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Encyclopedia > West Virginia
State of West Virginia
Flag of West Virginia State seal of West Virginia
Flag of West Virginia Seal
Nickname(s): Mountain State
Motto(s): Montani semper liberi
Official language(s) none (de facto English)
Demonym West Virginian
Capital Charleston
Largest city Charleston
Largest metro area Charleston metro area
Area  Ranked 41st in the US
 - Total 24,230 sq mi
(62,755 km²)
 - Width 130 miles (210 km)
 - Length 240 miles (385 km)
 - % water 0.6
 - Latitude 37° 12′ N to 40° 39′ N
 - Longitude 77° 43′ W to 82° 39′ W
Population  Ranked 37th in the US
 - Total 1,808,344
 - Density 75.1/sq mi 
29.0/km² (27th in the US)
 - Median income  $38,029 (48th)
Elevation  
 - Highest point Spruce Knob[1]
4,863 ft  (1,427 m)
 - Mean 1,500 ft  (460 m)
 - Lowest point Potomac River[1]
240 ft  (73 m)
Admission to Union  June 20, 1863 (35)
Governor Joe Manchin (D)
Lieutenant Governor None[2]
U.S. Senators Robert C. Byrd (D)
Jay Rockefeller (D)
Congressional Delegation List
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Abbreviations WV US-WV
Website www.wv.gov

West Virginia (IPA: /ˌwɛstvɚˈdʒɪnjə/) is a state in the Appalachia / Upland South region of the United States. West Virginia broke away from Virginia during the American Civil War and was admitted to the Union as a separate state on June 20, 1863 (an anniversary now celebrated as West Virginia Day in the state). It is one of only two states formed during the American Civil War (along with Nevada) and is the only state to form by seceding from a Confederate state. Image File history File links Flag_of_West_Virginia. ... Flag of West Virginia The flag of West Virginia consists of the States coat of arms on a pure white field with a dark blue border. ... The West Virginia State Seal was adopted in 1863. ... This is a list of U.S. state nicknames -- both official and traditional (official state nicknames are in bold). ... Here is a list of state mottos for the states of the United States. ... The Great Seal of West Virginia with the state motto found at the bottom. ... Image File history File links Map_of_USA_WV.svg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): West Virginia ... The United States does not have an official language, but English is spoken by about 82% of the population as a native language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... This is a list of U.S. state residents names: ^ The first name listed is the name recommended by the United States Government Printing Office Style Manual. ... Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, site of first U.S. capital. ... Nickname: Home of Hospitality, The most northern city of the South and the most southern city of the North, Chemicalville, The Capitol City C-Town Location of Charleston in West Virginia. ... Nickname: Home of Hospitality, The most northern city of the South and the most southern city of the North, Chemicalville, The Capitol City C-Town Location of Charleston in West Virginia. ... In the United States, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has produced a formal definition of metropolitan areas. ... The Charleston WV metroploitan area or the Charleston Metropolitan Statistical Area is the largest metro area in the state of West Virginia. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... This is a complete list of the states of the United States ordered by total area, land area, and water area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... “km” redirects here. ... Map of states populations (2007) This is a list of states of the United States by population (with inhabited non-state jurisdictions included for comparison) as of July 1, 2007, according to the 2007 estimates of the United States Census Bureau. ... Map of states showing population density This is a list of the 50 U.S. states, ordered by population density. ... For information on the income of individuals, see Personal income in the United States. ... This is a list of United States states by elevation. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ... The order which the original 13 states ratified the constitution, then the order that the others were admitted to the union This is a list of U.S. states by date of statehood, that is, the date when each U.S. state joined the Union. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Joseph (Joe) Manchin III (born August 24, 1947 in Farmington, West Virginia) was elected Governor of West Virginia in the 2004 election and took office on January 17, 2005. ... This is a complete and current List of United States Lieutenant Governors. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Robert Carlyle Byrd (born November 20, 1917) is the senior United States Senator from West Virginia and a member of the Democratic Party. ... John Davison Rockefeller IV (born June 18, 1937), generally known as Jay Rockefeller, has served as a Democratic U.S. Senator from West Virginia since 1985. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... These are tables of congressional delegations from West Virginia to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Map of U.S. time zones with new CST and EST areas displayed This is a list of United States of America States by time zone. ... Metronome, a public art installation showing the time in New York City The Eastern Time Zone (ET) of the Western Hemisphere falls mostly along the east coast of Northern America and the west coast of South America. ... ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... The following is a list of abbreviations used by the United States Postal Service. ... U.S. states This is a list of traditional abbreviations for U.S. states and territorries, which were in wide use prior to the U.S. postal abbreviations. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... It has been suggested that Poverty in Appalachia be merged into this article or section. ... The Upland South does not correspond well to state lines, although the term Upper South is sometimes defined by states. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... In this map:  Union states prohibiting slavery  Union territories  Border states on the Union side which allowed slavery  Kansas, which entered and fought with the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories During the American Civil War, the Union... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Flag of West Virginia West Virginia Day is a holiday celebrated every June 20th in the American state of West Virginia. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia...


West Virginia is one of the Border States. The Census Bureau considers West Virginia part of the South because most of the state is below the Mason-Dixon Line, though its northern panhandle extends adjacent to Pennsylvania and Ohio with Weirton on a parallel with Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The unique position of West Virginia means that it is included in a wide variety of geographical regions (though often only marginally), such as the Upper South, the Upland South, the Southeastern United States, the Southern United States, the Mid-Atlantic, Appalachia and even the Midwestern United States and Northeastern United States. Notably, it is the only state which entirely lies within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission, which is a common definition of "Appalachia".[3] While West Virginians recognize that their state is part of Appalachia, many do not welcome the term for purposes of self-identification.[4] The state's Northern Panhandle, and North-Central region feel an affinity for Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Also, those in the Eastern Panhandle feel a connection with the Washington, D.C. suburbs in Maryland and Virginia, and southern West Virginians often consider themselves Southerners. Finally, the towns and farms along the mid-Ohio River have an appearance and culture somewhat resembling the Midwest.[5] The capital and largest city is Charleston. In this map:  Union states  Union territories  Bleeding Kansas  Union border states that permitted slavery  The Confederacy  Union territories that permitted slavery The term border states refers to the five slave states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, and West Virginia which bordered a free state and aligned with the Union... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... Historic Southern United States. ... For the fictional character, see Mason Dixon (Rocky Balboa character). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Weirton is a city located in the Northern Panhandle of West Virginia. ... Pittsburgh redirects here. ... The Upland South is defined by landform, history, and culture, and does not correspond well to state lines. ... The Upland South does not correspond well to state lines, although the term Upper South is sometimes defined by states. ... The US Southeast is the eastern portion of the Southern United States, but the Census Bureau does not provide a standard definition of a Southeast region of the United States, and organizations that need to subdivide the US are free to define a Southeast region to fit their needs. ... Historic Southern United States. ... The Mid-Atlantic region of the United States of America, located in the northeastern section of the country, includes the following states and district: Delaware Maryland New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Washington, D.C. West Virginia Virginia These areas provided the young United States with heavy industry and served as... It has been suggested that Poverty in Appalachia be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the Midwestern region in the United States. ... Regional definitions vary The Northeastern United States is a region of the United States. ... Areas included within the Appalachian Regional Commissions charter The Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) is a United States federal-state partnership that works with the people of Appalachia to create opportunities for self-sustaining economic development and improved quality of life. ... Northern panhandle The Northern Panhandle is a region in the U.S. state of West Virginia. ... Map of North-Central WV North-Central West Virginia is a region of the U.S. State of West Virginia. ... Pittsburgh redirects here. ... Eastern panhandle The Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia is a narrow stretch of territory in the northeast of the state, bordering Maryland and Virginia. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... “Suburbia” redirects here. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Southern West Virginia is a culturally and geographically distinct region in the U.S. state of West Virginia. ... Historic Southern United States. ... View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... This article is about the Midwestern region in the United States. ... Nickname: Home of Hospitality, The most northern city of the South and the most southern city of the North, Chemicalville, The Capitol City C-Town Location of Charleston in West Virginia. ...


The state is noted for its great natural beauty, its historically significant logging and coal mining industries, and its labor history. It is also well known as a tourist destination for those people interested in outdoor activities such as skiing, whitewater rafting, rock climbing, fishing, hiking, and hunting. Logging is the process in which trees are cut down usually as part of a timber harvest which is good for the environment. ... Surface coal mining in Wyoming in the United States of America. ... til the development of wage labour. ...

Contents

Geography

The summit of Spruce Knob is often covered in clouds.
See also: List of counties in West Virginia and List of West Virginia county seats

West Virginia is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north; by Ohio to the north and west; by Kentucky to the west; by Maryland to the north and east; and by Virginia to the east and south. The Ohio and Potomac rivers form parts of the boundaries. Download high resolution version (800x784, 472 KB)Relief Map: Cumberland Plateau, West Virginia and Ridge and Valley region of Virginia Image is Shaded Relief Imagery, derived from the US Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset, modified by Pollinator. ... Download high resolution version (800x784, 472 KB)Relief Map: Cumberland Plateau, West Virginia and Ridge and Valley region of Virginia Image is Shaded Relief Imagery, derived from the US Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset, modified by Pollinator. ... The Cumberland Plateau includes much of eastern Kentucky and western West Virginia in the United States. ... The Ridge-and-valley Appalachians are a belt within the Appalachian Mountains extending from northern New Jersey westward into Pennsylvania and southward into Maryland, West Virginia, and Virginia. ... Image File history File links Spruce_Knob. ... Image File history File links Spruce_Knob. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Map of West Virginia. ... This is a list of counties in West Virginia: West Virginia county boundaries Barbour County Berkeley County Boone County Braxton County Brooke County Cabell County Calhoun County Clay County Doddridge County Fayette County Gilmer County Grant County Greenbrier County Hampshire County Hancock County Hardy County Harrison County Jackson County Jefferson... Barbour County - Philippi Berkeley County - Martinsburg Boone County - Madison Braxton County - Sutton Brooke County - Wellsburg Cabell County - Huntington Calhoun County - Grantsville Clay County - Clay Doddridge County - West Union Fayette County - Fayetteville Gilmer County - Glenville Grant County - Petersburg Greenbrier County - Lewisburg Hampshire County - Romney Hancock County - New Cumberland Hardy County - Moorefield... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. state. ... View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ...


West Virginia is the only state in the nation located entirely within the Appalachian Mountain range, and in which all areas are mountainous; for this reason it is nicknamed The Mountain State. About 75% of the state is within the Cumberland Plateau and Allegheny Plateau regions. Though the relief is not high, the plateau region is extremely rugged in most areas. The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... The Cumberland Plateau includes much of eastern Kentucky and western West Virginia in the United States. ... Map of the Allegheny plateau. ...


On the eastern state line with Virginia, high peaks in the Monongahela National Forest region give rise to an island of colder climate and ecosystems similar to those of northern New England and eastern Canada. The highest point in the state is atop Spruce Knob, which at 4,863 feet (1,482 m)[1] is covered in a boreal forest of dense spruce trees at altitudes above 4,000 feet (1,220 m). Spruce Knob lies within the Monongahela National Forest and is a part of the Spruce Knob-Seneca Rocks National Recreation Area. [1] A total of six wilderness areas can also be found within the forest. Outside the forest to the south, the New River Gorge is a 1,000-foot (304 m) deep canyon carved by the New River. The National Park Service manages a portion of the gorge and river that has been designated as the New River Gorge National River, one of only 15 rivers in the U.S. with this level of protection. This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Monogahela National Forest. ... For other uses, see Ecological Systems Theory. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Taiga (SAMPA /taIg@/, from Russian тайга́) is a biome characterized by its coniferous forests. ... Species About 35; see text. ... Spruce Knob-Seneca Rocks National Recreation Area is a United States National Recreation Area located in West Virginia within the Monongahela National Forest. ... For other uses, see Wilderness (disambiguation). ... Map of the Kanawha River watershed, with the New River and its watershed highlighted. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... New River Gorge National River is a National Park Service-owned park designed to the protect the New River) Gorge in southern West Virginia. ...


