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Encyclopedia > Western Europe
A current understanding of Western Europe.

Western Europe is mainly a socio-political concept forged during the Cold War, which largely defined its borders. Its boundaries were effectively forged during the final stages of World War II and came to encompass all European countries which did not come under Soviet control and influence. As such these capitalist First World countries did not see communist regimes imposed upon them. Neutral countries were classified by the nature of their political regimes. Image File history File links Western-Europe-map. ... Image File history File links Western-Europe-map. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were used to divide the nations of Earth into three broad categories. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Neutrality: Neutrality in international law is the status of a nation that refrains from participation in a war between other states and maintains an impartial attitude toward the belligerents. ...


In common perception and usage, Western Europe was, and still is in a lesser extent, distinguished from Eastern Europe by differences of culture, politics, and economics and its borders have little to do with clear and precise geography. Cultural and religious boundaries between these two regions are subject to considerable overlap and – most importantly – historical fluctuation, which makes a precise understanding somewhat difficult. Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual...


The term is commonly associated, but not clearly delimited, with liberal democracy, capitalism, and also with the European Union. Most of the countries in this region share Western culture, and many have economic, historical, and political ties with countries in North and South America, and Oceania (see also: Western world). Liberal democracy is a form of government. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ...



It includes:

Contents

Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iceland. ... This article describes the archipelago in north-Western Europe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Liechtenstein. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Location of Benelux in Europe Official languages Dutch and French Membership  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Website http://www. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Monaco. ... Satellite view of the Peninsula in spring The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1,000 km from the Alps in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_San_Marino. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Vatican_City. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malta. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Andorra. ... Location of the British Overseas Territories The British Overseas Territories are fourteen[1] territories which the United Kingdom considers to be under its sovereignty, but not as part of the United Kingdom itself. ...

UN geopraphical definition

Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Western Europe marked light blue):      Northern Europe      Western Europe      Eastern Europe      Southern Europe

Alternatively for the United Nations, Western Europe is also a less-known geographic subregion of Europe that is far more restrictive than traditional political and cultural reckonings; [2], it comprises the following nine countries: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (984x924, 72 KB) Summary Map: Europe (location), subregions as delineated by United Nations geographic classification scheme:  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  (Northern) Asian portion of Russia  Southern Europe  Countries of Western Asia with partial territory in Southern Europe – Turkey (Trakya... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (984x924, 72 KB) Summary Map: Europe (location), subregions as delineated by United Nations geographic classification scheme:  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  (Northern) Asian portion of Russia  Southern Europe  Countries of Western Asia with partial territory in Southern Europe – Turkey (Trakya... Look up Region in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Southern Europe is a region of the European continent. ... Physical map of the Earth (Medium) (Large 2 MB) Geography is the scientific study of the locational and spatial variation in both physical and human phenomena on Earth. ... The definition of continental subregions in use by the United Nations. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Liechtenstein. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Monaco. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ...

Classical antiquity and medieval origins

The earliest known distinctions between east and west in Europe originate in the history of the Roman Republic. As Roman domain expanded a cultural and linguistical division appeared between the mainly Greek-speaking eastern provinces which had formed the highly urbanized Hellenistic civilization. On contrast the western territories largely adopted the Latin language. This cultural and linguistic division was eventually reinforced by the later political east-west division of the Roman Empire. This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... The term Hellenistic (derived from Héllēn, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


The division between these two spheres was enhanced during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages by a number of events. The Western Roman Empire collapsed starting the Early Middle Ages. By contrast, the Eastern Roman Empire, mostly known as Byzantine Empire, managed to survive and even to thrive for another 1000 years. The rise of the Frankish Empire in the west, and in particular the Great Schism that formally divided Eastern and Western Christianity, enhanced the cultural and religious distinctiveness between Eastern and Western Europe. Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ... For the later Papal Schism in Avignon, see Western Schism. ... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Western Christianity is a...


The conquest of the Byzantine Empire, center of the Eastern Orthodox Church, by the Muslim Ottoman Empire in the 15th century, and the gradual fragmentation of the Holy Roman Empire (which had replaced the Frankish empire) led to a change of the importance of Roman Catholic/Protestant vs. Eastern Orthodox concept in Europe. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ...


Historical events like the Renaissance, the Protestant Reformation by Martin Luther and the Counter-Reformation of the Catholic Church, the Age of Enlightenment, the French Revolution, and the Industrial Revolution are considered to be common experiences which have shaped Western European culture and identity. During the Age of Discovery, most of the western European countries colonized Africa, Asia, South and North America. All these historical events and cultural developments have influence over the Western European concept. The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... “Reformation” redirects here. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... 18th century philosophy redirects here. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... For the computer wargame, Age of Discovery, see Global Diplomacy. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ...

The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. The Iron Curtain separated the European members of NATO (in blue) from the members of the Warsaw Pact (in red). Neutral coutries were classified by the nature of their political system.
The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. The Iron Curtain separated the European members of NATO (in blue) from the members of the Warsaw Pact (in red). Neutral coutries were classified by the nature of their political system.

