (EU). ... The European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS) came into being on July 20, 2001 as a replacement to the Western European Union Institute for Security Studies, and thus represents a part of the transfer of functions from the Western European Union (WEU) to the European Union EU, and more... The European Union Satellite Centre (EUSC) was set up in 2002 in order to replace the Western Union Satellite Centre and thus represents a part of the transfer of functions from the Western European Union (WEU) to the European Union EU, and more specifically to the Common Foreign and Security... The Treaty of Maastricht which established the European Union, divided EU policies into three main areas, called pillars. ... The European Convention, sometimes known as the Convention on the Future of Europe, was a body established by the European Council in December 2001 as a result of the Laeken Declaration. ...


However with the European Constitution aiming to streamline and simplify the EU's foreign policy, for example combining the two main foreign policy posts, it was not seen as wise to then create a separate double legislature for the CFSP, instead, the European Parliament was granted greater scrutiny over foreign policy.[5] Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou Alejo Vidal-Quadras Gérard Onesta Edward McMillan-Scott Mario Mauro Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez Luigi Cocilovo Mechtild Rothe Luisa Morgantini Pierre Moscovici Manuel António...


The full merger of WEU into the EU is not yet achieved, or even certain. Even though functions such as crisis-management now fall under the EU, wider membership could mean it continues to exist in some form for a while.[6]. New York University's book, Defending Europe, paints the situation as a "revival of the WEU" rather than a shutting down of it. New York University (NYU) is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university in New York City. ...


Participating states

The Western European Union has 10 member countries, 6 associate member countries, 5 observer countries and 7 associate partner countries. On June 14, 2001, Solana stated that there was no foreseeable reason to change the status of the non member countries in the organisation. June 14 is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...

Member countries: (modified Brussels Treaty - 1954)

All of them being members of both NATO and the European Union. These are the only nations that have full voting rights. NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ...

Observer countries: (Rome - 1992) Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ...


Observer countries are members of the European Union, but not of NATO. 1

1 Denmark is an exception, being member of both. It has an opt-out from the Treaty of Maastricht (1992), so that it does not participate in the ESDP of the European Union. Thus in respect to the WEU it would have been more appropriate for it to be regarded as non-EU NATO member state (WEU associate status). Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Opt-out is a method of requiring a targetted individual to explicitly respond to a solicitation in order to keep from receiving some service or widget, usually used in marketing. ... The Maastricht treaty (formally, the Treaty on European Union) was signed on 7 February 1992 in Maastricht between the members of the European Community and entered into force on 1 November 1993. ... The European Security and Defence Policy or ESDP is a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy pillar of the European Union (EU). ...

Associate member countries: (Rome - 1992)

Associate membership was created to include the European countries that were members of NATO but not of the European Union. Since then, Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary have also joined the EU. NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ...

Associate partner countries: (Kirchberg - 1994) Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iceland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ...


Countries that at the time were part of neither NATO nor of the EU. All of the following nations have since joined both NATO and the EU.

Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ...

Eurofor

On 15 May 1995, the Council of Ministers of the WEU met in Lisbon. Declaration of Eurofor's (European Operational Rapid Force) creation was made by France, Italy, Spain and Portugal. Eurofor became operation in June 1998 as a task force of the Western European Union.[7] is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Eurofor is a multinational rapid reaction force composed of forces from France, Spain, Portugal, and Italy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


Subsidiary bodies

Western European Armaments Group' (WEAG) was established as a forum for armaments cooperation in 1976 with the aim of creating a European Armaments Agency. Its membership reached 19 in 2000: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Turkey and the United Kingdom. The body closed on 23 May 2005. WEAG website


Western European Armaments Organisation (WEAO) was intended as an Armaments Agency but operations are currently limited to a research cell. It provides support services in defence research and technology. It was created in 1996. WEAO Website


See also

A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ... Collective defense is an arrangement, usually formalized by a treaty and an organization, among participant states that commit support in defense of a member state if it is attacked by another state outside the organization. ... Collective Security is a system aspiring to the maintenance of peace, in which participants agree that any breach of the peace is to be declared to be of concern to all the participating states, and will result in a collective response. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ the Western European Union ena.lu
  2. ^ Marseille Declaration 2000 weu.int
  3. ^ Western European Union (WEU) europa.eu
  4. ^ EU Security Policy & the Role of the European Commission ec.europa.eu
  5. ^ Occasional Paper n.57: The democratic legitimacy of the European Security and Defence Policy European Union Institute for Security Studies, April 2005
  6. ^ WRITTEN QUESTION E-3750/00 by Ioannis Marínos (PPE-DE) to the Council. Incorporation of the WEU within the EU. eur-lex.europa.eu
  7. ^ Eurofor eurofor.it

  Results from FactBites:
 
Western European Union - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (840 words)
Not to be confused with the European Union (EU), the Western European Union (WEU) is a partially dormant European defence and security organization, established on the basis of the Treaty of Brussels of 1948 with the accession of West Germany and Italy in 1954.
As a result of the failure of the European Defence Community on October 23, 1954 the WEU was established with the incorporation of the then West Germany and Italy.
The Petersberg tasks, declared by the WEU in 1992, were incorporated in 1997 into the treaty of Amsterdam of the EU, forming the basis of the European Security and Defence Policy which frames a common policy to deal with humanitarian and rescue, peacekeeping and tasks of combat forces in crisis management, including peacemaking.
Western European Union. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (282 words)
Since Western military cooperation had been dominated by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and Western economic coordination by the European Economic Community and later the European Free Trade Association, the primary function of the WEU was to supervise the rearmament of Germany, as provided for under the Paris Pacts.
In 1960, the WEU transferred its cultural and social activities to the Council of Europe.
Under the Maastricht Treaty (1992), the WEU was envisioned as the future military arm of the European Union (EU); it remained institutionally autonomous.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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