Other areas under protection and management include:

The native vegetation for most of the state was originally mixed hardwood forest of oak, chestnut, maple, beech, and white pine, with willow and American sycamore along the state's waterways. Many of the areas are rich in biodiversity and scenic beauty, a fact that is appreciated by native West Virginians, who refer to their home as Almost Heaven. Ecologically, most of West Virginia falls into the Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests ecoregion. The Appalachian National Scenic Trail, generally known as the Appalachian Trail, is a 2,174 mile (3500 km) marked hiking trail in the eastern United States, running from Springer Mountain in Georgia to Mt. ... The Bluestone National Scenic River protects a portion of the Bluestone River in southern West Virginia. ... The Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge (CVNWR), in Tucker County, West Virginia, is the 500th National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) to be established (August 11, 1994) in the USA. The Refuge preserves a moist valley with unique wetlands and uplands at a relatively high elevation in the Allegheny Mountains. ... The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park is a National Park Service_managed National Historical Park in northern Maryland that was established by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1961. ... Summersville Dam The Gauley River National Recreation Area, located near Summersville, West Virginia, protects a 25 mile (40 kilometer) portion of the Gauley River and a 5. ... The George Washington and Jefferson National Forests are U.S. National Forests that combine to form one of the largest areas of public land in the Eastern United States They cover 1. ... Harpers Ferry National Historical Park is located at the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers in and around Harpers Ferry, West Virginia. ... The Ohio River Islands National Wildlife Refuge is a National Wildlife Refuge extending along 362 miles of the Ohio River in the U.S. state of West Virginia. ... Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region; it refers to the ground cover provided by plants, and is, by far, the most abundant biotic element of the biosphere. ... Beech is a typical temperate zone hardwood For the record label, see Hardwood Records. ... This article is about a community of trees. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), which are listed in the List of Quercus species, and some related genera, notably... Species Castanea alnifolia - Bush Chinkapin* Castanea crenata - Japanese Chestnut Castanea dentata - American Chestnut Castanea henryi - Henrys Chestnut Castanea mollissima - Chinese Chestnut Castanea ozarkensis - Ozark Chinkapin Castanea pumila - Allegheny Chinkapin Castanea sativa - Sweet Chestnut Castanea seguinii - Seguins Chestnut * treated as a synonym of by many authors Chestnut is a... For other uses, see Maple (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Beech (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus) is a large pine native to eastern North America, occurring from Newfoundland west to Minnesota and southeastern Manitoba, and south along the Appalachian Mountains to the extreme north of Georgia. ... Species About 350, including: Salix acutifolia - Violet Willow Salix alaxensis - Alaska Willow Salix alba - White Willow Salix alpina - Alpine Willow Salix amygdaloides - Peachleaf Willow Salix arbuscula - Mountain Willow Salix arbusculoides - Littletree Willow Salix arctica - Arctic Willow Salix atrocinerea Salix aurita - Eared Willow Salix babylonica - Peking Willow Salix bakko Salix barrattiana... Binomial name L. The American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis), also known as American plane, Occidental plane, and Buttonwood, is one of the species of Platanus native to North America. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Source of bioregions data used to male map: Olson, D. M. and E. Dinerstein. ... An ecoregion, sometimes called a bioregion, is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ...


The underlying rock strata are sandstones, shales, bituminous coal beds, and limestones laid down in a near shore environment from sediments derived from mountains to the east, in a shallow inland sea on the west. Some beds illustrate a coastal swamp environment, some river delta, some shallow water. Sea level rose and fell many times during the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian eras, giving a variety of rock strata. The Appalachian Mountains are some of the oldest on earth, having formed over 300 million years ago. Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... Shale Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. ... Bituminous coal Bituminous coal is a relatively hard coal containing a tar-like substance called bitumen. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... “Mississippian” redirects here. ... The Pennsylvanian is an epoch of the Carboniferous period lasting from roughly 325 Ma to 299 Ma (million years ago). ...


Climate

The climate of West Virginia borders on a humid subtropical climate (Koppen climate classification Cfa) in the lower elevations of the extreme southwestern part of the state (including Huntington) and parts of the Eastern Panhandle east of the Appalachians with hot, humid summers and milder winters. The rest of the state has a humid continental climate (Koppen climate classification Dfa, except Dfb at the higher elevations) with warm to hot, humid summers and cold winters, increasing in severity with elevation. However, the weather is subject in all parts of the state to change. The hardiness zones range from zone 5b in the central Appalachian mountains to zone 7a in the warmest parts of the lowest elevations. In the Eastern Panhandle and the Ohio River Valley temperatures are warm enough to see and grow subtropical plants such as Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), Crepe Myrtle, Albizia julibrissin, American Sweetgum and even the occasional needle palm and sabal minor. These plants don't thrive as well in other parts of the state. The humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and chilly to mild winters. ... The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ... Huntington is a city located in the U.S. State of West Virginia along the Ohio River. ... The humid continental climate is a climate found over large areas of land masses in the temperate regions of the mid-latitudes where there is a zone of conflict between polar and tropical air masses. ... The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a system of North American mountains running from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada to Alabama in the United States, although the northernmost mainland portion ends at the Gaspe Peninsula of Quebec. ... View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... Binomial name Magnolia grandiflora L. The Southern magnolia, also known as bull bay, is a magnolia native to the southeastern United States, from coastal North Carolina south to central Florida, and west to East Texas. ... Binomial name Albizia julibrissin (Willd. ... Binomial name Liquidambar styraciflua L. American Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), also known as Redgum, is a deciduous tree in the genus Liquidambar native to warm temperate areas of eastern North America. ... Binomial name Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) H.Wendl. ... Binomial name Sabal minor (Jacq. ...


Average January temperatures range from around 28°F (-2°C) near the Cheat River to 43°F (5°C) along sections of the border with Kentucky. July averages range from 67°F (19°C) along the North Branch Potomac River to 76°F (24°C) in the western part of the state. It is cooler in the mountains than in the lower sections of the state. The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ...


Annual precipitation ranges from less than 32 inches (810 mm) in the lower eastern section to more than 56 inches (1,400 mm) in higher parts of the Allegheny Front. Slightly more than half the rainfall occurs from April to September. Dense fogs are common in many valleys of the Kanawha section, especially the Tygart Valley. West Virginia is also one of the cloudiest states in the nation, with the cities of Elkins and Beckley ranking 9th. and 10th. in the U.S. respectively for the number of cloudy days per year (over 210). In addition to persistent cloudy skies caused by the damming of moisture by the Alleghenies, West Virginia also experiences some of the most frequent precipitation in the nation, with Snowshoe averaging nearly 200 days a year with either rain or snow. Snow usually lasts only a few days in the lower sections but may persist for weeks in the higher mountain areas. An average of 34 inches (86 cm) of snow falls annually in Charleston, although during the winter of 1995-1996 more than three times that amount fell as several cities in the state established new records for snowfall. Average snowfall in the Allegheny Highlands can range up to 180 inches per year. Kanawha may refer to several places in the United States: a city in Iowa; see Kanawha, Iowa a county in West Virginia; see Kanawha County, West Virginia. ... Map of the Monongahela River basin, with the Tygart Valley River highlighted. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...

Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various West Virginia Cities
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Beckley 39/22 43/25 52/32 62/41 71/49 77/57 80/61 79/60 73/54 63/42 52/34 43/26
Charleston 43/24 47/27 57/34 67/42 75/50 82/58 85/63 84/62 77/55 67/43 56/35 47/28
Elkins 39/18 44/20 53/27 63/35 72/44 78/53 82/58 80/57 74/50 64/37 53/29 44/22
Huntington 41/24 46/28 56/36 67/44 75/53 82/61 85/65 84/64 77/57 66/45 55/37 45/29
[2]

History

West Virginia's unique geography allowed for exploration from two concurrent directions and a duality of a "Border State". West Virginia is the only American state formed as a direct result of the American Civil War. ...


Prehistory

The area now known as West Virginia was a favorite hunting ground of numerous Native American peoples before the arrival of European settlers. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various mound builder cultures survive, especially in the areas of Moundsville, South Charleston, and Romney. Although little is known about these civilizations, the artifacts uncovered give evidence of a complex, stratified culture that practiced metallurgy. This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mound builder (disambiguation). ... Moundsville is a city in Marshall County, West Virginia, along the Ohio River. ... South Charleston is a city in Kanawha County, West Virginia, USA. The population was 13,390 at the 2000 census. ... Romney is a city in Hampshire County, West Virginia, United States of America. ... Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their compounds, which are called alloys. ...


European exploration and settlement

Further information: Vandalia (colony) and Westsylvania
Thomas Lee, the first manager of the Ohio Company of Virginia.
Thomas Lee, the first manager of the Ohio Company of Virginia.

In 1671, General Abram Wood, at the direction of Royal Governor William Berkeley of the Virginia Colony, sent a party which discovered Kanawha Falls. In 1716, Governor Alexander Spotswood with about thirty horsemen made an excursion into what is now Pendleton County. John Van Metre, an Indian trader, penetrated into the northern portion in 1725. The same year, German settlers from Pennsylvania founded New Mecklenburg, the present Shepherdstown, on the Potomac River, and others followed Vandalia was the name of a proposed British colony in North America that never materialized. ... Westsylvania was a name suggested for an unrealized 14th state of the United States; it was to include southwestern Pennsylvania, the western panhandle of Maryland, nearly the whole of what is now West Virginia, a small part of what is now Virginia, and a small part of eastern Kentucky. ... Image File history File links Portrait of Thomas Lee File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Portrait of Thomas Lee File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Thomas Lee (c. ... The Ohio Country, showing present-day U.S. state boundaries The Ohio Company, more formally known as the Ohio Company of Virginia, was a land speculation company organized for the colonization of the Ohio Country. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the 15th-century marquess, see Marquess of Berkeley. ... The 1609 charter for the Virginia colony from sea to sea The Virginia Colony refers to the English colony in North America that existed during the 17th and 18th centuries before the American Revolution. ... Alexander Spotswood c. ... Pendleton County is a county located in the state of West Virginia. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Shepherdstown is a town in Jefferson County, West Virginia, USA. The population was 803 at the 2000 census. ... The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ...


King Charles II of England, in 1661, granted to a company of gentlemen the land between the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers, known as the Northern Neck. The grant finally came into the possession of Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, and in 1746, a stone was erected at the source of the North Branch Potomac River to mark the western limit of the grant. A considerable part of this land was surveyed by George Washington between 1748 and 1751. The diary kept by the surveyor indicates that there were already many squatters, largely of German origin, along the South Branch Potomac River. Christopher Gist, a surveyor in the employ of the first Ohio Company, which was composed chiefly of Virginians, explored the country along the Ohio River north of the mouth of the Kanawha River between 1751 and 1752. The company sought to have a fourteenth colony established with the name "Vandalia". Many settlers crossed the mountains after 1750, though they were hindered by Native American resistance. Few Native Americans lived permanently within the present limits of the state, but the region was a common hunting ground, crossed by many trails. During the French and Indian War the scattered British settlements were almost destroyed. Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... The Rappahannock at sunset The Rappahannock River is a river in eastern Virginia in the United States, approximately 184 mi (294 km). ... The Northern Neck is the northernmost of three peninsulas on the western shore of Chesapeake Bay in Virginia, USA. This peninsula is bounded by the Potomac River on the north and the Rappahannock River on the south. ... Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron was born in 1692 at Leeds Castle in Kent, England and died at his seat at Greenway Court near White Post in Clarke County, Virginia on December 12, 1781. ... The Fairfax Stone was placed settling a boundary dispute between Lord Fairfax and the English Privy Council concerning the Northern Neck of the Potomac River to determine proprietorship during the Survey of 1736/37. ... The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ... Christopher Gist (1706 – 1759) was one of the first white explorers of the Ohio Country in what would become the United States, credited for providing Great Britain and her colonists with the first detailed description of the Ohio Country. ... The Ohio Country, showing present-day U.S. state boundaries The Ohio Company, more formally known as the Ohio Company of Virginia, was a land speculation company organized for the colonization of the Ohio Country. ... View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... Map of the Kanawha River watershed, showing its main tributary, the New River. ... Vandalia was the name of a proposed British colony in North America that never materialized. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and...


