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Encyclopedia > West Bank
Local Government in the West Bank
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Image File history File links Size of this preview: 297 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (648 × 1308 pixel, file size: 101 KB, MIME type: image/png) Modification of existing WikiCommons map: http://upload. ...

Tulkarm
Tubas
Qalqilya
Salfit
Ramallah and Al-Bireh
Megilot
HEBRON
Hebron
YATTA

The West Bank (Arabic: الضفة الغربية, aḍ-Ḍiffä l-Ġarbīyä, Hebrew: הגדה המערבית‎, Hagadah Hamaaravit), also known as Judea and Samaria, is a landlocked territory on the west bank of the Jordan River in the Middle East. It has been suggested that Anem be merged into this article or section. ... JENIN Jenin TULKARM Tulkarm Tubas NABLUS Nablus Shomron Qalqilya QALQILYA Salfit ARIEL RAMALLAH Ramallah and Al-Bireh Matte Binyamin MODIIN ILLIT JERICHO Biqat HaYarden Jericho MAALE ADUMMIM JERUSALEM Jerusalem BETAR ILLIT BETHLEHEM Gush Etzion Bethlehem Megilot HEBRON Hebron Har Hebron YATTA The Jenin Governorate (Arabic: ) is one... Nickname: City of Generosity Motto: {{{motto}}} Official website: City of Tulkarm Location Location in Palestine Government Neighbourhoods Al-Salam, Al-Sowana, Dhinnaba, Iktaba, Irtah, Iskan Al-Mozafeen, Izbat Al-Jarad, Izbat Naser, Nur Shams Camp, Shuwaykah, Tulkarm Camp Mayor Mahmoud Al-Jallad Geographical characteristics Area 246 km² Land 246 km... JENIN Jenin TULKARM Tulkarm Tubas NABLUS Nablus Shomron Qalqilya QALQILYA Salfit ARIEL RAMALLAH Ramallah and Al-Bireh Matte Binyamin MODIIN ILLIT JERICHO Biqat HaYarden Jericho MAALE ADUMMIM JERUSALEM Jerusalem BETAR ILLIT BETHLEHEM Gush Etzion Bethlehem Megilot HEBRON Hebron Har Hebron YATTA The Tubas Governorate (Arabic: ) is an... Map of the West Bank, with Nablus in the center north. ... The Nablus Governorate is one of a number of Governorates of the West Bank and Gaza Strip within the Palestinian Territories, located in the Central Highlands of the West Bank, 63 km north of Jerusalem. ... Offices of the Shomron R.C. Shomron Regional Council emblem The Shomron Regional Council (Hebrew:מועצה אזורית שומרון) is a regional council in the northern Samarian hills, also known as the northern part of the northern half of the West Bank. ... JENIN Jenin TULKARM Tulkarm Tubas NABLUS Nablus Shomron Qalqilya QALQILYA Salfit ARIEL RAMALLAH Ramallah and Al-Bireh Matte Binyamin MODIIN ILLIT JERICHO Biqat HaYarden Jericho MAALE ADUMMIM JERUSALEM Jerusalem BETAR ILLIT BETHLEHEM Gush Etzion Bethlehem Megilot HEBRON Hebron Har Hebron YATTA The Qalqilya Governorate (Arabic: ) is an... Qalqilyah (Arabic قلقيلية ; Standard Hebrew קלקיליה Qalqilya) is a Palestinian city in the West Bank. ... The city of Ariel (Hebrew: ) is an Israeli settlement located north of the Palestinian town of Salfit on the West Bank, in the Biblical region of Samaria near the ancient village of Timnat Serah. ... Ramallah (Arabic:  ) is a Palestinian city in the West Bank of approximately 57,000 residents. ... JENIN Jenin TULKARM Tulkarm Tubas NABLUS Nablus Shomron Qalqilya QALQILYA Salfit ARIEL RAMALLAH Ramallah and Al-Bireh Matte Binyamin MODIIN ILLIT JERICHO Biqat HaYarden Jericho MAALE ADUMMIM JERUSALEM Jerusalem BETAR ILLIT BETHLEHEM Gush Etzion Bethlehem Megilot HEBRON Hebron Har Hebron YATTA The Ramallah and al-Bireh Governorate... The Matte Binyamin Regional Council (Hebrew:מועצה אזורית מטה בנימין) is a regional council in the southern Samarian hills, or rather, the southern part of the northern area of the West Bank. ... Modiin Illit () is an Israeli settlement in Samaria (Northern West Bank). ... The Taking of Jericho, by Jean Fouquet Near central Jericho, November 1996 Jericho (Arabic  , Hebrew  , ʼArīḥā; Standard YÉ™riḥo Tiberian YÉ™rîḫô / YÉ™rîḥô; meaning fragrant.[1] Greek Ἱεριχώ) is a town in Palestine, located within the Jericho Governorate, near the Jordan River. ... The Biqat Hayarden Regional Council (Hebrew: ), lit. ... The Jericho Governorate is one of 16 Governorates of the West Bank and Gaza Strip (administrative districts) within the Palestinian Territories. ... Hebrew מעלה אדומים Name Meaning Red Ascent Founded in 1976 Government City (from 1991) District Judea and Samaria Area Population 33,259 (2006) Jurisdiction 50,000 dunams (50 km²) Mayor Benny Kashriel Maale Adummim (Hebrew: ; unofficially also spelled Maale Adumim) is an Israeli settlement in the Judea region of the occupied... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... Image:Jerusalem Governorate. ... Betar Illit (ביתר עילית; unofficially also spelled Beitar Illit -- Illit is pronounced: Eeleet) is an Israeli town in Gush Etzion, a group of villages and towns in the Northern Judea region of the West Bank. ... Central Bethlehem This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... Main headquarters The Gush Etzion Regional Council (Hebrew: ) is a regional council in the northern Judean hills, or rather, the northern part of the southern area of the West Bank, administering the settlements in the Gush Etzion region, as well as others nearby. ... The Bethlehem Governorate is one of a number of Governorates of the West Bank and Gaza Strip within the Palestinian Territories, It covers an area of the West Bank, south of Jerusalem, the area around the City of Bethlehem. ... Arabic الخليل Government City Also Spelled al-Khalil (officially) al-Halil (unofficially) Governorate Hebron Population 166,000 (2006) Jurisdiction  dunams Head of Municipality Mustafa Abdel Nabi Hebron (Arabic:   al-ḪalÄ«l or al KhalÄ«l; Hebrew:  , Standard Hebrew: Ḥevron, Tiberian Hebrew: Ḥeḇrôn) is a city in the southern Judea... JENIN Jenin TULKARM Tulkarm Tubas NABLUS Nablus Shomron Qalqilya QALQILYA Salfit ARIEL RAMALLAH Ramallah and Al-Bireh Matte Binyamin MODIIN ILLIT JERICHO Biqat HaYarden Jericho MAALE ADUMMIM JERUSALEM Jerusalem BETAR ILLIT BETHLEHEM Gush Etzion Bethlehem Megilot HEBRON Hebron Har Hebron YATTA The Hebron Governorate (Arabic: ) is an... The Har Hebron Regional Council (Hebrew: ) is a regional council in the southern Judean Hills, or rather, the southern part of the West Bank, administering villages in the Hebron region, as well as others nearby. ... Yatta or Yattah (Arabic: ) is a Palestinian city located in the Hebron Governorate on a high approximately 8km south of the city of Hebron in the West Bank. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into West Bank. ... A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. ... The Jordan River runs along the border between the West Bank and the Kingdom of Jordan Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign In spring The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


After the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire in 1922, this territory was part of the British Mandate of Palestine. The 1948 Arab-Israeli War saw the establishment of Israel in the former mandate, while the Gaza Strip was captured by Egypt. The West Bank was captured and annexed by Jordan, and the 1949 Armistice Agreements defined its interim boundary. From 1948 until 1967, the area was under Jordanian rule, though Jordan did not officially relinquish its claim to the area until 1988. It was captured by Israel [1][2] during the Six-Day War. With the exception of East Jerusalem it was not annexed by Israel, although most of the West Bank remains under Israeli military occupation. Large numbers of Israeli settlements have also been built in the region. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... Combatants  Israel, Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising to 115,000 by... Ceremonies during the annexation of Hawaii. ... The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. ... Map of the West Bank today Rule of the West Bank and East Jerusalem by Jordan. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Saudi Arabia Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Israeli settlement. ...

Contents

Origin of the name

West Bank

The region did not have a separate existence until 1948–9, when it was defined by the Armistice Agreement between Israel and Jordan. The name "West Bank" was apparently first used by Jordanians at the time of their annexation of the region, and has become the most common name used in English and related languages. The term literally means 'the West bank of the river Jordan'; the Kingdom of Jordan being on the 'East bank' of this same river Jordan. The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. ... Ceremonies during the annexation of Hawaii. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Judea and Samaria

Prior to this usage of the name "West Bank", the region was commonly referred to as Judea and Samaria, its long-standing name. For example, U.N. Resolution 181, the 1947 partition plan, explicitly refers to the central section of the Arab State as "the hill country of Samaria and Judea". For region boundaries set forth in the resolution see the text here. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into West Bank. ... (Redirected from 1947 partition plan) Map showing the UN Partition Plan. ...