Image File history File links Iron_Curtain_Final. ... Image File history File links Iron_Curtain_Final. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ...

The Cold War divides Europe into the Eastern/Western blocs

During the final stages of WWII the future of Europe was decided between the Allies in the 1945 Yalta Conference, between the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Winston Churchill, the President of the United States Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and the Premier of the Soviet Union Joseph Stalin. Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... “Churchill” redirects here. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from...


Post-war Europe would be divided into two major spheres: the "West" mainly influenced by the USA, and the Eastern Bloc dominated by the Soviet Union. With the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided by the Iron Curtain. The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ...


This term had been used during World War II by German Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels and later Count Lutz Schwerin von Krosigk in the last days of the war; however, its use was hugely popularised by Winston Churchill, who used it in his famous "Sinews of Peace" address March 5, 1946 at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri: Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Propagandaministerium () (or State Ministry for Public enlightenment and Propaganda) was the Ministry of propaganda in Nazi Germany. ... Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: ) (29 October 1897–1 May 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ... Count Johann Ludwig (Lutz) Schwerin von Krosigk, EK, (August 22, 1887–March 4, 1977) was a German politician. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Westminster College is a private, liberal arts institution in Fulton, Missouri, USA. It was founded by Presbyterians in 1851 as Fulton College and assumed the present name two years later. ... Fulton is a city located in Callaway County, Missouri. ...

From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow.

Although some countries were officially neutral, they were classified according to the nature of their political and economical systems. This division largely defined the popular perception and understanding of Western Europe and its borders with Eastern Europe till this day. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Nickname: Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: , Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area  - City 496 km²  (191. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official mentioned) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km²  (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Neutrality: Neutrality in international law is the status of a nation that refrains from participation in a war between other states and maintains an impartial attitude toward the belligerents. ...


A divided Europe

Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe was mainly composed of all the European countries liberated and then occupied by the Soviet army. It included the German Democratic Republic, widely known as East Germany, formed by the Soviet occupation zone of Germany. All the countries in Eastern Europe had communist regimes imposed upon them. Most of these countries were officially independent from the Soviet Union, but the practical extent of this independence was quite limited. In some matters many of them were little more than client-states of the Soviet Union. “East Germany” redirects here. ... The Soviet Occupation Zone (German: Sowjetische Besatzungszone (SBZ) or Ostzone) was the area of eastern Germany occupied by the Soviet Union from 1945 on, at the end of World War II. It became East Germany. ... Satellite state or client state is a political term that refers to a country which is formally independent but which is primarily subject to the domination of another, larger power. ...

  • The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (formed after WWII and before its later dismemberment) was not a member of the Warsaw Pact. It was a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement, an organization created in an attempt to avoid being assigned to any of the two blocs. It was demonstratively independent from the Soviet Union for most of the Cold War period, but because of its communist regime it was widely regarded part of the Eastern/communist bloc.
  • Albania broke with the Soviet Union in the early 1960s as a result of the Sino-Soviet split, aligning itself instead with China. Despite this, it had a communist regime and thus was considered part of the Eastern/communist bloc.

Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throuout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ...

Western Europe

Western Europe was and is composed by:

  • United Kingdom and France, victors of World War II.
  • The Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg countries who had been occupied by Nazi Germany and subsequently liberated by the Western allies.
  • The Federal Republic of Germany, widely known as West Germany, which had been formed by the three occupation zones of Germany belonging to the Western Allies (USA, UK and France).
  • Italy, a former Axis Power who had surrendered and been occupied by the Western Allies.
  • Ireland gained its independence in the 1920s from the United Kingdom. It stayed neutral during World War II. It never joined NATO but it joined the European Union in 1973.
  • The Nordic countries were a peculiar case. Denmark and Norway had been conquered by Nazi Germany but were not liberated by the allies. During the war Iceland, united with Denmark under a common king, had been invaded and occupied by the United Kingdom and the United States without any casualties by either side.
  • Sweden had managed to remain neutral throughout the war.
  • Finland had been a co-belligerent of Germany against the Soviet Union and it had been defeated, but was not conquered or occupied. (for further details see:Continuation War). The peace treaty between Finland and the Soviet Union stipulated that the Soviet Union would annex minor parts of Finland, and that Finland would have friendly relations with the Soviet Union (see also: Moscow Armistice).
  • Austria and Switzerland are also a peculiar case. Austria had been incorporated into Nazi Germany through the Anschluss before the war, while Switzerland had managed to remain neutral throughout the WWII. After the war both of them remained neutral, in the case of Austria through the Austrian State Treaty. Austria later joined the European Union but not NATO. Switzerland declined membership of NATO and the European Union and joined EFTA instead.