In 1774, the Crown Governor of Virginia John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore, led a force over the mountains, and a body of militia under then-Colonel Andrew Lewis dealt the Shawnee Indians, under Hokoleskwa (or "Cornstalk"), a crushing blow during the Battle of Point Pleasant at the junction of the Kanawha and the Ohio rivers. Native American attacks continued until after the American Revolutionary War. During the war, the settlers in western Virginia were generally active Whigs and many served in the Continental Army. John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore (1730 – February 25, 1809) was the British governor of the Province of New York from 1770 to 1771 and the Virginia Colony, from September 25, 1771 until his departure to New York on New Years Eve, 1776. ... Statue of Andrew Lewis on the Battle of Point Pleasant monument. ... For other meanings, see Shawnee (disambiguation). ... Cornstalk (1720?–November 10, 1777) was a prominent leader of the Shawnee people in the era of the American Revolution. ... The Battle of Point Pleasant was an action in Lord Dunmores War between Virginia militia and the Indians fought on October 10, 1774 near modern Point Pleasant, West Virginia. ... This article is about military actions only. ... Illustration depicting uniforms and weapons used during the 1779 to 1783 period of the American Revolution by showing four soldiers standing in an informal group General George Washington, was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army on June 15, 1775. ...


Trans-Allegheny Virginia, 1776-1861

For more details on this topic, see Virginia.

Social conditions in western Virginia were entirely unlike those in the eastern portion of the state. The population was not homogeneous, as a considerable part of the immigration came by way of Pennsylvania and included Germans, Protestant Ulster-Scots, and settlers from the states farther north. During the American Revolution, the movement to create a state beyond the Alleghanies was revived and a petition for the establishment of "Westsylvania" was presented to Congress, on the grounds that the mountains made an almost impassable barrier on the east. The rugged nature of the country made slavery unprofitable, and time only increased the social, political, economic and cultural differences (see Tuckahoe-Cohee) between the two sections of Virginia. This article is about the U.S. state. ... Ulster-Scots is a term mainly used in Ireland and Britain (Scotch-Irish or Scots-Irishis commonly used in North America) primarily to refer to Presbyterian Scots, or their descendents, who migrated from the Scottish Lowlands to Ulster (the northern province of Ireland), largely across the 17th century. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Tuckahoe was a term used during the 18th and 19th centuries to describe a cultural group, i. ...


The convention that met in 1829 to form a new constitution for Virginia, against the protest of the counties beyond the mountains, required a property qualification for suffrage and gave the slave-holding counties the benefit of three-fifths of their slave population in apportioning the state's representation in the U.S. House of Representatives. As a result, every county beyond the Alleghenies except one voted to reject the constitution, which nevertheless passed because of eastern support. Though the Virginia Constitution of 1850 provided for white male suffrage, the distribution of representation among the counties continued to give control to the section east of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Another grievance of the west was the large expenditure for internal improvements at state expense by the Virginia Board of Public Works in the East compared with the scanty proportion allotted to the West. Blue Ridge Mountains, Shining Rock Wilderness Area Appalachian Mountain system The Blue Ridge is a mountain chain in the eastern United States, part of the Appalachian Mountains, forming their eastern front from Georgia to Pennsylvania. ... The Virginia Board of Public Works was a governmental agency which oversaw and helped finance the development of Virginias internal transportation improvements during the 19th century. ...


Separation from Virginia

See also: West Virginia in the American Civil War
John S. Carlile, a leader during the First Wheeling Convention

West Virginia is the only state in the Union to secede from a confederate state, Virginia, during the American Civil War.[6] On April 17, 1861 fifteen of the forty-six delegates from the area located in the present state of West Virginia voted to secede from the United States.[7] Almost immediately after the vote to proceed with secession prevailed in the Virginia General Assembly, a mass meeting at Clarksburg recommended that each county in northwestern Virginia send delegates to a convention to meet in Wheeling on May 13, 1861. When this First Wheeling Convention met, 425 delegates from 25 counties were present, though more than one-third of the delegates were from the northern panhandle area,[8] but soon there was a division of sentiment. Some delegates favored the immediate formation of a new state, while others argued that, as Virginia's secession had not yet been passed by the required referendum, such action would constitute revolution against the United States.[9] It was decided that if the ordinance were adopted (of which there was little doubt), another convention including the members-elect of the legislature should meet at Wheeling in June. At the election on May 23, 1861, secession was ratified by a large majority in the state as a whole, but in the western counties approximately 34,677 voted against and 19,121 voted for the Ordinance.[10] West Virginia was formed and added to the Union as a direct result of the American Civil War (see History of West Virginia). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 482 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (633 × 787 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 482 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (633 × 787 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... John Carlile John Snyder Carlile (December 16, 1817 – October 24, 1878) was an American merchant, lawyer, and politician, including a United States Senator. ... The Wheeling Convention, held in Wheeling, West Virginia in 1861, was a series of two meetings that ultimately repealed the Ordinance of Secession passed by Virginia, thus establishing the splinter state of West Virginia. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ... Clarksburg is a city in Harrison County, West Virginia, U.S. The population was 16,743 at the 2000 census. ... Nickname: The Friendly City Location in Ohio County in the State of West Virginia Coordinates: Settled 1769 Established 1806 Incorporated 1836  - Mayor Nick Sparachane  - City Manager Robert Herron  - Chief of Police Kevin Gessler, Sr. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Wheeling Convention, held in Wheeling, West Virginia in 1861, was a series of two meetings that ultimately repealed the Ordinance of Secession passed by Virginia, thus establishing the splinter state of West Virginia. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The Second Wheeling Convention met as agreed on June 11 and declared that, since the Secession Convention had been called without the consent of the people, all its acts were void, and that all who adhered to it had vacated their offices. The Wheeling Conventions, and the delegates themselves, were never actually elected by public ballot to act on behalf of western Virginia.[11] An act for the reorganization of the government was passed on June 19. The next day Francis H. Pierpont was chosen by other delegates at the convention to be governor of Virginia, other officers were elected and the convention adjourned. The legislature was composed of 103 members, 33 of whom had been elected to the Virginia General Assembly[12] on May 23. This number included some hold-over Senators from 1859, and as such had vacated their offices to convene in Wheeling. The other members "were chosen even more irregularly-some in mass meetings, others by county committee, and still others were seemingly self-appointed"[13] They met on June 20 and filled the remainder of the state offices, organized a state government and elected two United States senators who were recognized at Washington, D.C. At that point, therefore, there were two state governments in Virginia, one pledging allegiance to the United States and one to the Confederacy. is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Francis Harrison Pierpont (January 25, 1814–March 24, 1899), called the Father of West Virginia, was an American lawyer, politician, and governor of (the free parts of) Virginia during the Civil War. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia...


The Wheeling Convention, which had taken a recess until August 6, then reassembled on August 20, and called for a popular vote on the formation of a new state and for a convention to frame a constitution if the vote should be favorable. At the election on October 24, 1861, 18,489 votes were cast for the new state and only 781 against. Most of the affirmative votes came from ten counties in the Wheeling area.[14] Over 50,000 votes had been cast on the Ordinance of Secession, yet the vote on statehood gathered only a little over 19,000. In Ohio County, home to Wheeling, a little over one-quarter of the voters cast a vote.[15] At the Constitutional Convention in November 1861, Mr. Lamb of Ohio County and Mr. Carskadon said that in Hampshire County, out of 195 votes only 39 were cast by citizens of the state, the rest by Union soldiers.[16] In most of what would become West Virginia, there was no vote at all as two-thirds of the territory of West Virginia had voted for secession and county officers were still loyal to Richmond.[17] Votes recorded from Secession counties were mostly cast in the northwest by Unionist refugees from those counties.[18] The convention began on November 26, 1861, and finished its work on February 18, 1862, and the instrument was ratified (18,162 for and 514 against) on April 11, 1862. is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ...

Harpers Ferry (as it appears today) changed hands a dozen times during the American Civil War.
Harpers Ferry (as it appears today) changed hands a dozen times during the American Civil War.

On May 13, the state legislature of the reorganized government approved the formation of the new state. An application for admission to the Union was made to Congress, and on December 31, 1862, an enabling act was approved by President Abraham Lincoln admitting West Virginia, on the condition that a provision for the gradual abolition of slavery be inserted in the Constitution. The Convention was reconvened on February 12, 1863, and the demand was met. The revised constitution was adopted on March 26, 1863, and on April 20, 1863, President Lincoln issued a proclamation admitting the state at the end of sixty days (June 20, 1863). Meanwhile officers for the new state were chosen and Governor Pierpont moved his capital to Alexandria where he asserted jurisdiction over the counties of Virginia within the Federal lines. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1477x901, 1079 KB) Description: Harpers Ferry seen from Maryland side of Potomac River Source: Picture taken by Kevin Smith on May 7, 2005 from the overlook on the Maryland side of the Potomac River Photographer/Painter: Kevin Smith File links... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1477x901, 1079 KB) Description: Harpers Ferry seen from Maryland side of Potomac River Source: Picture taken by Kevin Smith on May 7, 2005 from the overlook on the Maryland side of the Potomac River Photographer/Painter: Kevin Smith File links... Harpers Ferry is the name of several places in the United States of America: Harpers Ferry, Iowa Harpers Ferry, West Virginia There was also John Browns raid on the armory at Harpers Ferry, West Virginia as well as a Battle of Harpers Ferry in the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Location in Virginia Coordinates: , Country State Founded 1749 Government  - Mayor William D. Euille Area  - Total 15. ...

The question of the constitutionality of the formation of the new state was brought before the Supreme Court of the United States in the following manner: Berkeley and Jefferson counties lying on the Potomac east of the mountains, in 1863, with the consent of the reorganized government of Virginia voted in favor of annexation to West Virginia. Many voters absent in the Confederate Army when the vote was taken refused to acknowledge the transfer upon their return. The Virginia General Assembly repealed the act of secession and in 1866 brought suit against West Virginia asking the court to declare the counties a part of Virginia. Meanwhile, Congress, on March 10, 1866, passed a joint resolution recognizing the transfer. The Supreme Court, in 1870, decided in favor of West Virginia.[19] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 771 KB) Summary The memorial viewed from the front in Indian Mound Cemetery. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 771 KB) Summary The memorial viewed from the front in Indian Mound Cemetery. ... The Confederate Memorial The Confederate Memorial in Indian Mound Cemetery at Romney, West Virginia, is considered the first official memorial to Confederate dead to be erected anywhere in the United States of America. ... Romney is a city in Hampshire County, West Virginia, United States of America. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... Berkeley County is a county located in the U.S. state of West Virginia. ... Jefferson County is a county located in the state of West Virginia. ... The Virginia General Assembly is the state legislature of the Commonwealth of Virginia, a U.S. state. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


During the American Civil War, West Virginia suffered comparatively little. George B. McClellan's forces gained possession of the greater part of the territory in the summer of 1861, and Union control was never seriously threatened, in spite of the attempt by Robert E. Lee in the same year. In 1863, General John D. Imboden, with 5,000 Confederates, overran a considerable portion of the state. Bands of guerrillas burned and plundered in some sections, and were not entirely suppressed until after the war ended. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... For the 1960s commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, see George McClellan (police commissioner). ... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... John D. Imboden John Daniel Imboden (February 16, 1823 – August 15, 1895) was a lawyer, teacher, Virginia legislator, coal mine operator, and a Confederate cavalry general and partisan fighter in the American Civil War. ...