Israelis refer to the region either as a unit: "The West Bank" (Hebrew: "ha-Gada ha-Ma'aravit" "הגדה המערבית"), or as two units: Judea (Hebrew: "Yehuda" "יהודה") and Samaria (Hebrew: "Shomron" "שומרון"), after the two biblical kingdoms (the southern Kingdom of Judah and the northern Kingdom of Israel — the capital of which was, for a time, in the town of Samaria). The border between Judea and Samaria is a belt of territory immediately north of (and historically traditionally including) Jerusalem sometimes called the "land of Benjamin". The name Judea and Samaria has been in continual use by Jews as well as various others since biblical times. This name carries an emotional meaning to many Jews as the cradle of Jewish Nation is derived from the time of King David in the region, the main religious sites and tombs are present there, and continuous Jewish communities were concentrated in the area throughout the years. “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... It has been suggested that Sebastia, Middle East be merged into this article or section. ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut YÉ™huda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ YÉ™hûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah... 10th century BCE: The Land of Israel, including the United Kingdom of Israel Commonwealth of Israel redirects here. ... Binyamin (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ) was, according to the Book of Genesis, a son of Jacob, and the second (and final) son of Rachel, and the founder of the Israelite Tribe of Benjamin[1]; in the Biblical account, unlike Rachels first son - Joseph, the father of Ephraim and Manasseh - Benjamin... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... This page is about the Biblical king David. ...


Cisjordan/Transjordan

The neo-Latin name Cisjordan or Cis-Jordan (literally "on this side of the [River] Jordan") is the usual name in the Romance languages and Hungarian. The analogous Transjordan has historically been used to designate the region now comprising the state of Jordan which lies on the "other side" of the River Jordan. In English, the name Cisjordan is also occasionally used to designate the entire region between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, particularly in the historical context of the British Mandate and earlier times. The use of Cisjordan to refer to the smaller region discussed in this article is rare in English; the name West Bank is standard usage for this geo-political entity. For the low-lying area immediately west of the Jordan, the name Jordan Valley is used instead. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Cisjordan is a region in the Middle East. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ... This article is about the Jordan River in western Asia. ... The Jordan River runs along the border between the West Bank and the Kingdom of Jordan Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign In spring The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ...


History

Map of West Bank settlements and closures as of January 2006, prepared by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Yellow areas are the main Palestinian urban centres. Light pink represents closed military areas or settlement boundary areas or areas isolated by the Israeli West Bank Barrier; dark pink represents settlements, outposts or military bases. The black line marks the route of the Barrier.

The territories now known as the West Bank were part of the Mandate of Palestine granted to Great Britain by the League of Nations after WWI. The current border of the West Bank was not a dividing line of any sort during the Mandate period. When the United Nations General Assembly voted in 1947 to partition Palestine into a Jewish State, an Arab State, and an internationally-administered enclave of Jerusalem, almost all of the West Bank was assigned to the Arab State. In the ensuing 1948 Arab-Israel war, the territory was captured by the neighboring kingdom of Jordan. It was annexed by Jordan in 1950 but this annexation was recognized only by the United Kingdom. (Pakistan is often, but apparently falsely,[5] assumed to have recognized it also.) Image File history File links Download high resolution version (646x1358, 169 KB) Summary Israeli settlements on the West Bank, January 2006. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (646x1358, 169 KB) Summary Israeli settlements on the West Bank, January 2006. ... The barrier route as of July 2006. ...


The 1949 Armistice Agreements established the "Green Line" separating the territories held by Israel and its neighbors. During the 1950s, there was a significant influx of Palestinian refugees and violence together with Israeli reprisal raids across the Green Line. The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


In May of 1967 Egypt ordered out U.N. peacekeeping troops and re-militarized the Sinai peninsula, and blockaded the straits of Tiran. Fearing an Egyptian attack, the government of Levi Eshkol attempted to restrict any confrontation to Egypt alone. In particular it did whatever it could to avoid fighting Jordan, as it did not want to have to deal with the Palestinian population of the West Bank. However, "carried along by a powerful current of Arab nationalism", on May 30, 1967 King Hussein flew to Egypt and signed a mutual defense treaty in which the two countries agreed to consider "any armed attack on either state or its forces as an attack on both".[2][3] Fearing an imminent Egyptian attack, on June 5, the Israel Defense Forces launched a pre-emptive attack on Egypt[4] which began what came to be known as the Six Day War. Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... The Straits of Tiran The Straits of Tiran are the narrow sea passages, about 3 miles wide, formed by the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas which separates the Gulf of Aqaba from the Red Sea. ... â–¶(?) (Hebrew לֵוִי אֶשְׁכּוֹל ) (Born Levi Skolnick) (Hebrew לֵוִי שְׁקוֹלְנִיק) (October 25, 1895 - February 26, 1969), was the third Prime Minister of Israel from 1963 until his death of a heart attack in 1969. ... Hussein bin Talal (Arabic: حسين بن طلال) (November 14, 1935 - February 7, 1999) was the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan from 1952 to 1999. ... The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ...


Jordan soon began shelling targets in west Jerusalem, Netanya, and the outskirts of Tel Aviv.[5] Despite this, Israel sent a message promising not to initiate any action against Jordan if it stayed out of the war. Hussein replied that it was too late, "the die was cast".[2] On the evening of June 5 the Israeli cabinet convened to decide what to do; Yigal Allon and Menahem Begin argued that this was an opportunity to take the Old City of Jerusalem, but Eshkol decided to defer any decision until Moshe Dayan and Yitzhak Rabin could be consulted.[6] Uzi Narkis made a number of proposals for military action, including the capture of Latrun, but the cabinet turned him down. The Israeli military only commenced action after Government House was captured, which was seen as a threat to the security of Jerusalem.[7] On June 6 Dayan encircled the city, but, fearing damage to holy places and having to fight in built-up areas, he ordered his troops not to go in. However, upon hearing that the U.N. was about to declare a ceasefire, he changed his mind, and without cabinet clearance, decided to take the city.[8] After fierce fighting with Jordanian troops in and around the Jerusalem area, Israel captured the Old City on June 7. Early morning in Netanya, Israel Netanya (Hebrew: נְתַנְיָה, Standard Hebrew Nətanya) is a city in the Center District of Israel and is the capital of the Sharon plain. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... Yigal Allon (Hebrew: ; October 10, 1918- February 29, 1980) was an Israeli Labour Party statesman. ... Prime Minister Menachem Begin Menachem Begin (August 16, 1913 - March 9, 1992) became the 6th Prime Minister of Israel in May 1977. ... Moshe Dayan (Hebrew: משה דיין; May 20, 1915–October 16, 1981) was an Israeli military leader and politician. ... For other persons named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ... Uzi Narkiss (Jerusalem, 6 January 1925 - Jerusalem, 17 December 1997), was an Israeli soldier and general, who served as commander of the Israel Defense Forces units in the Central Region during the Six Day War. ... The Trappist Monastery The area of Latrun (Hebrew: ‎) (al-Latrun in Arabic) is a region of the Ayalon Valley, about 15 kilometers west of Jerusalem and 14 kilometers southeast of Ramla. ...


No specific decision had been made to capture any other territories controlled by Jordan. After the Old City was captured, Dayan told his troops to dig in to hold it. When an armored brigade commander entered the West Bank on his own initiative, and stated that he could see Jericho, Dayan ordered him back. However, when intelligence reports indicated that Hussein had withdrawn his forces across the Jordan river, Dayan ordered his troops to capture the West Bank.[9] Over the next two days, the IDF swiftly captured the rest of the West Bank and blew up the Abdullah and Hussien Bridges over the Jordan, thereby severing the West Bank from the East.[10] According to Narkis: The Taking of Jericho, by Jean Fouquet Near central Jericho, November 1996 Jericho (Arabic  , Hebrew  , ʼArīḥā; Standard YÉ™riḥo Tiberian YÉ™rîḫô / YÉ™rîḥô; meaning fragrant.[1] Greek Ἱεριχώ) is a town in Palestine, located within the Jericho Governorate, near the Jordan River. ...

First, the Israeli government had no intention of capturing the West Bank. On the contrary, it was opposed to it. Second, there was not any provocation on the part of the IDF. Third, the rein was only loosened when a real threat to Jerusalem's security emerged. This is truly how things happened on June 5, although it is difficult to believe. The end result was something that no one had planned.[11]

In November, 1967, UN Security Council Resolution 242 was unanimously adopted, calling for "the establishment of a just and lasting peace in the Middle East" to be achieved by "the application of both the following principles:" "Withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from territories occupied in the recent conflict" (see semantic dispute) and: "Termination of all claims or states of belligerency" and respect for the right of every state in the area to live in peace within secure and recognised boundaries. Egypt, Jordan, Israel and Lebanon entered into consultations with the UN Special representative over the implementation of 242. .[12] United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 (S/RES/242) was adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 22, 1967 in the aftermath of the Six Day War. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 (S/RES/242) was adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 22, 1967 in the aftermath of the Six Day War. ...


In 1988, Jordan ceded its claims to the West Bank to the Palestine Liberation Organization, as "the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people."[6][7] The Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO) (Arabic: ;   or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a political and paramilitary organization regarded by the Arab League since October 1974 as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. ...


Administration

The 1993 Oslo Accords declared the final status of the West Bank to be subject to a forthcoming settlement between Israel and the Palestinian leadership. Following these interim accords, Israel withdrew its military rule from some parts of the West Bank, which was divided into three areas: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2199x3666, 1884 KB) Summary Detailed map of Israeli settlements on the West Bank, January 2006. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2199x3666, 1884 KB) Summary Detailed map of Israeli settlements on the West Bank, January 2006. ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ...