Other countries also became increasingly part of Western Europe. Almost all countries of Western Europe received economical assistance from the United States through the Marshall Plan. Many joined NATO and/or the European Union or its rival, the European Free Trade Association. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The 1920s is a decade that is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... The Emergency was an official euphemism used by the Irish Government (of the State now known as the Republic of Ireland) during the 1940s to refer to its position during World War II. The State was officially neutral during World War II and in government media, direct references to the... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... The Invasion of Iceland, codenamed Operation Fork, was a British military operation conducted by the Royal Navy and the Royal Marines during World War II. The invasion began with British troops disembarking in Reykjavík, capital of neutral Iceland in the early morning of May 10, 1940. ... Co-belligerence is a term for waging of war together - against a common enemy. ... Combatants  Finland Germany Italy1  Soviet Union Commanders C.G.E. Mannerheim Kirill Meretskov Leonid Govorov Strength 530,000 Finns[1] 220,000 Germans 900,000–1,500,000[2] Casualties 58,715 dead or missing 158,000 wounded 1,500 civilian dead[3] 200,000 dead or missing 385,000... The Paris Peace Conference (July 29 to October 15, 1946) resulted in the Paris peace treaties signed on February 10, 1947. ... Ceremonies during the annexation of Hawaii. ... The areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union after the Continuation War. ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... Occupation zones in Austria, 1945-1955 The Austrian Independence Treaty (complete form: Treaty for the re-establishment of an independent and democratic Austria, signed in Vienna on the 15 May 1955), more commonly referred to as the Austrian State Treaty (German Staatsvertrag), was signed on May 15, 1955 in Vienna... The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) was established on May 3, 1960 as an alternative for European states that were not allowed or did not wish to join the European Community (now the European Union). ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) was established on May 3, 1960 as an alternative for European states that were not allowed or did not wish to join the European Community (now the European Union). ...

  • Countries who were under the rule of dictators, Portugal, Spain, and Greece became parliamentarian democracies in the mid-1970s. The first two are situated in the geographic south-west of Europe, while the last one is located in the south-east of it. All of them joined NATO and also the European Union.
  • The European microstates of Vatican City, San Marino, Monaco, Andorra and Liechtenstein are considered part of Western Europe but they are mainly overlooked. Many of these states have special agreements and treaties with the European Union.
  • The legal status of many of the Overseas territories in Europe (Gibraltar, Channel Islands, Faroe Islands, etc) are peculiar and vary from case to case. Despite all that, they are also part of Western Europe.
  • Malta is generally considered part of Western Europe[3].

The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The European microstates are a handful of very small sovereign states on the European continent and the surrounding islands. ... This article is about the British dependencies. ...

Turkey

A transcontinental nation is a country belonging to more than one continent. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ...

Later political developments

The world changed dramatically with the fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989. The Federal Republic of Germany peacefully absorbed the Democratic Republic of Germany, leading to the German reunification. COMECON and the Warsaw Pact were dissolved, and in 1991, the Soviet Union ceased to exist. Several countries which had been part of the Soviet Union regained their full independence. German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, in English commonly called West Germany). The start of this reunification process is commonly referred to...


Although the term Western Europe was largely defined of the Cold War, it still remains much in use. The term is commonly used in the media and in everyday use both in "western" and other regions of Europe.


The term Central Europe reappeared. Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ...


Western Europe has increasingly less to do with the European Union. The 1995, 2004, and 2007 enlargements saw many eastern countries joining the EU, and a view that Europe is divided strictly into the West and the East is sometimes considered patronising or pejorative by many in the nominally eastern countries. The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ...


See also

 â€¢  â€¢  â€¢ Membership 10 member states 6 associate member states 5 observer countries 7 associate partner countries Establishment Treaty of Brussels  -  Signed 17 March 1948  The Western European Union (WEU) is a partially dormant European defence and security organization, established on the basis of the Treaty of Brussels of 1948 with the... The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ... The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were used to divide the nations of Earth into three broad categories. ... New Europe is a rhetorical term used by conservative political analysts in the United States to describe European post-Communist countries. ... In January 2003 the term Old Europe surfaced after U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld used it to refer to European countries that did not support the 2003 invasion of Iraq, most notably France and Germany. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ...

References and notes

  • The Making of Europe, ISBN 0-14-015409-4, by Robert Bartlett
  • Crescent and Cross, ISBN 1-84212-753-5, by Hugh Bicheno
  • The Normans, ISBN 0-7524-2881-0, by Trevor Rowley
  • 1066 The Year of the Three Battles, ISBN 0-7126-6672-9, by Frank McLynn
  1. ^ The term British Isles is controversial in relation to Ireland where its use is objected by the government of the Irish Republic and many of its citizens. (See British Isles naming dispute).
  2. ^ United Nations Statistics Division: "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings"
  3. ^ United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization: Western Europe

Hugh Bicheno is a living British-American military historian most famous for his revisionist interpretations of the origins of the American Revolution, which are extensively explored in his acclaimed publication Rebels and Redcoats: The American Revolutionary War. ... It has been suggested that British Isles#Names of the islands through the ages be merged into this article or section. ...

External links


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Europe is bounded to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the west by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Mediterranean Sea, and–according to the traditional geographic definition–to the southeast by the waterways adjoining the Mediterranean to and including the Black Sea, and the Caucasus Mountains (in Caucasia).
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