The area which became West Virginia furnished about an equal number of soldiers to the Federal and Confederate governments[3], approximately 22-25,000 each. The Wheeling government found it necessary in 1865 to strip voting rights from returning Confederates. James Ferguson, who proposed the law, said that if it was not enacted he would lose election by 500 votes.[20] The property of Confederates might be confiscated, and in 1866 a constitutional amendment disfranchising all who had given aid and comfort to the Confederacy was adopted. The addition of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution caused a reaction, the Democratic party secured control in 1870, and in 1871, the constitutional amendment of 1866 was abrogated. The first steps toward this change had been taken, however, by the Republicans in 1870. On August 22, 1872, an entirely new constitution was adopted. Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... Amendment XV in the National Archives 1870 celebration of the 15th amendment as a guarantee of African American rights 1867 drawing depicting the first vote by African Americans Amendment XV (the Fifteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution provides that governments in the United States may not prevent a citizen... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Beginning in Reconstruction, and for several decades thereafter, the two states disputed the new state's share of the pre-war Virginia government's debt, which had mostly been incurred to finance public infrastructure improvements, such as canals, roads, and railroads under the Virginia Board of Public Works. Virginians, led by former Confederate General William Mahone, formed a political coalition which was based upon this theory, the Readjuster Party. Although West Virginia's first constitution provided for the assumption of a part of the Virginia debt, negotiations opened by Virginia in 1870 were fruitless, and in 1871, that state funded two-thirds of the debt and arbitrarily assigned the remainder to West Virginia. The issue was finally settled in 1915, when the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that West Virginia owed Virginia $12,393,929.50. The final installment of this sum was paid off in 1939. For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... The Virginia Board of Public Works was a governmental agency which oversaw and helped finance the development of Virginias internal transportation improvements during the 19th century. ... William Mahone (December 1, 1826 – October 8, 1895), of Southampton County, Virginia, was a civil engineer, teacher, soldier, railroad executive, and a member of the Virginia General Assembly and U.S. Congress. ... The Readjuster Party was a political faction formed in Virginia in the late 1870s during the turbulent period following the American Civil War. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ...


Hidden resources

After Reconstruction, the new 35th state benefited from development of its mineral resources more than any other single economic activity. For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ...


Salt mining had been underway since the 18th century, though it had largely played out by the time of the American Civil War, when the red salt of Kanawha County was a valued commodity of first Confederate, and later Union forces. Later, more sophisticated mining methods would restore West Virginia's role as a major producer of salt. This article is about common table salt. ... Kanawha County is a county located in the state of West Virginia. ...


However, in the second half of the 19th century, there was an even greater treasure not yet developed, bituminous coal. It would fuel much of the Industrial Revolution in the U.S. and the steamships of many of the world's navies. Bituminous coal Bituminous coal is a relatively hard coal containing a tar-like substance called bitumen. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ...


The residents (both Native Americans and early European settlers) had long known of the underlying coal, and that it could be used for heating and fuel. However, for a long time, very small "personal" mines were the only practical development. After the War, with the new railroads came a practical method to transport large quantities of coal to expanding U.S. and export markets. As the anthracite mines of northwestern New Jersey and Pennsylvania began to play out during this same time period, investors and industrialists focused new interest in West Virginia. Geologists such as Dr. David T. Ansted surveyed potential coal fields and invested in land and early mining projects. This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... Anthracite coal Anthracite (Greek Ανθρακίτης, literally a form of coal, from Anthrax [Άνθραξ], coal) is a hard, compact variety of mineral coal that has a high luster. ... The Geologist by Carl Spitzweg A geologist is a contributor to the science of geology, studying the physical structure and processes of the Earth and planets of the solar system (see planetary geology). ... David Thomas Ansted (February 5, 1814-May 13, 1880) was an English geologist and author. ...


The completion of the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway (C&O) across the state to the new city of Huntington on the Ohio River in 1872 opened access to the New River Coal Field. Soon, the C&O was building its huge coal pier at Newport News, Virginia on the large harbor of Hampton Roads. In 1881, the new Philadelphia-based owners of the former Atlantic, Mississippi and Ohio Railroad (AM&O), which stretched across Virginia's southern tier from Norfolk, had sights clearly set on the Mountain State, where the owners had large land holdings. Their railroad was renamed Norfolk and Western (N&W), and a new railroad city was developed at Roanoke to handle planned expansion. After its new president Frederick J. Kimball and a small party journeyed by horseback and saw firsthand the rich bituminous coal seam which his wife named "Pocahontas", the N&W redirected its planned westward expansion to reach it. Soon, the N&W was also shipping from new coal piers at Hampton Roads. The Chesapeake and Ohio Railway (C&O) was a Class I railroad formed in 1869 in Virginia from many smaller railroads begun in the 19th century. ... Huntington is a city located in the U.S. State of West Virginia along the Ohio River. ... View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... The New River is a tributary of the Kanawha River, approximately 320 mi (515 km) long, in the U.S. states of North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia in the United States. ... Aerial view looking east of Virginian Railway coal piers at Sewells Point on Hampton Roads near Norfolk, Virginia. ... Location in the State of Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States State Virginia County Independent city Incorporated 1896 Government  - Mayor Joe Frank Area  - City  119. ... This view from space in July 1996 shows portions of each of the Seven Cities of Hampton Roads which generally surround the harbor area of Hampton Roads, which framed by the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel visible to the east (right), the Virginia Peninsula subregion to the north (top), and the... Atlantic, Mississippi and Ohio Railroad - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Motto: Crescas (Latin for, Thou shalt grow. ... Norfolk and Western Railway (AAR reporting mark: NW), a US class 1 railroad, was formed by more than 200 railroad mergers between 1838 and 1982. ... Nickname: Location in Virginia Coordinates: , Country State Government  - Mayor Nelson Harris Area  - City  43 sq mi (111. ... Frederick J. Kimball Categories: People stubs | United States railroad executives | 1844 births | 1903 deaths ...


In 1889, in the southern part of the state, along the Norfolk and Western rail lines, the important coal center of Bluefield, West Virginia was founded. The "capital" of the Pocahontas coalfield, this city would remain the largest city in the southern portion of the state for several decades. It shares a sister city with the same name, Bluefield, in Virginia. Bluefield is a city located in Mercer County, West Virginia. ... Pocahontas coalfield, which is also known as the Flat Top-Pocahontas Coalfield, is located in Mercer County, West Virginia, McDowell County, West Virginia and Tazewell County, Virginia. ...


In the northern portion of the state and elsewhere, the older Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) and other lines also expanded to take advantage of coal opportunities. The B&O developed coal piers in Baltimore and at several points on the Great Lakes. Other significant rail carriers of coal were the Western Maryland Railway (WM), Southern Railway (SOU), and the Louisville and Nashville Railroad (L&N). The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) was one of the oldest railroads in the United States and the first common carrier railroad, with an original line from the port of Baltimore, Maryland, west to the Ohio River at Wheeling and a few years later also to Parkersburg, West Virginia. ... Baltimore redirects here. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... The Western Maryland Railway ( AAR reporting mark WM) was an American Class I railroad which operated in Maryland, West Virginia and Pennsylvania. ... The Southern Railway (AAR reporting mark SOU) was the product of nearly 150 predecessor lines that were combined, reorganized and recombined beginning in the 1830s, formally becoming the Southern Railway in 1894. ... Chartered by the state of Kentucky in 1850, the L&N, as it was generally known, grew into one of the great success stories of American business. ...


Particularly notable was a latecomer, the Virginian Railway (VGN). By 1900, only a large area of the most rugged terrain of southern West Virginia was any distance from the existing railroads and mining activity. Within this area west of the New River Coalfield in Raleigh and Wyoming counties lay the Winding Gulf Coalfield, later promoted as the "Billion Dollar Coalfield." The Virginian Railway (AAR reporting marks VGN) was a Class I railroad located in Virginia and West Virginia in the United States. ... The Winding Gulf Coalfield is located in western Raleigh County and eastern Wyoming County, in southern West Virginia. ...


A protégé of Dr. Ansted was William Nelson Page (1854-1932), a civil engineer and mining manager in Fayette County. Former West Virginia Governor William A. MacCorkle described him as a man who knew the land "as a farmer knows a field." Beginning in 1898, Page teamed with northern and European-based investors to take advantage of the undeveloped area. They acquired large tracts of land in the area, and Page began the Deepwater Railway, a short-line railroad which was chartered to stretch between the C&O at its line along the Kanawha River and the N&W at Matoaka, a distance of about 80 miles. William Nelson Page (January 6, 1854–March 7, 1932), was a United States civil engineer, entrepreneur, capitalist, businessman, and industrialist. ... A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering. ... Fayette County is a county located in the state of West Virginia. ... William Alexander MacCorkle (May 7, 1857–September 24, 1930), was a United States, lawyer, prosecutor, governor state legislator, and financier. ... The Deepwater Railway was formed in 1898 as an intrastate short-line railroad located in West Virginia in the United States by William N. Page, a civil engineer and entrepreneur. ... A short line is an independent railroad company that operates over a relatively short distance. ... Map of the Kanawha River watershed, showing its main tributary, the New River. ... Matoaka is a town located in Mercer County, West Virginia. ...


Although the Deepwater plan should have provided a competitive shipping market via either railroad, leaders of the two large railroads did not appreciate the scheme. In secret collusion, each declined to negotiate favorable rates with Page, nor did they offer to purchase his railroad, as they had many other short-lines. However, if the C&O and N&W presidents thought they could thus kill the Page project, they were to be proved mistaken. One of the silent partner investors Page had enlisted was millionaire industrialist Henry Huttleston Rogers, a principal in John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Trust and an old hand at developing natural resources, transportation. A master at competitive "warfare", Henry Rogers did not like to lose in his endeavors, and also had "deep pockets". In the common law, a partnership is a type of business entity in which partners share with each other the profits or losses of the business undertaking in which they have all invested. ... Henry Huttleston Rogers (January 29, 1840 – May 19, 1909) was a United States capitalist, businessman, industrialist, financier, and philanthropist. ... John Davison Rockefeller, Sr. ... Standard Oil was an oil refining organization founded by John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937) and partners beginning in 1863. ... Outdated American slang term; it usually means extensive financial wealth or resources. It is usually used in reference to big companies or organizations (ex: the American tobacco companies have deep pockets), although it can be used in reference to individuals (i. ...


Instead of giving up, Page (and Rogers) quietly planned and then built their tracks all the way east across Virginia, using Rogers' private fortune to finance the $40 million cost. When the renamed Virginian Railway (VGN) was completed in 1909, no less than three railroads were shipping ever-increasing volumes of coal to export from Hampton Roads. West Virginia coal was also under high demand at Great Lakes ports. The VGN and the N&W ultimately became parts of the modern Norfolk Southern system, and the VGN's well-engineered 21th century tracks continue to offer a favorable gradient to Hampton Roads. The Virginian Railway (AAR reporting marks VGN) was a Class I railroad located in Virginia and West Virginia in the United States. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Norfolk Southern Corporation (AAR reporting mark NS) NYSE: NSC is a US publicly-traded stock corporation based in Norfolk, Virginia. ...


As coal mining and related work became major employment activities in the state, there was considerable labor strife as working conditions, safety issues, and economic concerns arose. Even in the 21st century, mining safety and ecological concerns is still challenging to the state whose coal continues to power electrical generating plants in many other states.