Area Control Administration % of WB
land
% of WB
Palestinians
A Palestinian Palestinian 17% 55%
B Israeli Palestinian 24% 41%
C Israeli Israeli 59% 4%[13]

Area A comprises Palestinian towns, and some rural areas away from Israeli population centers in the north (between Jenin, Nablus, Tubas, and Tulkarm), the south (around Hebron), and one in the center south of Salfit. Area B adds other populated rural areas, many closer to the center of the West Bank. Area C contains all the Israeli settlements, roads used to access the settlements, buffer zones (near settlements, roads, strategic areas, and Israel), and almost all of the Jordan Valley and Judean Desert. It has been suggested that Anem be merged into this article or section. ... Map of the West Bank, with Nablus in the center north. ... Tubas is a city in the Israeli administered West Bank. ... Nickname: City of Generosity Motto: {{{motto}}} Official website: City of Tulkarm Location Location in Palestine Government Neighbourhoods Al-Salam, Al-Sowana, Dhinnaba, Iktaba, Irtah, Iskan Al-Mozafeen, Izbat Al-Jarad, Izbat Naser, Nur Shams Camp, Shuwaykah, Tulkarm Camp Mayor Mahmoud Al-Jallad Geographical characteristics Area 246 km² Land 246 km... Arabic الخليل Government City Also Spelled al-Khalil (officially) al-Halil (unofficially) Governorate Hebron Population 166,000 (2006) Jurisdiction  dunams Head of Municipality Mustafa Abdel Nabi Hebron (Arabic:   al-ḪalÄ«l or al KhalÄ«l; Hebrew:  , Standard Hebrew: Ḥevron, Tiberian Hebrew: Ḥeḇrôn) is a city in the southern Judea... Salfit (Arabic: ‎), also Salfeet, is a Palestinian town in the central West Bank. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Israeli settlement. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Jordan Rift Valley. ... Desert hills in southern Judea, looking east from the town of Arad Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhûḏāh) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of historic Palestine, an area now divided...


Areas A and B are themselves divided among 227 separate areas (199 of which are smaller than 2 square kilometers) that are separated from one another by Israeli-controlled Area C. [14] Areas A, B, and C cut across the 11 Governorates (districts) used as administrative divisions by the Palestinian Authority and named after major towns. After the signing of the Oslo Accords, the Palestinian territories were divided into three areas and 16 governorates. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ...


While the vast majority of the Palestinian population lives in areas A and B, the vacant land available for construction in dozens of villages and towns across the West Bank is situated on the margins of the communities and defined as area C. [15]


The Palestinian Authority has full civil control in area A, area B is characterized by joint-administration between the PA and Israel, while area C is under full Israeli control. Israel maintains overall control over Israeli settlements, roads, water, airspace, "external" security and borders for the entire territory The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... Map of Israeli settlements (magenta) in the West Bank. ...


Demographics

Palestinian Children in Hebron
Palestinian Children in Hebron

The Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics estimated that approximately 2.5 million Palestinians lived in the West Bank (including Israeli-administered East Jerusalem) at the end of 2006.[16], though a recent study by the American-Israel Demographic Research Group disputes these figures (see #Recent Developments). See also: Demographics of Israel, demographics section in Gaza strip Population: 2,020,298 note: in addition, there are some 171,000 Israeli settlers in the West Bank and about 172,000 in East Jerusalem (July 2000 est. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 1204 KB) Hebron: Young members of one of the few Palestinian families determined not to leave their homes in the old city. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 1204 KB) Hebron: Young members of one of the few Palestinian families determined not to leave their homes in the old city. ... The Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) is the statistical organisation of the Palestinian National Authority. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


There are 275,156 Israeli settlers living in the West Bank, as well as around 200,000 Israeli Jews living in Israeli-annexed East Jerusalem. There are also small ethnic groups, such as the Samaritans living in and around Nablus, numbering in the hundreds or low thousands. The Jews in the West Bank live mostly isolated in Israeli settlements with little social interaction with other Palestinians. Interactions between the two societies have generally declined following the Palestinian Intifadas, though an economic relationship often exists between adjacent Israeli settlements and Palestinian villages.[citation needed] Map of Israeli settlements (magenta) in the West Bank. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... For other senses of this word, see Samaritan (disambiguation). ... Map of the West Bank, with Nablus in the center north. ... Intifada (also Intefadah or Intifadah; from shaking off) is an Arabic term for uprising. It came into common usage in English as the popularized name for two recent Palestinian campaigns directed at Israel. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Israeli settlement. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ...


Approximately 30% of Palestinians living in the West Bank are refugees from villages and towns located in what became Israel during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War (see Palestinian exodus).[17][18][19] Combatants  Israel, Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising to 115,000 by... Palestinian refugees in 1948 The Palestinian exodus (Arabic: الهجرة الفلسطينية al-Hijra al-Filasteeniya) refers to the refugee flight of Palestinian Arabs during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. ...


Recent Developments

A 2005 study[20] concluded that the Palestine Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) had seriously overestimated the growth of the Palestinian population. According to the study, successive PCBS projections were extrapolated from flawed 1997 census data that counted residents living abroad, double counted residents of Jerusalem, and overestimated birth rates and net migration rate. The study placed the Arab population of the West Bank at only 1.41 Million, not including approximately 220,000 residents of East Jerusalem counted in Israel's census. Sergio DellaPergola, a demographer at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, criticised the study's authors of misunderstanding basic principles of demography and of making multiple methodological errors that invalidated the results.[21] Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (הלשכה המרכזית לסטטיסטיקה) is a state organization for the creation and maintenance of numeric data related to populations vis-à-vis the ethnic makeup of Israel and its cities. ... Sergio DellaPergola (b. ... The Hebrew University of Jerusalem is one of Israels oldest, largest, and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ...


Significant population centers

Significant population centers
Center Population
al-Bireh 40,000
Betar Illit 29,355
Bethlehem 30,000
Gush Etzion 40,000
Hebron 120,000
Jericho 25,000
East Jerusalem 400,000
Jenin 47,000
Ma'ale Adummim 33,259
Modi'in Illit 34,514
Nablus 100,000
Qalqilyah 40,000
Ramallah 60,000
Tulkarm 75,000
Yattah 42,000