Coal is not the only valuable mineral found in West Virginia, as the state was the site of the 1928 discovery of the 34.48 carat (6.896 g) Jones Diamond. The “Jones Diamond,” also known as the “Punch Jones Diamond,” The Grover Jones Diamond, or The Horseshoe Diamond, was an 34. ...


Demographics

West Virginia population density map.
West Virginia population density map.
Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1790 55,873
1800 78,592 40.7%
1810 105,469 34.2%
1820 136,808 29.7%
1830 176,924 29.3%
1840 224,537 26.9%
1850 302,313 34.6%
1860 376,688 24.6%
1870 442,014 17.3%
1880 618,457 39.9%
1890 762,794 23.3%
1900 958,800 25.7%
1910 1,221,119 27.4%
1920 1,463,701 19.9%
1930 1,729,205 18.1%
1940 1,901,974 10.0%
1950 2,005,552 5.4%
1960 1,860,421 -7.2%
1970 1,744,237 -6.2%
1980 1,949,644 11.8%
1990 1,793,477 -8.0%
2000 1,808,344 0.8%

The center of population of West Virginia is located in Braxton County, in the town of Gassaway [4]. Image File history File links West_Virginia_population_map. ... Image File history File links West_Virginia_population_map. ... The United [[States Census of 1790 was the first Census conducted in the United States. ... The United States Census of 1800 was the second Census conducted in the United States. ... The United States Census of 1810 was the third Census conducted in the United States. ... The United States Census of 1820 was the fourth Census conducted in the United States. ... The United States Census of 1830 was the fifth Census conducted in the United States. ... The Sixth Census of the United States, conducted by the Bureau of the Census, determined the resident population of the United States to be 17,069,453 — an increase of 32. ... The Seventh Census of the United States, conducted by the Bureau of the Census, determined the resident population of the United States to be 23,191,876 — an increase of 35. ... The United States Census of 1860 was the eighth Census conducted in the United States. ... The Ninth United States Census was taken in 1870. ... 1880 US Census The United States Census of 1880 was the tenth United States Census. ... The Eleventh United States Census was taken June 1, 1890. ... 1900 US Census The Twelfth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 76,212,168, an increase of 21. ... The Thirteenth United States Census was taken in 1910. ... The Fourteenth United States Census was taken in 1920. ... The Fifteenth United States Census was taken in 1930. ... The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7. ... The Seventeenth United States Census was taken in 1950. ... The Eighteenth United States Census was taken in 1960. ... The Nineteenth United States Census was taken in 1970. ... The Twentieth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 226,545,805, an increase of 11. ... The Twenty-first United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 248,709,873, an increase of 9. ... 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... Center of population is a subject of study in the field of demographics. ... Braxton County is a county located in the central part of the state of West Virginia. ... Gassaway is a town located in Braxton County, West Virginia. ...


As of 2005, West Virginia has an estimated population of 1,816,856, which is an increase of 4,308, or 0.2%, from the prior year and an increase of 8,506, or 0.5%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural decrease since the last census of 3,296 people (that is 108,292 births minus 111,588 deaths) and an increase from net migration of 14,209 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 3,691 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 10,518 people. Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green). ...


Only 1.1% of the state's residents were foreign-born, placing West Virginia last among the 50 states in that statistic. It has the lowest percentage of residents that speak a language other than English in the home (2.7%).


The five largest ancestry groups in West Virginia are: American (23.2%), German (17.2%), Irish (13.5%) (Most actually Scots-Irish), English (12%), Italian (4.8%). By county. ... Scots-Irish (formerly Scotch-Irish) is a term used to describe inhabitants of the USA and Canada of Scots-Irish (particularly Ulster-Scots) descent, who formed distinctive communities and had distinctive social characteristics. ... English Americans (occasionally known as Anglo-Americans) are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England. ...


Large numbers of people of German ancestry are present in the northeastern counties of the state.


5.6% of West Virginia's population were reported as under 5, 22.3% under 18, and 15.3% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51.4% of the population.

Demographics of West Virginia (csv)
By race White Black AIAN Asian NHPI
AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native — NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
2000 (total population) 96.01% 3.49% 0.59% 0.66% 0.05%
2000 (Hispanic only) 0.63% 0.04% 0.02% 0.01% 0.01%
2005 (total population) 95.99% 3.56% 0.56% 0.69% 0.05%
2005 (Hispanic only) 0.80% 0.04% 0.02% 0.01% 0.01%
Growth 2000–2005 (total population) 0.46% 2.49% -3.96% 5.57% -2.80%
Growth 2000–2005 (non-Hispanic only) 0.28% 2.30% -4.24% 5.96% -0.52%
Growth 2000–2005 (Hispanic only) 27.74% 21.51% 5.56% -20.22% -16.67%

There were 20,928 births in 2006. Of these, 19,757 (94.40% of the births, 95.19% of the population) were to Non-Hispanic Whites. There were 22 births to American Indians (0.11% of the births and 0.54% of the population), 177 births to Asians (0.85% of the births and 0.68% of the population), 219 births to Hispanics (1.05% of the births and 0.88% of the population) and 753 births to Blacks and others (3.60% of the births and 3.56% of the population). [5] Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the United States Census Bureau and the Federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB), is a self-identification data item in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify. ...


Economy

The economy of West Virginia is one of the most fragile of any U.S. state. According to U.S. Census Bureau data, West Virginia is the third lowest in per capita income,[21] ahead of only Arkansas and Mississippi. It also ranks last in median household income.[22] The proportion of West Virginia's adult population with a bachelor's degree is the lowest in the U.S. at 15.3%.[23] The Economy of West Virginia is one of the weakest in the United States, surpassed only by Mississippi. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ...


West Virginia's GDP was $55.6B in 2006, which was a 0.6% increase from 2005. This makes growth rate for the state the 2nd lowest in the nation, behind only Michigan. This article is about the U.S. State. ...


One of the major resources in West Virginia's economy is coal. West Virginia also engaged in oil drilling, but currently only has a few small to medium sized oil and natural gas fields. Farming is also practiced in West Virginia, but on a limited basis because of the mountainous terrain over much of the state. Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ...

Bituminous coal seam in southwestern West Virginia
Bituminous coal seam in southwestern West Virginia

West Virginia personal income tax is based on federal adjusted gross income (not taxable income), as modified by specific items in West Virginia law. Citizens are taxed within 5 income brackets, which range from 3.0% to 6.5%. The state's consumer sales tax is levied at 6%. Effective January 1, 2004 calculation of WV consumer sales tax has been converted to a calculated figure from the bracket system, and remains at six percent for most goods (food goods are now taxable at five percent). The computation of tax is carried out to the third decimal place and rounded up when the third decimal place is five (.005) or higher; and similarly rounded down if the third place is four (.004) or lower. By virtue of this method, sales totaling $0.08 and below would not have a sales tax associated with them.[24] Coal seam in West Virginia Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL, Pollinator 04:34, Dec 24, 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Coal seam in West Virginia Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL, Pollinator 04:34, Dec 24, 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income... A sales tax is a consumption tax charged at the point of purchase for certain goods and services. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


West Virginia counties administer and collect property taxes, although property tax rates reflect levies for state government, county governments, county boards of education, and municipalities. Counties may also impose a hotel occupancy tax on lodging places not located within the city limits of any municipality that levies such a tax. Municipalities may levy license and gross receipts taxes on businesses located within the city limits and a hotel occupancy tax on lodging places in the city. Although the Department of Tax and Revenue plays a major role in the administration of this tax, less than one-half of one percent of the property tax collected goes to state government. The primary beneficiaries of the property tax are county boards of education. Property taxes are paid to the sheriff of each of the state's 55 counties. Each county and municipality can impose its own rates of property taxation within the limits set by the West Virginia Constitution. The West Virginia legislature sets the rate of tax of county boards of education. This rate is used by all county boards of education statewide. However, the total tax rate for county boards of education may differ from county to county because of excess levies. The Department of Tax and Revenue supervises and otherwise assists counties and municipalities in their work of assessment and tax rate determination. The total tax rate is a combination of the tax levies from four state taxing authorities: state, county, schools, and municipal. This total tax rate varies for each of the four classes of property, which consists of personal, real, and intangible properties. Property is assessed according to its use, location, and value as of July 1. All property is reappraised every three years; annual adjustments are made to assessments for property with a change of value. West Virginia does not impose an inheritance tax. Because of the phase-out of the federal estate tax credit, West Virginia's estate tax is not imposed on estates of persons who died in 2005. Property tax, millage tax is an ad valorem tax that an owner of real estate or other property pays on the value of the property being taxed. ... A gross receipts tax, sometimes refered to as a gross excise tax, is a tax on the total gross revenues of a company, regardless of their source. ... Look up Sheriff in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Inheritance tax, also known in some countries outside the United States as a death duty and referred to as an estate tax within the U.S, is a form of tax levied upon the bequest that a person may make in their will to a living person or organisation. ...


Transportation

The Veterans Memorial Bridge, which carries U.S. Route 22.
The Veterans Memorial Bridge, which carries U.S. Route 22.

Highways form the backbone of transportation systems in West Virginia, with over 37,300 miles of public roads in the state.[25] Airports, railroads, and rivers complete the commercial transportation modes for West Virginia. Commercial air travel is facilitated by airports in Charleston, Huntington, Beckley, Bluefield, Lewisburg, Clarksburg, Martinsburg, Morgantown, Wheeling, and Parkersburg. Cities like Charleston, Huntington, Clarksburg, Fairmont, Bluefield, and Logan have bus-based public transit systems. Charleston also has a limited number of trolley cars that run primarily through the downtown area. West Virginia University in Morgantown boasts a PRT (personal rapid transit) system, the state's only single rail public transit system. Developed by Boeing, the WVU School of Engineering and the Department of Transportation, it was a model for low-capacity light transport designed for smaller cities. It was also the model for DisneyWorld's tram system. Recreational transportation opportunities abound in West Virginia, including hiking trails,[26] rail trails,[27] ATV off road trails,[28] white water rafting rivers,[29] and two tourist railroads (Cass Scenic Railroad,[30] and the Potomac Eagle Scenic Railroad.[31]) Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 811 KB) Toll booths on the West Virgina Turnpike I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 811 KB) Toll booths on the West Virgina Turnpike I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... The West Virginia Turnpike is a toll road in the US state of West Virginia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1139x1784, 3123 KB) Summary w:New River Gorge Bridge, West Virginia, USA. Photo credit: A.E. Crane, National Scenic Byways Online Source: http://library. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1139x1784, 3123 KB) Summary w:New River Gorge Bridge, West Virginia, USA. Photo credit: A.E. Crane, National Scenic Byways Online Source: http://library. ... New River Gorge Bridge West Virginia quarter The New River Gorge Bridge is a steel-arch bridge, near Fayetteville, West Virginia; with a length of 3030 feet (924 m), it was for many years the longest in the world of that type. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 127 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph was taken personnally while in Steubenville. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 127 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph was taken personnally while in Steubenville. ... Signs for U-turn ramps on US 22 in Union County, New Jersey United States Highway 22, an east-west route, is one of the original United States highways of 1926. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ... West Virginia University is an institution of higher learning based in Morgantown, West Virginia, USA. Other campuses include: West Virginia University at Parkersburg in Parkersburg; West Virginia University Institute of Technology in Montgomery; Potomac State College of West Virginia University in Keyser; and a clinical campus for the Universitys... The Morgantown Personal Rapid Transit project is an experimental people-mover created in that West Virginia college town by the U.S. Department of Transportation in the 1970s. ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661) is a major aerospace and defense corporation, originally founded by William Edward Boeing. ... The United States Department of Transportation (DOT) is a federal Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with transportation. ... Rail trails are former railway lines that have been converted to paths designed for pedestrian, bicycle, skating, equestrian, and/or light motorized traffic. ... Cass Scenic Railroad State Park, in Cass, Pocahontas County, West Virginia, is a West Virginia State Park heritage railway consisting of the town of Cass, eleven miles of railway, and a portion of the summit of Bald Knob. ... The South Branch Valley Railroad (SBVR) consists of a 52. ...