The most densely populated part of the region is a mountainous spine, running north-south, where the cities of Nablus, Ariel, Abu Dis, Ramallah, al-Bireh, Ma'ale Adummim, Bethlehem, Beitar Illit, Gush Etzion, Hebron, Tubas and Yattah are located. Jenin, in the extreme north of the West Bank is on the southern edge of the Jezreel Valley. Modi'in Illit, Qalqilyah and Tulkarm are in the low foothills adjacent to the Israeli Coastal Plain, and Jericho is situated in the Jordan Valley, north of the Dead Sea. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Betar Illit (ביתר עילית; unofficially also spelled Beitar Illit -- Illit is pronounced: Eeleet) is an Israeli town in Gush Etzion, a group of villages and towns in the Northern Judea region of the West Bank. ... Central Bethlehem This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... Tunnel to Gush Etzion Gush Etzion (Hebrew גוש עציון, literally bloc of the tree) is a group of Israeli settlements in the northern Judea region of the West Bank. ... Arabic الخليل Government City Also Spelled al-Khalil (officially) al-Halil (unofficially) Governorate Hebron Population 166,000 (2006) Jurisdiction  dunams Head of Municipality Mustafa Abdel Nabi Hebron (Arabic:   al-ḪalÄ«l or al KhalÄ«l; Hebrew:  , Standard Hebrew: Ḥevron, Tiberian Hebrew: Ḥeḇrôn) is a city in the southern Judea... The Taking of Jericho, by Jean Fouquet Near central Jericho, November 1996 Jericho (Arabic  , Hebrew  , ʼArīḥā; Standard YÉ™riḥo Tiberian YÉ™rîḫô / YÉ™rîḥô; meaning fragrant.[1] Greek Ἱεριχώ) is a town in Palestine, located within the Jericho Governorate, near the Jordan River. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... It has been suggested that Anem be merged into this article or section. ... Hebrew מעלה אדומים Name Meaning Red Ascent Founded in 1976 Government City (from 1991) District Judea and Samaria Area Population 33,259 (2006) Jurisdiction 50,000 dunams (50 km²) Mayor Benny Kashriel Maale Adummim (Hebrew: ; unofficially also spelled Maale Adumim) is an Israeli settlement in the Judea region of the occupied... Modiin Illit () is an Israeli settlement in Samaria (Northern West Bank). ... Map of the West Bank, with Nablus in the center north. ... Qalqilyah (Arabic قلقيلية ; Standard Hebrew קלקיליה Qalqilya) is a Palestinian city in the West Bank. ... Ramallah (Arabic:  ) is a Palestinian city in the West Bank of approximately 57,000 residents. ... Nickname: City of Generosity Motto: {{{motto}}} Official website: City of Tulkarm Location Location in Palestine Government Neighbourhoods Al-Salam, Al-Sowana, Dhinnaba, Iktaba, Irtah, Iskan Al-Mozafeen, Izbat Al-Jarad, Izbat Naser, Nur Shams Camp, Shuwaykah, Tulkarm Camp Mayor Mahmoud Al-Jallad Geographical characteristics Area 246 km² Land 246 km... Yatta or Yattah (Arabic: ) is a Palestinian city located in the Hebron Governorate on a high approximately 8km south of the city of Hebron in the West Bank. ... Map of the West Bank, with Nablus in the center north. ... This article explores the different names of Jerusalem and their linguistic natures, etc. ... Abu Dis is a Palistinian city near Jerusalem in the West Bank. ... Ramallah (Arabic:  ) is a Palestinian city in the West Bank of approximately 57,000 residents. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Hebrew מעלה אדומים Name Meaning Red Ascent Founded in 1976 Government City (from 1991) District Judea and Samaria Area Population 33,259 (2006) Jurisdiction 50,000 dunams (50 km²) Mayor Benny Kashriel Maale Adummim (Hebrew: ; unofficially also spelled Maale Adumim) is an Israeli settlement in the Judea region of the occupied... Central Bethlehem This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... Betar Illit (ביתר עילית; unofficially also spelled Beitar Illit) is an Israeli settlement in the West Bank. ... Tunnel to Gush Etzion Gush Etzion (Hebrew גוש עציון, literally bloc of the tree) is a group of Israeli settlements in the northern Judea region of the West Bank. ... Arabic الخليل Government City Also Spelled al-Khalil (officially) al-Halil (unofficially) Governorate Hebron Population 166,000 (2006) Jurisdiction  dunams Head of Municipality Mustafa Abdel Nabi Hebron (Arabic:   al-ḪalÄ«l or al KhalÄ«l; Hebrew:  , Standard Hebrew: Ḥevron, Tiberian Hebrew: Ḥeḇrôn) is a city in the southern Judea... Tubas is a city in the Israeli administered West Bank. ... Yatta or Yattah (Arabic: ) is a Palestinian city located in the Hebron Governorate on a high approximately 8km south of the city of Hebron in the West Bank. ... It has been suggested that Anem be merged into this article or section. ... The Jezreel Valley arabic (Sahel Zirin)سهل زرعين or Marj Ibn Amer(the meadow of the son of Amer) مرج بن عامر (Hebrew: עמק יזרעאל;Emek Yizrael, also known as the Plain of Esdraelon) is a large plain and inland valley in the north of Israel. ... Modiin Illit () is an Israeli settlement in Samaria (Northern West Bank). ... Qalqilyah (Arabic قلقيلية ; Standard Hebrew קלקיליה Qalqilya) is a Palestinian city in the West Bank. ... Nickname: City of Generosity Motto: {{{motto}}} Official website: City of Tulkarm Location Location in Palestine Government Neighbourhoods Al-Salam, Al-Sowana, Dhinnaba, Iktaba, Irtah, Iskan Al-Mozafeen, Izbat Al-Jarad, Izbat Naser, Nur Shams Camp, Shuwaykah, Tulkarm Camp Mayor Mahmoud Al-Jallad Geographical characteristics Area 246 km² Land 246 km... The Israeli Coastal Plain (Hebrew: , Mishor HaHof) is a name to the flat and low-lying narrow strip around the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Taking of Jericho, by Jean Fouquet Near central Jericho, November 1996 Jericho (Arabic  , Hebrew  , ʼArīḥā; Standard YÉ™riḥo Tiberian YÉ™rîḫô / YÉ™rîḥô; meaning fragrant.[1] Greek Ἱεριχώ) is a town in Palestine, located within the Jericho Governorate, near the Jordan River. ... Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest Asia flowing through the Great Rift Valley into the Dead Sea. ... The Dead Sea (‎, yam ha-melaħ, Sea of Salt; Quranic Arabic: , baħrᵘ l- mayitⁱ [3], Death Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ...


Transportation and communication

Roads

Checkpoint before entering Jericho, 2005.
Checkpoint before entering Jericho, 2005.

The West Bank has 4,500 km of roads, of which 2,700 km are paved. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2837x1284, 879 KB) Checkpoint before entering Jericho from the south. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2837x1284, 879 KB) Checkpoint before entering Jericho from the south. ... The Taking of Jericho, by Jean Fouquet Near central Jericho, November 1996 Jericho (Arabic  , Hebrew  , ʼArīḥā; Standard YÉ™riḥo Tiberian YÉ™rîḫô / YÉ™rîḥô; meaning fragrant.[1] Greek Ἱεριχώ) is a town in Palestine, located within the Jericho Governorate, near the Jordan River. ...


In response to shootings by Palestinians, some highways, especially those leading to Israeli settlements, are completely inaccessible to cars with Palestinian license plates, while many other roads are restricted only to public transportation and to Palestinians who have special permits from Israeli authorities [8][9] [10]. Due to numerous shooting assaults targeting Israeli vehicles, the IDF bars Israelis from using most of the original roads in the West Bank. Israel's longstanding policy of separation-to-prevent-friction dictates the development of alternative highway systems for Israelis and Palestinian traffic. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Israeli settlement. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ...


Israel maintains more than 50 checkpoints in the West Bank [11]. As such, movement restrictions are also placed on main roads traditionally used by Palestinians to travel between cities, and such restrictions have been blamed for poverty and economic depression in the West Bank [12]. Since the beginning of 2005, there has been some amelioration of these restrictions. According to recent human rights reports, "Israel has made efforts to improve transport contiguity for Palestinians travelling in the West Bank. It has done this by constructing underpasses and bridges (28 of which have been constructed and 16 of which are planned) that link Palestinian areas separated from each other by Israeli settlements and bypass roads" [13] and by removal of checkpoints and physical obstacles, or by not reacting to Palestinian removal or natural erosion of other obstacles. "The impact (of these actions) is most felt by the easing of movement between villages and between villages and the urban centres" [14].


However, the obstacles encircling major Palestinian urban hubs, particularly Nablus and Hebron, have remained. In addition, the IDF prohibits Israeli citizens from entering Palestinian-controlled land (Area A). Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ...


As of August 2007, a divided highway is currently under construction that will pass through the West Bank. The highway has a concrete wall dividing the two sides, one designated for Israeli vehicles, the other for Palestinian. The wall is designed to allow Palestinians to freely pass north-south through Israeli-held land. [22]


Airports

The West Bank has three paved airports which are currently for military use only. The only civilian airport of Atarot Airport in northern Jerusalem, which was open only to Israeli citizens, was closed in 2001 due to the Intifada. Palestinians were previously able to use Israel's Ben Gurion International Airport with permission; however, Israel has discontinued issuing such permits, and Palestinians wishing to travel must cross the land border to either Jordan or Egypt in order to use airports located in these countries [15]. Atarot Airport (IATA: JRS, ICAO: LLJR) officially known Jerusalem International Airport and also Qalandiya Airport, is a domestic-only airport in northern Jerusalem along the road to Ramallah. ... Ben Gurion International Airport or Ben Gurion Airport (‎, Namal HaTeÅ«fa Ben GÅ«ryōn, Arabic: , maṭār Ben Ghuryon ad-dawlÄ«) (IATA: TLV, ICAO: LLBG), historically known as Lydda Airport and sometimes referred to today by its Hebrew acronym Natbag (‎), is the largest international airport in Israel. ...


Telecom

The Israeli Bezeq and Palestinian PalTel telecommunication companies provide communication services in the West Bank. Bezeq logo Bezeq (בזק) is Israels national telecommunications provider, and had a monopoly on wire-based telephony. ...


Radio and television

The Palestinian Broadcasting Corporation broadcasts from an AM station in Ramallah on 675 kHz; numerous local privately owned stations are also in operation. Most Palestinian households have a radio and TV, and satellite dishes for receiving international coverage are widespread. Recently, PalTel announced and has begun implementing an initiative to provide ADSL broadband internet service to all households and businesses. Palestinian Broadcasting Corporation has a subsidiary known by the name Voice of Palestine. ...


Israel's cable television company 'HOT', satellite television provider (DBS) 'Yes', AM & FM radio broadcast stations and public television broadcast stations all operate. Broadband internet service by Bezeq's ADSL and by the cable company are available as well. Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house. ... Hot is a telecommunications and cable television company in Israel founded on August 18, 2003. ... Direct broadcast satellite (DBS) is a term used to refer to satellite television broadcasts intended for home reception, also referred to as direct-to-home signals. ... Yes TV (formally incorporated as D.B.S. Satellite Services (1998) Ltd) founded in 1998, is the sole satellite television provider (DBS) in Israel. ...


Higher education

Before 1967 there were no universities in the West Bank (except for the Hebrew University in Jerusalem - see below). There were a few lesser institutions of higher education; for example, An-Najah, which started as an elementary school in 1918 and became a community college in 1963. As the Jordanian government did not allow the establishment of such universities in the West Bank, Palestinians could obtain degrees only by travelling abroad to places such as Jordan, Lebanon, or Europe. The An-Najah National University An-Najah National University is located in the mountainous region of northern Palestine in and around the city of Nablus. ...


After the region was captured by Israel in the Six-Day War, several educational institutions began offering undergraduate courses, while others opened up as entirely new universities. In total, seven Universities have been commissioned in the West Bank since 1967: Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Saudi Arabia Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ...