West Virginia is crossed by several interstate highways. I-64 enters the state near White Sulphur Springs in the mountainous east, and exits for Kentucky in the west, near Huntington. I-77 enters from Virginia in the south, near Bluefield. It runs north past Parkersburg before it crosses into Ohio. I-64 and I-77 are merged in a stretch of toll road known as the West Virginia Turnpike, on which construction began in 1952. It runs from just east of Charleston south to the exit for Princeton. I-68's western terminus is in Morgantown. From there it runs east into Maryland. At the I-68 terminus, it meets I-79, which enters from Pennsylvania and runs through the state to its southern terminus in Charleston. I-70 briefly runs through West Virginia, crossing the northern panhandle through Wheeling. I-81 also briefly runs in West Virginia through the Eastern Panhandle where it goes through Martinsburg. A typical rural stretch of Interstate highway, with two lanes in each direction separated by a large grassy median, and with cross-traffic limited to overpasses and underpasses. ... Interstate 64 is an interstate highway in the eastern United States. ... White Sulphur Springs is a city located in Greenbrier County, West Virginia, United States. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Huntington is a city located in the U.S. State of West Virginia along the Ohio River. ... Interstate 77 is an interstate highway in the eastern United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Bluefield is a city located in Mercer County, West Virginia. ... Location in Wood County in the State of West Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States State West Virginia County Wood Incorporated 1810 Government  - Mayor Robert Newell Area  - City  12. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Interstate 64 is an interstate highway in the eastern United States. ... Interstate 77 is an interstate highway in the eastern United States. ... The West Virginia Turnpike is a toll road in the US state of West Virginia. ... Nickname: Home of Hospitality, The most northern city of the South and the most southern city of the North, Chemicalville, The Capitol City C-Town Location of Charleston in West Virginia. ... Princeton is a city in Mercer County, West Virginia, United States. ... Interstate 68 is an interstate highway in the United States. ... Morgantown is a city in Monongalia County,GR6 West Virginia, on the banks of the Monongahela River. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... Interstate 68 is an interstate highway in the United States. ... Interstate 79 is an interstate highway in the eastern United States. ... Nickname: Home of Hospitality, The most northern city of the South and the most southern city of the North, Chemicalville, The Capitol City C-Town Location of Charleston in West Virginia. ... I-70 looking westbound near Mile 326, Wabaunsee County, Kansas Interstate 70 is a long interstate highway in the United States. ... Nickname: The Friendly City Location in Ohio County in the State of West Virginia Coordinates: Settled 1769 Established 1806 Incorporated 1836  - Mayor Nick Sparachane  - City Manager Robert Herron  - Chief of Police Kevin Gessler, Sr. ... Interstate 81 is an interstate highway in the eastern part of the United States. ... The Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia is a narrow stretch of territory in the northeast of the state, bordering Maryland and Virginia. ... Martinsburg is a city located in Berkeley County, West Virginia. ...


Rail lines in the state used to be more prevalent, but many lines have been discontinued because of increased automobile traffic. Many old tracks have been converted to rail trails for recreational use, and the state is still served by a few commercial lines for hauling coal and by Amtrak. In 2006 Norfolk Southern along with the West Virginia and U.S. Government approved a plan to modify many of the rail tunnels in West Virginia, espeically in the southern half of the state, to allow for double stacked cars (see intermodal freight). This is expected to also help bring economic growth to the southern half of the state. Rail trails are former railway lines that have been converted to paths designed for pedestrian, bicycle, skating, equestrian, and/or light motorized traffic. ... The high-speed Acela Express in West Windsor, New Jersey. ... Norfolk Southern Corporation (AAR reporting mark NS) NYSE: NSC is a US publicly-traded stock corporation based in Norfolk, Virginia. ... For passenger transport, see Intermodal passenger transport. ...


Because of the mountainous nature of the entire state, West Virginia has several notable tunnels and bridges. The most famous of these is the New River Gorge Bridge, which was at a time the longest steel single-arch bridge in the world with a 3,031-foot (924 m) span. The bridge is also pictured on the West Virginia state quarter. The Veterans Memorial Bridge (Weirton-Steubenville Bridge) was at its time of construction one of only three cable-stayed steel girder trusses in the United States. It connects Steubenville, Ohio with Weirton, West Virginia along US Route 22. New River Gorge Bridge West Virginia quarter The New River Gorge Bridge is a steel-arch bridge, near Fayetteville, West Virginia; with a length of 3030 feet (924 m), it was for many years the longest in the world of that type. ... Obverse of redesigned quarter The 50 State Quarters program is the release of a series of commemorative coins by the United States Mint. ... Nickname: Location within the state of Ohio Coordinates: , Country State County Jefferson Founded 1795 Government  - Mayor Dominic Mucci (D) Area  - Total 10. ... Weirton is a city located in the Northern Panhandle of West Virginia. ...


Law and government

West Virginia's capital and seat of government is the city of Charleston, located in the southwest area of the state. West Virginia Capitol Building. ... Nickname: Home of Hospitality, The most northern city of the South and the most southern city of the North, Chemicalville, The Capitol City C-Town Location of Charleston in West Virginia. ...


Legislative Branch

Further information: West Virginia Legislature

The West Virginia Legislature is bicameral, consisting of the House of Delegates and the Senate. It is a citizen's legislature, meaning that legislative office is not a full-time occupation, but rather a part-time position. Consequently, the legislators often hold a full-time job in their community of residence. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... The West Virginia House of Delegates is the lower house of the West Virginia Legislature. ... The West Virginia Senate is the upper house of the West Virginia Legislature. ...


Typically, the legislature is in session for 60 days between January and early April. The final day of the regular session ends in a bewildering fury of last-minute legislation in order to meet a constitutionally imposed deadline of midnight. During the remainder of the year, monthly interim sessions are held in preparation for the regular session. Legislators also gather periodically for 'special' sessions when called by the governor.


Executive Branch

Further information: List of Governors of West Virginia

The governor, elected every four years on the same day as the U.S. Presidential election, is sworn in during the following January. This is a list of Governors of West Virginia Categories: Lists of United States governors | Governors of West Virginia ...


Governors of West Virginia can serve two consecutive terms but must sit out a term before serving a third term in office.


Judicial Branch

Further information: Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia

West Virginia is one of thirteen states that does not have a death penalty. The Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia (not the West Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals) is the court of last resort for the State of West Virginia. ... Capital punishment is a controversial issue in the United States and, indeed, in most of the world, with many prominent organizations and individuals participating in the debate. ...


For the purpose of courts of general jurisdiction, the state is divided into 31 judicial circuits. Each circuit is made up of one or more counties. Circuit judges are elected in partisan elections to serve eight-year terms.


West Virginia’s highest court is the Supreme Court of Appeals. The Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia is the busiest appellate court of its type in the United States. West Virginia is one of 11 states with a single appellate court. The state constitution allows for the creation of an intermediate court of appeals, but the Legislature has never created one. The Supreme Court is made up of five justices, elected in partisan elections to 12-year terms.


West Virginia is an alcoholic beverage control state. However, unlike most such states, it does not operate retail outlets, having exited that business in 1990. It retains a monopoly on wholesaling of distilled spirits only. Map of Alcoholic Beverage Control States, current as of February 2006. ...


Politics

The West Virginia State Capitol.
The West Virginia State Capitol.

West Virginia's is considered a Swing state, it's politics are largely dominated by the Democratic Party as Democrats dominate most local and state offices. West Virginia also has a very strong tradition of union membership. While the state continued its Democratic tradition by supporting Bill Clinton by large margins in 1992 and 1996, West Virginia supported George W. Bush in 2000 and 2004. Bush won the state's five electoral votes in 2004 by a margin of 13 percentage points with 56.1% of the vote. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (936x695, 102 KB) ç°¡è¿° West Verginia State Capitol building 西維吉尼亞州議會大樓 來源 http://en. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (936x695, 102 KB) ç°¡è¿° West Verginia State Capitol building 西維吉尼亞州議會大樓 來源 http://en. ... The West Virginia State Capitol From the time of the Great Depression through the 1990s, the politics of West Virginia were largely dominated by the Democratic party. ... For the film of the same name, see Swing State (film). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


The most consistent support for Democrats is found in the coal fields of southern West Virginia (especially McDowell, Mingo, Logan, Wyoming, and Boone Counties), while Republicans are most numerous to the east of the Allegheny Mountains, especially in the state's Eastern Panhandle and Potomac Highlands. The Northern Panhandle and North-Central West Virginia regions usually split right down the middle in terms of being Republican or Democrat. Wyoming coal mine Coal mining is the mining of coal. ... Southern West Virginia is a culturally and geographically distinct region in the U.S. state of West Virginia. ... McDowell County is a county located in the U.S. state of West Virginia. ... Mingo County is a county located in the U.S. state of West Virginia. ... Logan County is a county located in the state of West Virginia. ... Wyoming County is located in the U.S. state of West Virginia. ... Boone County is a county located in the state of West Virginia. ... GOP redirects here. ... The Allegheny Mountain Range (also spelled Alleghany and Allegany) -- informally, the Alleghenies -- is part of the Appalachian Mountain Range of the eastern United States. ... Eastern panhandle The Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia is a narrow stretch of territory in the northeast of the state, bordering Maryland and Virginia. ... Potomac Highlands The Potomac Highlands of West Virginia are the root of the Eastern Panhandle, bordering Maryland and Virginia. ... The Northern Panhandle is a region in the U.S. state of West Virginia. ... Map of North-Central WV North-Central West Virginia is a region of the U.S. State of West Virginia. ...


Important cities and towns

See also: List of cities in West Virginia, List of towns in West Virginia, List of villages in West Virginia, List of census-designated places in West Virginia
Charleston is West Virginia's most populous city
Charleston is West Virginia's most populous city
Huntington
Huntington
Parkersburg
Parkersburg
Wheeling
Wheeling
Morgantown
Morgantown

List of cities in West Virginia, arranged in alphabetical order. ... List of towns in West Virginia, arranged in alphabetical order. ... List of villages in West Virginia, arranged in alphabetical order. ... List of census-designated places in West Virginia, arranged in alphabetical order. ... Image File history File links Charleston_WV_skyline. ... Image File history File links Charleston_WV_skyline. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3696 × 2464 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3696 × 2464 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 417 pixelsFull resolution (2792 × 1456 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 417 pixelsFull resolution (2792 × 1456 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1818x1228, 1278 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Morgantown, West Virginia Morgantown Personal Rapid Transit ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1818x1228, 1278 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Morgantown, West Virginia Morgantown Personal Rapid Transit ...

Large cities (+ 10,000 population)

Nickname: Home of Hospitality, The most northern city of the South and the most southern city of the North, Chemicalville, The Capitol City C-Town Location of Charleston in West Virginia. ... Huntington is a city located in the U.S. State of West Virginia along the Ohio River. ... Location in Wood County in the State of West Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States State West Virginia County Wood Incorporated 1810 Government  - Mayor Robert Newell Area  - City  12. ... Nickname: The Friendly City Location in Ohio County in the State of West Virginia Coordinates: Settled 1769 Established 1806 Incorporated 1836  - Mayor Nick Sparachane  - City Manager Robert Herron  - Chief of Police Kevin Gessler, Sr. ... Morgantown is a city in Monongalia County,GR6 West Virginia, on the banks of the Monongahela River. ... Weirton is a city located in the Northern Panhandle of West Virginia. ... Downtown Fairmont and the Monongahela River in 2006 The Marion County Courthouse in Fairmont Fairmont is a city in Marion County, West Virginia, USA. The population was 19,097 at the 2000 census. ... Alfred Beckley Beckley is a city in Raleigh County, West Virginia, USA and founded on April 4, 1838. ... Clarksburg is a city in Harrison County, West Virginia, U.S. The population was 16,743 at the 2000 census. ... Martinsburg is a city located in Berkeley County, West Virginia. ... South Charleston is a city in Kanawha County, West Virginia, USA. The population was 13,390 at the 2000 census. ... Teays Valley is an unincorporated census-designated place located in Putnam County, West Virginia. ... The Kanawha River in St. ... Bluefield is a city located in Mercer County, West Virginia. ... Vienna is a city located in Wood County, West Virginia. ... Cross Lanes is an unincorporated census-designated place suburb of Charleston, WV located in Kanawha County, West Virginia. ...