  • Bethlehem University, a Roman Catholic institution partially funded by the Vatican, opened its doors in 1973 [16].
  • In 1975, Birzeit College (located in the town of Bir Zeit north of Ramallah) became Birzeit University after adding third- and fourth-year college-level programs [17].
  • An-Najah College in Nablus likewise became An-Najah National University in 1977 [18].
  • The Hebron University was established in 1980 [19]
  • Al-Quds University, whose founders had yearned to establish a university in Jerusalem since the early days of Jordanian rule, finally realized their goal in 1995 [20].
  • Also in 1995, after the signing of the Oslo Accords, the Arab American University—the only private university in the West Bank—was founded in Jenin, with the purpose of providing courses according to the American system of education [21].
  • In 2005, the Israeli government recommended to upgrade the College of Judea and Samaria in Ariel to become a full fledged university [22]. This move to create a university within an Israeli settlement has angered some Palestinians, although no official response was made by the Palestinian authority.
  • The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, established in 1918, is one of Israel's oldest, largest, and most important institutes of higher learning and research. During the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the leader of the Palestinian forces in Jerusalem, Abdul Kader Husseini, threatened that the Hadassah Hospital and the Hebrew University would be captured or destroyed "if the Jews continued to use them as bases for attacks".[23] Medical convoys between the Yishuv-controlled section of Jerusalem and Mount Scopus were attacked since December 1947.[24] After the Hadassah medical convoy massacre in 1948, which also included university staff, the Mount Scopus campus was cut off from the Jewish part of Jerusalem. After the War, the University was forced to relocate to a new campus in Givat Ram in western Jerusalem. After Israel captured East Jerusalem in the Six-Day War of June 1967, the University returned to its original campus in Mount Scopus.

Most universities in the West Bank have politically active student bodies, and elections of student council officers are normally along party affiliations. Although the establishment of the universities was initially allowed by the Israeli authorities, some were sporadically ordered closed by the Israeli Civil Administration during the 1970s and 1980s to prevent political activities and violence against the IDF. Some universities remained closed by military order for extended periods during years immediately preceding and following the first Palestinian Intifada, but have largely remained open since the signing of the Oslo Accords despite the advent of the Al-Aqsa Intifada in 2000. Bethlehem University of the Holy Land is a Catholic Christian co-educational institution of higher learning founded in 1973 in the Lasallian tradition, open to students of all faith traditions. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Bir Zeit is a Palestinian town on the outskirts of Ramallah in the West Bank. ... Ramallah (Arabic:  ) is a Palestinian city in the West Bank of approximately 57,000 residents. ... This article should belong in one or more categories. ... Map of the West Bank, with Nablus in the center north. ... The An-Najah National University An-Najah National University is located in the mountainous region of northern Palestine in and around the city of Nablus. ... Hebron University is the largest university in Palestine. ... Al-Quds University (Arabic: جامعه القدس ) is the Arab university in Jerusalem. ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... Arab American University is a private higher education institution founded in 1995 as the first private university in Palestine. ... It has been suggested that Anem be merged into this article or section. ... Educational oversight Secretary Deputy Secretary U.S. Department of Education Margaret Spellings Raymond Simon National education budget $1. ... The College of Judea and Samaria was founded in 1982 as a regional branch of Bar Ilan University. ... The city of Ariel (Hebrew: ) is an Israeli settlement located north of the Palestinian town of Salfit on the West Bank, in the Biblical region of Samaria near the ancient village of Timnat Serah. ... Map of Israeli settlements (magenta) in the West Bank. ... The Hebrew University of Jerusalem is one of Israels oldest, largest, and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ... Combatants  Israel, Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising to 115,000 by... Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni (1907-1948) was a Palestinian nationalist and fighter who in late 1933 founded the secret military group known as the Organization for Holy Struggle, (Munazzamat al-Jihad al-Muqaddas), which he and Hasan Salama commanded as the Army of the... The Hadassah medical convoy massacre was an event that took place during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, on April 13, 1948, when a Jewish medical convoy was attacked by Arab forces. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Saudi Arabia Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... Intifada (also Intefadah or Intifadah; from shaking off) is an Arabic term for uprising. It came into common usage in English as the popularized name for two recent Palestinian campaigns directed at Israel. ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ...


The founding of Palestinian universities has greatly increased education levels among the population in the West Bank. According to a Birzeit University study, the percentage of Palestinians choosing local universities as opposed to foreign institutions has been steadily increasing; as of 1997, 41% of Palestinians with bachelor degrees had obtained them from Palestinian institutions [23]. According to UNESCO, Palestinians are one of the most highly educated groups in the Middle East "despite often difficult circumstances" [24]. The literacy rate among Palestinians in the West Bank (and Gaza) (89%) is third highest in the region after Israel (95%) and Jordan (90%) [25][26] [27].


Status

See also: Political status of the West Bank and Gaza Strip

This article is in need of attention. ...

Legal status

The West Bank is currently considered under international law to be de jure, a territory not part of any state. The United Nations Security Council,[25] the United Nations General Assembly,[26] the International Court of Justice,[27] and the International Committee of the Red Cross[28] refer to it as occupied by Israel. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Types of administrative and/or political territories include: A legally administered territory, which is a non-sovereign geographic area that has come under the authority of another government. ... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... “UNSC” redirects here. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations. ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a private humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland. ... The Golan Heights plateau overlooking the site of the ancient city of Hippos The Israeli-occupied territories is one of a number of terms used to describe areas captured by Israel from Egypt, Jordan, and Syria during the Six-Day War of 1967. ...


According to Alan Dowty, legally the status of the West Bank falls under the international law of belligerent occupation, as distinguished from nonbelligerent occupation that follows an armistice. This assumes the possibility of renewed fighting, and affords the occupier "broad leeway". The West Bank has a unique status in two respects; first, there is no precedent for a belligerent occupation lasting for more than a brief period, and second, that the West Bank was not part of a sovereign country before occupation — thus, in legal terms, there is no "reversioner" for the West Bank. This means that sovereignty of the West Bank is currently suspended, and, according to some, Israel, as the only successor state to the Palestine Mandate, has a status that "goes beyond that of military occupier alone."[29]


Political positions

The future status of the West Bank, together with the Gaza Strip on the Mediterranean shore, has been the subject of negotiation between the Palestinians and Israelis, although the current Road Map for Peace, proposed by the "Quartet" comprising the United States, Russia, the European Union, and the United Nations, envisions an independent Palestinian state in these territories living side by side with Israel (see also proposals for a Palestinian state). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Quartet on the Middle East, sometimes called the Diplomatic Quartet or simply the Quartet, is a foursome of nations and international entities involved in mediating the peace process between Israel and the Palestinian People. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Proposals for a Palestinian state vary depending on ones views of Palestinian statehood, as well as various definitions of Palestine and Palestinian (see also Palestinian state and State of Palestine). ...


The Palestinian people believe that the West Bank ought to be a part of their sovereign nation, and that the presence of Israeli military control is a violation of their right to self-determination. The United Nations calls the West Bank and Gaza Strip Israeli-occupied (see Israeli-occupied territories). The United States generally agrees with this definition. Many Israelis and their supporters prefer the term disputed territories, claiming it comes closer to a neutral point of view; this viewpoint is not accepted by most other countries, which consider "occupied" to be the neutral description of status. A nation shares a common identity, a common origin and other stuffs. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... The Golan Heights plateau overlooking the site of the ancient city of Hippos The Israeli-occupied territories is one of a number of terms used to describe areas captured by Israel from Egypt, Jordan, and Syria during the Six-Day War of 1967. ... A territorial dispute is a disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more states, or over the possession/control of land by one state after it has conquered it from a former state no longer currently recognized by the occupying power. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Israel argues[citation needed] that its presence is justified because:

  1. Israel's eastern border has never been defined by anyone;
  2. The disputed territories have not been part of any state (Jordanian annexation was never officially recognized) since the time of the Ottoman Empire;
  3. According to the Camp David Accords (1978) with Egypt, the 1994 agreement with Jordan and the Oslo Accords with the PLO, the final status of the territories would be fixed only when there was a permanent agreement between Israel and the Palestinians.

Palestinian public opinion is almost unanimous in opposing Israeli military and settler presence on the West Bank as a violation of their right to statehood and sovereignty.[30] Israeli opinion is split into a number of views: Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords in the White House Rose Garden: Menachem Begin (right), Jimmy Carter (center), Anwar Sadat (left) The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the...

  • Complete or partial withdrawal from the West Bank in hopes of peaceful coexistence in separate states (sometimes called the "land for peace" position); (According to a 2003 poll 76% of Israelis support a peace agreement based on that principle).[31]
  • Maintenance of a military presence in the West Bank to reduce Palestinian terrorism by deterrence or by armed intervention, while relinquishing some degree of political control;
  • Annexation of the West Bank while considering the Palestinian population as (for instance) citizens of Jordan with Israeli residence permit as per the Elon Peace Plan;
  • Annexation of the West Bank and assimilation of the Palestinian population to fully fledged Israeli citizens;
  • Transfer of the East Jerusalem Palestinian population (a 2002 poll at the height of the Al Aqsa intifada found 46% of Israelis favoring Palestinian transfer of Jerusalem residents;[32] in 2005 two polls using a different methodology put the number at approximately 30%).[33]

Land for peace is a general principle proposed for resolving the Arab-Israeli conflict by which Israel would relinquish control of all or part of the territories it conquered in 1967 in return for peace with and recognition by the Arab world. ... The term Palestinian terrorism is commonly used to describe acts of political violence committed by Palestinian individuals or groups against Israelis, Jews, and nationals of other countries. ... Ceremonies during the annexation of Hawaii. ... The Elon Peace Plan is a solution for the Arab-Israeli conflict proposed in 2002 by Rabbi Binyamin Elon, who was the Israeli tourism minister at the time he put forward his proposal. ... Population transfer is a term referring to a policy by which a state, or international authority, forces the movement of a large group of people out of a region, most frequently on the basis of their ethnicity or religion. ... The al-Aqsa Intifada is the wave of violence and political conflict that began in September 2000 between Palestinian Arabs and Israelis; it is also called the Second Intifada (see also First Intifada). ...