Towns and small cities

Barboursville is a village in Cabell County, West Virginia, United States. ... Bath (Berkeley Springs) is a town in Morgan County, West Virginia. ... Alfred Beckley Beckley is a city in Raleigh County, West Virginia, USA and founded on April 4, 1838. ... Bridgeport is a city located in Harrison County, West Virginia. ... Buckhannon is the only incorporated city in Upshur County, West Virginia and is located along the Buckhannon River. ... See also Charleston, West Virginia or Charlestown Charles Town is a city in Jefferson County, West Virginia USA. The population was 2,907 at the 2000 census. ... Dunbar is a city in Kanawha County, West Virginia, along the Kanawha River. ... Elkins is a city in Randolph County, West Virginia, United States. ... Fayetteville is a town located in Fayette County, West Virginia. ... Follansbee is a city in Brooke County, West Virginia, along the Ohio River. ... Grafton is a city located in Taylor County, West Virginia. ... Hamlin is a town located in Lincoln County, West Virginia. ... Harpers Ferry, West Virginia 1865. ... Hinton is a city located in Summers County, West Virginia. ... The Norfolk Southern Bridge as seen from Kenova Kenova is a city in Wayne County, West Virginia, at the confluence of the Ohio and Big Sandy Rivers. ... Keyser is a city in and the county seat of Mineral CountyGR6, West Virginia, United States. ... Kingwood is a city located in Preston County, West Virginia. ... Lewisburg is a city located in Greenbrier County, West Virginia. ... Logan is a city located in Logan County, West Virginia. ... Madison is a city located in Boone County, West Virginia. ... Mannington is a city in Marion County, West Virginia, United States. ... Marlinton is a town in Pocahontas County, West Virginia, United States. ... Montgomery is a city located in West Virginia. ... Moorefield is a town in Hardy County, West Virginia, USA. Moorefield is the county seat of Hardy County. ... Moundsville is a city in Marshall County, West Virginia, along the Ohio River. ... Mount Hope is a city located in Fayette County, West Virginia. ... Wetzel County Courthouse in New Martinsville, WV New Martinsville is a city in Wetzel County, West Virginia, along the Ohio River. ... Nitro is a city located in West Virginia. ... Oak Hill is a city located in Fayette County, West Virginia. ... Paden City is a city located in West Virginia. ... Petersburg is a city located in Grant County, West Virginia. ... Philippi (pronounced FILL-uh-pea) is a city located in Barbour County, West Virginia, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 2,870. ... Pleasant Valley is a city located in Marion County, West Virginia. ... Point Pleasant, West Virginia (foreground) at the confluence of the Kanawha and Ohio Rivers Tourists at the monument of the Battle of Point Pleasant in Tu-Endie-Wei State Park. ... Princeton is a city in Mercer County, West Virginia, United States. ... Corporation of Ranson, more frequently known as Ranson (the name of its post office), is a town located in Jefferson County, West Virginia. ... Ravenswood Ravenswood is a city in Jackson County, West Virginia, along the Ohio River. ... Richwood is a city in Nicholas County, West Virginia, United States. ... North Court Street in downtown Ripley in 2007 The Jackson County Courthouse in Ripley in 2007 Ripley is a city in Jackson County, West Virginia, United States. ... Romney is a city in Hampshire County, West Virginia, United States of America. ... Salem is a city in Harrison County, West Virginia, United States. ... Shepherdstown is a town in Jefferson County, West Virginia, USA. The population was 803 at the 2000 census. ... Shinnston is a city located in Harrison County, West Virginia. ... Spencer is a city in Roane County, West Virginia, United States. ... Summersville is a town located in Nicholas County, West Virginia. ... Wardensville is a town in Hardy County, West Virginia, United States. ... Addison (Webster Springs) is a town located in Webster County, West Virginia. ... McDowell County Courthouse Welch is a town in McDowell County, West Virginia, USA. The population was 2,683 at the 2000 census. ... Wellsburg is a city in Brooke County, West Virginia, zip code 26070. ... Weston is a city in Lewis County, West Virginia along the West Fork River. ... Westover is a city located in Monongalia County, West Virginia. ... White Sulphur Springs is a city located in Greenbrier County, West Virginia, United States. ... Aerial view of Williamson, West Virginia, during construction of its current floodwall, completed in 1991. ... Williamstown is a city in Wood County, West Virginia, along the Ohio River. ...

Metropolitan Statistical Areas

  • Charleston, WV MSA
  • Cumberland, MD-WV MSA
  • Hagerstown-Martinsburg, MD-WV MSA
  • Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH MSA
  • Morgantown, WV MSA
  • Parkersburg-Marietta-Vienna, WV-OH MSA

Portal:Cumberland, Maryland Top * Places * Culture * Media * Companies * Education * History * People * Religion * Sports * Transportation Cumberland MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area Cumberland, MD-WV MSA, or Cumberland Metro for short, denotes the Metropolitan Statistical Area of Cumberland, Maryland and the surrounding economic region of Allegany County, Maryland and Mineral County, West... The Hagerstown Metropolitan Area, officially designated by the United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB) as Hagerstown-Martinsburg, MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), constitutes the cities of Hagerstown, Maryland, Martinsburg, West Virginia, and surrounding areas in three counties: Washington County, Maryland, Berkeley County, West Virginia, and Morgan County... Huntington is a city located in the U.S. State of West Virginia along the Ohio River. ... The Pittsburgh metropolitan area is the U.S. Census-defined seven county region surrounding the city of Pittsburgh in Western Pennsylvania, United States. ... It has been suggested that National Capital Region (United States) be merged into this article or section. ... Winchester, VA-WV MSA is a U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB) as of June, 2003. ...

Micropolitan Statistical Areas

Alfred Beckley Beckley is a city located in Raleigh County, West Virginia (Founded Apr. ... United States micropolitan areas, as defined by the Census Bureau and the Office of Management and Budget, are areas in the United States based around a core city or town with a population of 10,000 to 49,999. ... Nickname: Nature’s Air Conditioned City Location in the State of West Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State West Virginia County Mercer Mayor Bob Perkinson Area    - City 8. ... Clarksburg is a city in Harrison County, West Virginia, United States. ... Downtown Fairmont and the Monongahela River in 2006 The Marion County Courthouse in Fairmont Fairmont is a city in Marion County, West Virginia, USA. The population was 19,097 at the 2000 census. ... Oak Hill is a city in Fayette County, West Virginia, United States and is the primary city within the Oak Hill, WV Micropolitan Statistical Area which, as of July 2005 census data, had a population of 46,823. ...

Education

Fairmont
Fairmont
Beckley
Beckley

West Virginia has received low marks for reading and math skills at the eighth-grade level and ranked 51st in college education rates.[32] Education in West Virginia falls under the auspices of the West Virginia Department of Education. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2856x1805, 1444 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fairmont, West Virginia User:Malepheasant/articles Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2856x1805, 1444 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fairmont, West Virginia User:Malepheasant/articles Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,588 × 1,717 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,588 × 1,717 pixels, file size: 1. ...


Colleges and universities

Further information: List of colleges and universities in West Virginia

This is a list of colleges and universities in the U.S. state of West Virginia. ... Alderson-Broaddus College, informally known as A-B, is a private, four-year liberal arts college affiliated with the American Baptist Churches USA and the West Virginia Baptist Convention located in Philippi, West Virginia, USA. Alderson-Broaddus was formed in 1932 by the union of two Baptist institutions: Alderson Academy... The school is unrelated to Appalachian State University. ... For schools with the same or similar names, see Bethany College. ... Bluefield State College is an historically black college located in Bluefield, West Virginia. ... Concord University is a comprehensive, public, liberal arts institution located in Athens, West Virginia founded on February 28, 1872, when the West Virginia Legislature passed an Act to locate a Branch State Normal School, in Concord Church, in the County of Mercer. Founded by veterans of both the Union and... Davis and Elkins College is a small residential liberal arts college of 650 students located in Elkins, West Virginia. ... Fairmont State University is a public university located in Fairmont, West Virginia. ... Glenville State College is a four-year college located in Glenville, West Virginia which is in rural north-central West Virginia. ... Marshall University is a public university based in Huntington, West Virginia. ... Mountain State University (MSU) is an independent, nonsectarian, coeducational, not-for-profit university based in Beckley, West Virginia. ... Ohio Valley University Ohio Valley University is a private, four-year Christian college affiliated with the churches of Christ of the American Restoration Movement and located between the western towns of Parkersburg and Vienna in the State of West Virginia in the United States. ... Salem International University is a small college in Salem, West Virginia. ... Shepherd University, formerly Shepherd College, is an American university in Shepherdstown, West Virginia. ... The University of Charleston is a private college in Charleston, West Virginia of approximately 1,000 students. ... West Liberty State College is a state college located in West Liberty, West Virginia near Wheeling. ... West Virginia Northern Community College (WVNCC, or simply Northern) is a public, multi-campus community college located in downtown Wheeling, West Virginia. ... The West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine is a public, stand-alone osteopathic medical school located in Lewisburg, West Virginia. ... West Virginia State University is a historically black (though now over 90 percent white) public college in Institute, West Virginia, an unincorporated suburb of Charleston, West Virginia. ... West Virginia University is an institution of higher learning based in Morgantown, West Virginia, USA. Other campuses include: West Virginia University at Parkersburg in Parkersburg; West Virginia University Institute of Technology in Montgomery; Potomac State College of West Virginia University in Keyser; and a clinical campus for the Universitys... Potomac State College of West Virginia University is the states only residential junior college. ... West Virginia University Institute of Technology is a four-year college located in Montgomery, West Virginia. ... West Virginia University at Parkersburg is a community college in Parkersburg, West Virginia administered by West Virginia University. ... West Virginia Wesleyan College is a regionally accredited private, coeducational, liberal arts college in Buckhannon, West Virginia. ... Wheeling Jesuit University is a private, co-educational Roman Catholic university in the United States. ...