Annexation

Principal geographical features of Israel and south-eastern Mediterranean region
Principal geographical features of Israel and south-eastern Mediterranean region

Israel annexed the territory of East Jerusalem, and its Palestinian residents (if they should decline Israeli citizenship) have legal permanent residency status.[34][35] Although permanent residents are permitted, if they wish, to receive Israeli citizenship if they meet certain conditions including swearing allegiance to the State and renouncing any other citizenship, most Palestinians did not apply for Israeli citizenship for political reasons.[36] There are various possible reasons as to why the West Bank had not been annexed to Israel after its capture in 1967. The government of Israel has not formally confirmed an official reason, however, historians and analysts have established a variety of such, most of them demographic. Among the most agreed upon: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 275 × 599 pixels Full resolution (831 × 1809 pixel, file size: 525 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Annotated satellite image of Israel, the Palestinian territories and western Jordan, highlighting principal geographical features. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 275 × 599 pixels Full resolution (831 × 1809 pixel, file size: 525 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Annotated satellite image of Israel, the Palestinian territories and western Jordan, highlighting principal geographical features. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... Permanent residency refers to a persons status such that the person is allowed to reside indefinitely within the country despite not having citizenship. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Saudi Arabia Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ...

  • Reluctance to award its citizenship to an overwhelming number of a potentially hostile population whose allies were sworn to the destruction of Israel [37][38][39]
  • Fear that the population of non-Zionist Arabs would outnumber the Israelis, appeal to different political interests, and vote Israel out of existence; thus failing to maintain the concept and safety of a Jewish state [40][41]
  • To ultimately exchange the land for peace with neighbouring states

Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... The book Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State, 1896) by Theodor Herzl. ... Land for peace is a general principle proposed for resolving the Arab-Israeli conflict by which Israel would relinquish control of all or part of the territories it conquered in 1967 in return for peace with and recognition by the Arab world. ...

Settlements and International Law

Israeli settlements on the West Bank beyond the Green Line border are considered by some legal scholars to be illegal under international law.[42][43][44][45] Other legal scholars[46] including Julius Stone,[47] have argued that the settlements are legal under international law, on a number of different grounds. The Independent reported in March 2006 that immediately after the 1967 war Theodor Meron, legal counsel of Israel's Foreign Ministry advised Israeli ministers in a "top secret" memo that any policy of building settlements across occupied territories violated international law and would "contravene the explicit provisions of the Fourth Geneva Convention".[48][49] A contrasting opinion was held by Eugene Rostow, a former Dean of the Yale Law School and undersecretary of state for political affairs in the administration of U.S. President Lyndon Johnson, who wrote in 1991 that Israel has a right to have settlements in the West Bank under 1967's UN Security Council Resolution 242.[50] It is the policy of both Israel and the United States that the settlements do not violate international law, although the United States considers ongoing settlement activity to be "unhelpful" to the peace process. The European Union[51] and the Arab League[52] consider the settlements to be illegal. Israel also recognizes that some small settlements are "illegal" in the sense of being in violation of Israeli law.[53][54] Map of Israeli settlements (magenta) in the West Bank. ... Julius Stone (July 7, 1907 — 1985) was Challis Professor of Jurisprudence and International Law at the University of Sydney from 1942 to 1972, and thereafter a visiting Professor of Law at the University of New South Wales and concurrently Distinguished Professor of Jurisprudence and International Law at the Hastings College... Theodor Meron (b. ... Eugene Victor Debs Rostow (1913-2002) was an American lawyer and politician who served from 1966-1969 as undersecretary of state for political affairs under President Lyndon B. Johnson. ...


In 2005 the United States ambassador to Israel, Dan Kurtzer, expressed U.S. support "for the retention by Israel of major Israeli population centres [in the West Bank] as an outcome of negotiations",[55] reflecting President Bush's statement a year earlier that a permanent peace treaty would have to reflect "demographic realities" on the West Bank.[56]


The UN Security Council has issued several non-binding resolutions addressing the issue of the settlements. Typical of these is UN Security Council resolution 446 which states [the] practices of Israel in establishing settlements in the Palestinian and other Arab territories occupied since 1967 have no legal validity, and it calls on Israel as the occupying Power, to abide scrupulously by the 1949 Fourth Geneva Convention.[57]


The Conference of High Contracting Parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention held in Geneva on 5 December, 2001 called upon "the Occupying Power to fully and effectively respect the Fourth Geneva Convention in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, and to refrain from perpetrating any violation of the Convention." The High Contracting Parties reaffirmed "the illegality of the settlements in the said territories and of the extension thereof."[58] December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


West Bank barrier

Panoramic view toward Tel Aviv from the Settlement Peduel in the west bank, the Green line passes less than 20km from central Tel Aviv

The Israeli West Bank barrier is a physical barrier being constructed by Israel consisting of a network of fences with vehicle-barrier trenches surrounded by an on average 60 meters wide exclusion area (90%) and up to 8 meters high concrete walls (10%).[59] It is located mainly within the West Bank, partly along the 1949 Armistice line, or "Green Line" between the West Bank and Israel. As of April 2006 the length of the barrier as approved by the Israeli government is 703 kilometers (436 miles) long. Approximately 58.4% has been constructed, 8.96% is under construction, and construction has not yet begun on 33% of the barrier.[60] The space between the barrier and the green line is a closed military zone known as the Seam Zone, cutting off 8.5% of the West Bank and encompassing tens of villages and tens of thousands of Palestinians.[61].[62] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2767x666, 565 KB) Tel Aviv and Gush Dan panoramic from Peduel Photo by beivushtang I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2767x666, 565 KB) Tel Aviv and Gush Dan panoramic from Peduel Photo by beivushtang I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License... Peduels water tower gives it a distinct profile Peduel (Hebrew: ), is an Israeli settlement located on the western edge of the central Samarian region of the West Bank, about 25 km east of Tel Aviv. ... Green Line may refer to: // Green Line (Cyprus), between the Republic of Cyprus and the de facto Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... The barrier route as of July 2006. ... The barrier route as of July 2006. ... Separation barriers (separation walls, security fences) are constructed to limit the movement of people across a certain line or border or to separate two populations. ... The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. ... The term Green Line is often used to refer to the 1949 Armistice lines established between Israel and its opponents (Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Egypt) at the end of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. ... The barrier route as of May 2005. ...


The barrier is a very controversial project. Supporters claim the barrier is a necessary tool protecting Israeli civilians from Palestinian terrorism, including suicide bombing attacks, that increased significantly during the al-Aqsa Intifada;[63][64] it has helped reduce incidents of terrorism by 90% from 2002 to 2005;[65] its supporters claim that the onus is now on the Palestinian Authority to fight terrorism.[66] For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ...


Opponents claim the barrier is an illegal attempt to annex Palestinian land under the guise of security,[67] violates international law,[68] has the intent or effect to pre-empt final status negotiations,[69] and severely restricts Palestinians who live nearby, particularly their ability to travel freely within the West Bank and to access work in Israel, thereby undermining their economy.[70] According to a 2007 World Bank report, the Israeli occupation of the West Bank has destroyed the Palestinian economy, in violation of the 2005 Agreement on Movement and Access. All major roads (with a total length of 700 km) are basically off-limits to Palestinians, making it impossible to do normal business. Economic recovery would reduce Palestinian dependence on international aid by one billion dollars per year. [71] ...


Pro-settler opponents claim that the barrier is a sly attempt to artificially create a border that excludes the settlers, creating "facts on the ground" that justify the mass dismantlement of hundreds of settlements and displacement of over 100,000 Jews from the land they claim as their biblical homeland.[72]


Notes

  1. ^ "On June 5, Israel sent a message to Hussein urging him not to open fire. Despite shelling into western Jerusalem, Netanya, and the outskirts of Tel Aviv, Israel did nothing." The Six Day War and Its Enduring Legacy, Washington Institute for Near East Policy, July 2, 2002.
  2. ^ a b c "In May-June 1967 Eshkol's government did everything in its power to confine the confrontation to the Egyptian front. Eshkol and his colleagues took into account the possibility of some fighting on the Syrian front. But they wanted to avoid having a clash with Jordan and the inevitable complications of having to deal with the predominantly Palestinian population of the West Bank.

    The fighting on the eastern front was initiated by Jordan, not by Israel. King Hussein got carried along by a powerful current of Arab nationalism. On 30 May he flew to Cairo and signed a defense pact with Nasser. On 5 June, Jordan started shelling the Israeli side in Jerusalem. This could have been interpreted either as a salvo to uphold Jordanian honor or as a declaration of war. Eshkol decided to give King Hussein the benefit of the doubt. Through General Odd Bull, the Norwegian commander of UNTSO, he sent the following message the morning of 5 June: 'We shall not initiate any action whatsoever against Jordan. However, should Jordan open hostilities, we shall react with all our might, and the king will have to bear the full responsibility of the consequences.' King Hussein told General Bull that it was too late; the die was cast." Avi Shlaim, The Iron Wall: Israel and the Arab World, W. W. Norton & Company, 2000, pp. 243-244. Washington Institute for Near East Policy (WINEP) is a Jewish organization founded in 1985 by Martin Indyk, previously research director of the leading pro-Israel lobby, the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (Aipac). ... Avi Shlaim was born in Baghdad in 1945 and grew up in Israel where he did national service from 1964 to 1966. ...

  3. ^ Michael Oren, Six Days of War, Oxford University Press, 2002, ISBN 0195151747, p. 130
  4. ^ Pre-emptive strike:
    • "In a pre-emptive attack on Egypt..." Israel and the Palestinians in depth, 1967: Six Day War, BBC website. URL accessed May 14, 2006.
    • "a massive pre-emptive strike on Egypt." BBC on this day, BBC website. URL accessed May 14, 2006.
    • "Israel launched a pre-emptive strike on June 5" Mideast 101: The Six Day War, CNN website. URL accessed May 14, 2006.
    • "Most historians now agree that although Israel struck first, this pre-emptive strike was defensive in nature." The Mideast: A Century of Conflict Part 4: The 1967 Six Day War, NPR morning edition, October 3, 2002. URL accessed May 14, 2006.
    • "a massive preemptive strike by Israel that crippled the Arabs’ air capacity." SIX-DAY WAR, Funk & Wagnalls® New Encyclopedia. © 2006 World Almanac Education Group via The History Channel website, 2006, URL accessed February 17, 2007.
    • "In a pre-emptive strike, Israel smashed its enemies’ forces in just six days..." Country Briefings: Israel, The Economist website, Jul 28th 2005. URL accessed March 15, 2007.
    • "Yet pre-emptive strikes can often be justified even if they don't meet the letter of the law. At the start of the Six-Day War in 1967, Israel, fearing that Egypt was aiming to destroy the Jewish state, devastated Egypt's air force before its pilots had scrambled their jets." Strike First, Explain Yourself Later Michael Elliott, Time, Jul. 01, 2002. URL accessed March 15, 2007.
    • "the situation was similar to the crisis that preceded the 1967 Six Day war, when Israel took preemptive military action." Delay with Diplomacy, Marguerite Johnson, Time, May 18, 1981. URL accessed March 15, 2007.
    • "Israel made a preemptive attack against a threatened Arab invasion..." Six-Day War, Encarta Answers, URL accessed April 10, 2007.
    • "Israel preempted the invasion with its own attack on June 5, 1967." Six-Day War, Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2007. URL accessed April 10, 2007.
    Following Egyptian actions:
    • "In 1967, Egypt ordered the UN troops out and blocked Israeli shipping routes - adding to already high levels of tension between Israel and its neighbours." Israel and the Palestinians in depth, 1967: Six Day War, BBC website. URL accessed May 14, 2006.
    • "In June 1967, Egypt, Syria and Jordan massed their troops on Israel's borders in preparation for an all-out attack." Mideast 101: The Six Day War, CNN website. URL accessed May 14, 2006.
    • "Nasser... closed the Gulf of Aqaba to shipping, cutting off Israel from its primary oil supplies. He told U.N. peacekeepers in the Sinai Peninsula to leave. He then sent scores of tanks and hundreds of troops into the Sinai closer to Israel. The Arab world was delirious with support," The Mideast: A Century of Conflict Part 4: The 1967 Six Day War, NPR morning edition, October 3, 2002. URL accessed May 14, 2006.
    • "War returned in 1967, when Egypt, Syria and Jordan massed forces to challenge Israel." Country Briefings: Israel, The Economist website. URL accessed March 3, 2007.
    • "After Israel declared its statehood, several Arab states and Palestinian groups immediately attacked Israel, only to be driven back. In 1956 Israel overran Egypt in the Suez-Sinai War. Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser vowed to avenge Arab losses and press the cause of Palestinian nationalism. To this end, he organized an alliance of Arab states surrounding Israel and mobilized for war." Six-Day War, Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2007. URL accessed April 10, 2007.
  5. ^ "On June 5, Israel sent a message to Hussein urging him not to open fire. Despite shelling into western Jerusalem, Netanya, and the outskirts of Tel Aviv, Israel did nothing." The Six Day War and Its Enduring Legacy, Washington Institute for Near East Policy, July 2, 2002.
  6. ^ Shlaim, 2000, p. 244.
  7. ^ Shlaim, 2000, p. 245.
  8. ^ Shlaim, 2000, p. 244.
  9. ^ Shlaim, 2000, p. 245.
  10. ^ Benny Morris, Righteous Victims, pp. 324-5
  11. ^ Shlaim, 2000, p. 246.
  12. ^ "See Security Council Document S/10070 Para 2."
  13. ^ http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/World/palest.htm
  14. ^ www.prb.org/Articles/2002/TheWestBankandGazaAPopulationProfile.aspx
  15. ^ www.btselem.org/English/Publications/Summaries/200205_Land_Grab.asp
  16. ^ The Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics
  17. ^ UNRWA in Figures: Figures as of 31 December 2004 (PDF). United Nations (April 2005). Retrieved on 2006-09-27.
  18. ^ Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. Palestinian National Authority Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (2007).
  19. ^ Ksenia Svetlova (December 1, 2005). Can trust be rebuilt?. The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved on 2006-09-27.
  20. ^ B. Zimmerman, R. Seid and M. L. Wise (February, 2006). The Million Person Gap: The Arab Population in the West Bank and Gaza. The Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies, Bar-Ilan University. Retrieved on 2007-05-17.
  21. ^ Sergio DellaPergola, Letter to the editor, Azure, 2007, No. 27, [1]
  22. ^ Erlanger, Steven. A Segregated Road in an Already Divided Land, The New York Times, (2007-08-11). Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  23. ^ 'Husseini Threatens Hadassah', The Palestine Post, 18 March, 1948, p. 1.
  24. ^ The Palestine Post, 14 April, 1948, p. 3
  25. ^ Resolution 446, Resolution 465, Resolution 484, among others
  26. ^ Applicability of the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, of 12 August 1949, to the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including Jerusalem, and the other occupied Arab territories. United Nations (December 17, 2003). Retrieved on 2006-09-27.
  27. ^ Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory. International Court of Justice (July 9, 2004). Retrieved on 2006-09-27.
  28. ^ Conference of High Contracting Parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention: statement by the International Committee of the Red Cross. International Committee of the Red Cross (December 5, 2001). Retrieved on 2006-09-27.
  29. ^ Dowty, 2001, p. 217.
  30. ^ PSR Survey. Retrieved on 2007-04-16.
  31. ^ Israeli public opinion regarding the conflict. The Center for Middle East Peace and Economics Cooperation. Retrieved on 2006-09-27.
  32. ^ Asher Arian (June 2002). "A Further Turn to the Right: Israeli Public Opinion on National Security - 2002". Strategic Assessment 5 (1): 50–57. Retrieved on 2006-09-27. 
  33. ^ Aaron Klein (February 24, 2005). Suppressed poll released following WND story: Results show plurality of Israelis favor booting Palestinians. WorldNetDaily. Retrieved on 2006-09-27.
  34. ^ Yael Stein (April 1997). The Quiet Deportation: Revocation of Residency of East Jerusalem Palestinians ( DOC). Joint report by Hamoked & B'Tselem. Retrieved on 2006-09-27.
  35. ^ Yael Stein (April 1997). The Quiet Deportation: Revocation of Residency of East Jerusalem Palestinians (Summary). Joint report by Hamoked & B'Tselem. Retrieved on 2006-09-27.
  36. ^ Legal status of East Jerusalem and its residents. B'Tselem. Retrieved on 2006-09-27.
  37. ^ Bard
  38. ^ David Bamberger (1985, 1994). A Young Person's History of Israel. USA: Behrman House, 182. ISBN 0-87441-393-1. 
  39. ^ What Occupation?. Palestine Facts. Retrieved on 2006-09-27.
  40. ^ Bard
  41. ^ (BardOur Positions: Solving the Palestinian/Israeli Conflict. Free Muslim Coalition Against Terrorism. Retrieved on 2006-09-27.
  42. ^ Emma Playfair (Ed.) (1992). International Law and the Administration of Occupied Territories. USA: Oxford University Press, 396. ISBN 0-19-825297-8. 
  43. ^ Cecilia Albin (2001). Justice and Fairness in International Negotiation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 150. ISBN 0-521-79725-X. 
  44. ^ Mark Gibney; Stanlislaw Frankowski (1999). Judicial Protection of Human Rights: Myth or Reality?. Westport, CT: Praeger/Greenwood, 72. ISBN 0-275-96011-0. 
  45. ^ 'Plia Albeck, legal adviser to the Israeli Government was born in 1937. She died on September 27, 2005, aged 68', The Times, October 5, 2005, p. 71.
  46. ^ FAQ on Israeli settlements. CBC News (February 26, 2004). Retrieved on 2006-09-27.
  47. ^ http://www.aijac.org.au/resources/reports/international_law.pdf
  48. ^ Donald Macintyre, 'Israelis were warned on illegality of settlements in 1967 memo', The Independent (London), March 11, 2006, p. 27.
  49. ^ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines06/0311-06.htm
  50. ^ http://www.tzemachdovid.org/Facts/islegal1.shtml
  51. ^ [2] EU Committee Report. Retrieved April 19, 2007
  52. ^ [3] Arab League news report. Retrieved April 19, 2007
  53. ^ Diplomatic and Legal Aspects of the Settlement Issue, Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 2, No. 16, 19 January, 2003.
  54. ^ How to Respond to Common Misstatements About Israel: Israeli Settlements, Anti-Defamation League website. URL accessed April 10, 2006.
  55. ^ 'US will accept Israel settlements', BBC News Online, 25 March, 2005.
  56. ^ 'UN Condemns Israeli settlements', BBC News Online, 14 April, 2005.
  57. ^ UNSC Resolution 446 (1979) of 22 March 1979
  58. ^ Implementation of the Fourth Geneva Convention in the occupied Palestinian territories: history of a multilateral process (1997-2001), International Review of the Red Cross, 2002 - No. 847.
  59. ^ Israel High Court Ruling Docket H.C.J. 7957/04
  60. ^ http://www.btselem.org/english/Separation_Barrier/Statistics.asp
  61. ^ Margarat Evans (2006-01-06). Indepth Middle East:Israel's Barrier. CBC. Retrieved on 2007-11-05.
  62. ^ Israel's Separation Barrier:Challenges to the Rule of Law and Human Rights: Executive Summary Part I and II. International Commission of Jurists (6 July 2004). Retrieved on 05.11.2007.
  63. ^ [4]
  64. ^ Map of Palestine - Land of Israel, 1845
  65. ^ Wall Street Journal, "After Sharon", January 6, 2006.
  66. ^ Sen. Clinton: I support W. Bank fence, PA must fight terrorism
  67. ^ Under the Guise of Security, B'Tselem]
  68. ^ "U.N. court rules West Bank barrier illegal" (CNN)
  69. ^ Set in stone, The Guardian, June 15, 2003
  70. ^ The West Bank Wall - Unmaking Palestine
  71. ^ Movement and access restrictions in the West Bank: Uncertainty and inefficiency in the Palestinian economy. World Bank Technical Team. May 9, 2007.
  72. ^ http://www.womeningreen.org/sayjune02.htm

Michael Oren (born in 1955) is an Israeli historian and writer. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... NPR logo For other meanings of NPR see NPR (disambiguation) National Public Radio (NPR) is a private, not-for-profit corporation that sells programming to member radio stations; together they are a loosely organized public radio network in the United States. ... Funk and Wagnalls is a publisher based in New York City. ... The World Almanac and Book of Facts is a book considered to be a top reference work. ... For the Canadian equivalent of this channel, see History Television. ... The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ... Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ... Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... NPR logo For other meanings of NPR see NPR (disambiguation) National Public Radio (NPR) is a private, not-for-profit corporation that sells programming to member radio stations; together they are a loosely organized public radio network in the United States. ... The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. ... Washington Institute for Near East Policy (WINEP) is a Jewish organization founded in 1985 by Martin Indyk, previously research director of the leading pro-Israel lobby, the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (Aipac). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthem: Biladi Capital Ramallah and Gaza de facto, as the current location of government institutions. ... The Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) is the statistical organisation of the Palestinian National Authority. ... The May 16, 1948 Palestine Post headline announcing the creation of the state of Israel The Jerusalem Post is an Israeli daily English language broadsheet newspaper, originally founded on December 1, 1932, by American journalist-turned-newspaper-editor Gershon Agron as the The Palestine Post. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 446, submitted March 22, 1979 was on the issue of the Middle East. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 465 was on the issue of the Israeli settlements and administration in the Palestinian territories of East Jerusalem, the West Bank, Gaza Strip and the Syrian Golan Heights. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a private humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... WorldNetDaily, also known as WND, is an American conservative online news site, founded in 1997. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Noia_64_mimetypes_wordprocessing. ... In computing, DOC or doc (an abbreviation of document) is a file extension for word processing documents; most commonly for Microsoft Word. ... Hamoked (Hebrew:המוקד, Center for the Defence of the Individual) is an Israeli human and civil rights group that works on behalf of Palestinians living under Israeli military occupation in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. ... BTselem (Hebrew: , in the image of, as in Genesis 1:27) is an Israeli non-governmental organization (NGO) that describes itself as The Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hamoked (Hebrew:המוקד, Center for the Defence of the Individual) is an Israeli human and civil rights group that works on behalf of Palestinians living under Israeli military occupation in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. ... BTselem (Hebrew: , in the image of, as in Genesis 1:27) is an Israeli non-governmental organization (NGO) that describes itself as The Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BTselem (Hebrew: , in the image of, as in Genesis 1:27) is an Israeli non-governmental organization (NGO) that describes itself as The Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mitchell Geoffrey Bard is an American foreign policy analyst who specializes in U.S.-Middle East policy. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mitchell Geoffrey Bard is an American foreign policy analyst who specializes in U.S.-Middle East policy. ... Mitchell Geoffrey Bard is an American foreign policy analyst who specializes in U.S.-Middle East policy. ... Free Muslim Coalition Against Terrorism (FMCAT) is an Islamic organization dedicated to taking a stand against terrorism. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 278th day of the year (279th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the country’s national public radio and television broadcaster. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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The International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) is an international human rights non-government organisation. ... BTselem (Hebrew: , in the image of, as in Genesis 1:27) is an Israeli non-governmental organization (NGO) that describes itself as The Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories. ...

References

  • Albin, Cecilia (2001). Justice and Fairness in International Negotiation. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-79725-X
  • Bamberger, David (1985, 1994). A Young Person's History of Israel. Behrman House. ISBN 0-87441-393-1
  • Dowty, Alan (2001). The Jewish State: A Century Later. University of California Press. ISBN 0520229118
  • Oren, Michael (2002). Six Days of War, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195151747
  • Gibney, Mark and Frankowski, Stanislaw (1999). Judicial Protection of Human Rights. Praeger/Greenwood. ISBN 0-275-96011-0
  • Playfair, Emma (Ed.) (1992). International Law and the Administration of Occupied Territories. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-825297-8
  • Shlaim, Avi (2000). The Iron Wall: Israel and the Arab World, W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0393048160

Michael Oren (born in 1955) is an Israeli historian and writer. ... Avi Shlaim was born in Baghdad in 1945 and grew up in Israel where he did national service from 1964 to 1966. ...

See also

Economy - overview: Economic conditions in the West Bank - where economic activity is governed by the Paris Economic Protocol of April 1994 between Israel and the Palestinian Authority - have deteriorated since the early 1990s. ... Geography of the West Bank Location: Middle East, west of Jordan Geographic coordinates: 32 00 N, 35 15 E Map references: Middle East Area: total: 5,860 km² land: 5,640 km² water: 220 km² note: includes West Bank, Latrun Salient, and the northwest quarter of the Dead Sea, but... The barrier route as of July 2006. ... The West Bank closure system comprises a series of obstacles including checkpoints, partial checkpoints, agricultural and road gates, observation towers, earthmounds, roadblocks, tunnels, earth walls, road barriers, trenches and permit restrictions placed by the the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). ... Palestinian refugees in 1948 The Palestinian exodus (Arabic: الهجرة الفلسطينية al-Hijra al-Filasteeniya) refers to the refugee flight of Palestinian Arabs during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. ... Map of the West Bank today Rule of the West Bank and East Jerusalem by Jordan. ... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... Map of Israeli settlements (magenta) in the West Bank. ...

External links

Find more information on West Bank by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
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Quotations from Wikiquote
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Learning resources from Wikiversity
  • West Bank from the CIA World Factbook
  • Palestine Facts & Info from Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs
  • The Legal Status of Palestine Under International Law (Supports Palestinian claims), a publication by Birzeit University.
  • United Nations - Question of Palestine
  • Disputed Territories: Forgotten Facts about the West Bank and Gaza Strip - from the Israeli government
  • The Westbank Dispute Analysis from ProCon
  • Large map of West Bank (1992)
  • MOVING UP: An Aliyah Journal, the new book, is an upbeat account about Aliyah and life in Israel.
  • A series of geopolitical maps of the West Bank
  • "American Thinker" opinion article which disputes some of the data in this article
  • 1988 "Address to the Nation" by King Hussein of Jordan Ceding Jordanian Claims to the West Bank to the PLO
  • Camden Abu Dis Friendship Association - establishing links between the North London Borough of Camden and the town of Abu Dis in the West Bank


Coordinates: 31°58′N, 35°18′E Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... This article should belong in one or more categories. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
West Bank - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3982 words)
Judea and Samaria), Arabic: الضفة الغربية‎, aḍ-Ḍiffä l-Ġarbīyä), is a landlocked territory on the west bank of the Jordan River in the Middle East.
The Jewish settlers in the West Bank live mostly in Israeli settlements, though populations exist in Arab neighborhoods of Jerusalem and Hebron (though in Hebron, the Israelis live separated by fences and barricades).
Jenin, in the extreme north of the West Bank is on the southern edge of the Jezreel Valley, Qalqilyah and Tulkarm are in the low foothills adjacent to the Israeli coastal plain, and Jericho is situated near the Jordan River, just north of the Dead Sea.
West Bank: Map, History and Much More From Answers.com (4823 words)
Located west and south-west of the Jordan River in the eastern part of the Palestine region in the Middle East, it is bordered by Israel to the west, north, and south, and by Jordan to the east.
The population of the West Bank is predominantly Palestinian (84%) with a significant minority of Israeli settlers.
Annexation of the West Bank and transfer of part or all of the Palestinian population (a 2002 poll at the height of the Al Aqsa intifada found 46% of Israelis favoring Palestinian transfer[6]; in 2005 two polls using a different methodology put the number at approximately 30%).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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