Sports

Clarksburg
Clarksburg
Martinsburg
Martinsburg
Club Sport League
West Virginia Mountaineers Football College Football
Marshall Thundering Herd Football College Football
Bluefield Orioles Baseball Appalachian League
Princeton Devil Rays Baseball Appalachian League
West Virginia Power Baseball South Atlantic League
Wheeling Nailers Ice hockey ECHL
West Virginia Wild Basketball International Basketball League
Huntington Heroes Indoor football American Indoor Football Association
West Virginia Crash Football United States Football Alliance
Ohio Valley Greyhounds Indoor football United Indoor Football
West Virginia Chaos Soccer USL Premier Development League

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 450 pixelsFull resolution (2832 × 1592 pixel, file size: 3 MB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 450 pixelsFull resolution (2832 × 1592 pixel, file size: 3 MB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The West Virginia Mountaineers are the athletic teams of West Virginia University. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... This article covers college football played in the United States. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... This article covers college football played in the United States. ... The Bluefield Orioles, a professional baseball team, is a minor league affiliate of the Baltimore Orioles, representing the twin cities of Bluefield, West Virginia and Bluefield, Virginia. ... This article is about the sport. ... The Appalachian League is a minor league baseball league which operates in the Virginia and Tennessee region. ... Tampa Bay Devil Rays American League AAA Durham Bulls AA Montgomery Biscuits A Visalia Oaks Southwest Michigan Devil Rays Hudson Valley Renegades R Princeton Devil Rays The Princeton Devil Rays are a minor league baseball team in Princeton, West Virginia, USA. They are a Class R team in the Appalachian... The West Virginia Power are a minor league baseball team from Charleston, West Virginia, that plays in the Class A South Atlantic League as an affiliate of the Milwaukee Brewers (as of the 2006 season). ... The South Atlantic League is a minor league baseball league which operates mostly in the southeastern United States, although it now has teams in New Jersey and Ohio. ... The Wheeling Nailers are an ECHL ice hockey team based in Wheeling, West Virginia. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... The ECHL (formerly the East Coast Hockey League) is a professional ice hockey league based in Princeton, New Jersey, with teams scattered across the United States and Canada, generally regarded as a tier below the American Hockey League. ... The West Virginia Wild are an International Basketball League (2005-) team based in Charleston, West Virginia. ... This article is about the sport. ... The International Basketball League is a U.S.-based professional basketball league featuring teams from the West Coast, Rocky Mountains, Western Canada, and the Midwest. ... The Huntington Heroes are a professional indoor football franchise and member of the American Indoor Football Association. ... Indoor football is a variation of American football with rules modified to make it suitable for play within ice hockey arenas. ... The American Indoor Football Association(AIFA) was formed in October of 2006. ... The West Virginia Crash are a minor league football team based in Kenova, West Virginia and currently play in the United States Football Alliance USFA. The Crash were a charter member of the Ohio Valley Football League in 2000, but moved to the USFA in 2007. ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The United States Football Alliance( USFA ) is a full contact outdoor semi-pro minor league American football league, based in Sharon, Pennsylvania. ... The Ohio Valley Greyhounds are a professional arena football team. ... United Indoor Football is an indoor American football league that was started in 2005. ... The West Virginia Choas are a USL Premier Development League club that currently play in Charleston, West Virginia. ... Soccer redirects here. ... The USL Premier Development League (PDL) is the amateur league of the United Soccer Leagues in the United States and Canada, forming part of the American Soccer Pyramid. ...

Miscellaneous topics

West Virginia state insignia
Motto Montani semper liberi (Latin, "Mountaineers are Always Free")
Slogan Wild and Wonderful
Open for Business' (former)'
Almost Heaven (former)
Bird Northern Cardinal
(Cardinalis cardinalis)
Animal Black Bear
(Ursus americanus)
Fish Brook Trout
(Salvelinus fontinalis)
Insect European Honey Bee
(Apis mellifera)
Flower Rhododendron
(Rhododendron maximum)
Tree Sugar Maple
(Acer saccharum)
Song "The West Virginia Hills"
"This Is My West Virginia"
"West Virginia, My Home Sweet Home"
Quarter West Virginia quarter
Released in 2005
Butterfly Monarch Butterfly
(Danaus plexippus)
Wildflower Fringed Gentian
(Gentiana crinita)
Colors Old Gold and Blue
Gemstone Silicified Mississippian Fossil Coral
(Lithostrotionella)
Soil Monongahela Silt Loam
Fruit Golden Delicious Apple
(Malus domestica)

The state has a rich, lush beauty reflecting its temperate topography. Tourist sites include the New River Gorge Bridge,[33] Harpers Ferry National Historical Park and many state parks. The Greenbrier hotel and resort, originally built in 1778, has long been considered a premier hotel frequented by numerous world leaders and U.S. Presidents over the years. West Virginia is also home to the Green Bank Telescope at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. These are lists of U.S. state insignia as designated by tradition or the respective state legislatures List of U.S. state amphibians List of U.S. state beverages List of U.S. state birds List of U.S. state butterflies List of U.S. state colors List of U... Here is a list of state mottos for the states of the United States. ... The Great Seal of West Virginia with the state motto found at the bottom. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Cardinalis cardinalis (Linnaeus, 1758) The Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) is a member of the cardinal family of birds in North America. ... A state mammal is the official or representative animal of a U.S. state. ... Binomial name Pallas, 1780 Synonyms Euarctos americanus The American Black Bear (Ursus americanus) is the most common bear species native to North America. ... This is a list of official U.S. state fish: This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... This article is about the species of fish. ... It has been suggested that List of U.S. state butterflies be merged into this article or section. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies North-west of Europe South-west of Europe Middle East Africa Synonyms Apis mellifica Linnaeus, 1761 The Western honey bee or European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a species of honey bee. ... This is a list of U.S. state flowers: List of U.S. state trees Lists of U.S. state insignia ^ State Flower of Alabama. ... Subgenera Azaleastrum Candidastrum Hymenanthes Mumeazalea Pentanthera (Azaleas) Rhododendron Therorhodion Tsutsusi (Azaleas) Vireya Source: RBG, Edinburgh Rhododendron (from the Greek: rhodos, rose, and dendron, tree) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Ericaceae. ... This List of U.S. state trees includes official trees of the following states and U.S. possessions: See also Lists of U.S. state insignia National Grove of State Trees External link USDA list of state trees and flowers Categories: | | ... Binomial name Acer saccharum Marshall The Sugar Maple Acer saccharum is a prominent tree in the hardwood forests of eastern North America. ... Forty-nine states of the United States (all except New Jersey) have one or more state songs, selected by the state legislature as a symbol of the state. ... Obverse of redesigned quarter The 50 State Quarters program is the release of a series of commemorative coins by the United States Mint. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of U.S. state insects. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The butterfly species Danaus plexippus is commonly known as the Monarch butterfly. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Species See text. ... This is a list of U.S. state colors:[1] This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Old Gold is a dark yellow, which varies from light olive or olive brown to deep or strong yellow. ... This article is about the colour. ... // Not every state has an official state mineral, rock, stone or gemstone. ... Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... This is a list of official U.S. state soils: This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Below is a list of U.S. state fruits and berries. ... For the album by Mike Doughty, see Golden Delicious (album). ... For discussion of land surfaces themselves, see Terrain. ... Tourist redirects here. ... New River Gorge Bridge West Virginia quarter The New River Gorge Bridge is a steel-arch bridge, near Fayetteville, West Virginia; with a length of 3030 feet (924 m), it was for many years the longest in the world of that type. ... Harpers Ferry National Historical Park is located at the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers in and around Harpers Ferry, West Virginia. ... State park is a term used in the United States and in Mexico for an area of land preserved on account of its natural beauty, historic interest, recreation, or other reason, and under the administration of the government of a U.S. state or one of the states of Mexico. ... View of outside from inside The Greenbrier is a Mobil four star resort located at 37. ... For other uses, see Hotel (disambiguation). ... Resorts combine a hotel and a variety of recreations, such as swimming pools. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) is the worlds largest fully steerable radio telescope. ... The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) is an institution set up by the United States government for the purpose of radio astronomy. ...


A common story told about West Virginia is the folktale about how it got the nickname "West, By God, Virginia". According to the legend, a West Virginia native who was being inducted into the US Army during the First World War (some versions make it as early as the Spanish-American War), was repeatedly asked by his induction officer, "What part of Virginia?" And the soldier, finally getting fed up with the confusion, said "Not Virginia! West Virginia! West, by God, Virginia!". This story, whether true or not, has entered American folklore, and it is not unusual to hear not only West Virginians themselves, but other Americans, refer to the state as "West, By God, Virginia";, or often as "West By-God", or sometimes simply as "By-God". Many West Virginians, when travelling outside the state, or when abroad, enjoy paying homage to the legend by referring to their home state in this manner. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Kingdom of Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Ramón Blanco Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and...


Film

See also: List of television shows and movies in West Virginia

The Night of the Hunter (1955): filmed in Moundsville and Hollywood. This is a list of television shows and/or movies that were either filmed, or set, in the U.S. state of West Virginia Movies A Beautiful Mind (2001) A Killing Affair (1986) Act of Vengeance (1986) The Antler Boy (1994) Bubble (2006) Chillers (1986) Correct Change (2001) The Dancing... The Night of the Hunter is a 1953 novel by American author, Davis Grubb. ... Moundsville is a city in Marshall County, West Virginia, along the Ohio River. ... Greetings from Hollywood Hollywood is a district of the city of Los Angeles, California, U.S.A., that extends from Vermont Avenue on the east to just beyond Laurel Canyon Boulevard above Sunset and Crescent Heights Boulevards on the west; the north to south boundary east of La Brea Avenue...


Win a Date with Tad Hamilton! (2004): set in Fraziers Bottom, West Virginia. Promotional poster for Win A Date With Tad Hamilton! Win a Date with Tad Hamilton! is a 2004 romantic comedy film, directed by Robert Luketic and starring Kate Bosworth, Topher Grace and more. ...


Live Free or Die Hard (2007): One scene is set in the fictional town of Middleton, West Virginia. Live Free or Die Hard (released as Die Hard 4. ...


Walk the Line (2005): Actors Joaquin Phoenix and Reese Witherspoon played Johnny Cash and June Cater in a scene featuring Wheeling, West Virginia in which they talk to locals and perform a concert. For the song, see I Walk the Line. ...


Silent Hill (2006): adapted from the Konami video game series of the same name, this film is set in the fictional Toluca County, West Virginia. This article is about the video game franchise. ... Konami Corporation ) (TYO: 9766 NYSE: KNM SGX: K20) is a leading developer and publisher of numerous popular and strong-selling toys, trading cards, anime, tokusatsu, slot machines and video games. ...


Paradise Park (1990): set and filmed in West Virginia. Paradise Park (1990) , also known as Heroes of the Heart, is a film shot in West Virginia, written and directed by Daniel Boyd. ...


The Crystal Rod (film) (2008):set and filmed in West Virginia


We Are Marshall (2006): set at Marshall University in Huntington. Filmed in Huntington, Kenova and Atlanta, Georgia. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Marshall University is a public university based in Huntington, West Virginia. ... Huntington is a city located in the U.S. State of West Virginia along the Ohio River. ... The Norfolk Southern Bridge as seen from Kenova Kenova is a city in Wayne County, West Virginia, at the confluence of the Ohio and Big Sandy Rivers. ... Atlanta redirects here. ...


Wrong Turn (2003): set in West Virginia, although the movie was filmed in Ontario, Canada. Wrong Turn is a 2003 horror film, directed by Rob Schmidt and written by Alan B. McElroy. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area...


Bubble (2005): set and filmed in Belpre, Ohio and Parkersburg. Bubble is a movie directed by Steven Soderbergh. ... Belpre is a city located in Washington County, Ohio. ... Location in Wood County in the State of West Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States State West Virginia County Wood Incorporated 1810 Government  - Mayor Robert Newell Area  - City  12. ...


The Mothman Prophecies (2002): set in Point Pleasant, but filmed in Pennsylvania. The 2002 film The Mothman Prophecies is an adaptation of the 1976 book The Mothman Prophecies by parapsychologist and Fortean John Keel. ... Point Pleasant, West Virginia (foreground) at the confluence of the Kanawha and Ohio Rivers Tourists at the monument of the Battle of Point Pleasant in Tu-Endie-Wei State Park. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


October Sky (1999): set in Coalwood in McDowell County, but filmed in Tennessee. October Sky is a 1999 movie based on the book Rocket Boys, an autobiographical book by Homer Hickam. ... Coalwood is an unincorporated coal mining town in McDowell County, West Virginia, USA. As of the 1990 Census, the population was 900. ... McDowell County is a county located in the U.S. state of West Virginia. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ...


Matewan (1987): set in Matewan, filmed in Thurmond. Matewan is a 1987 drama by John Sayles, illustrating the events of a coal mine-workers strike and attempt to unionize in 1920 in Matewan, a small town in the hills of West Virginia. ... Aerial view of Matewan, West Virginia A section of the floodwall along the Tug Fork in Matewan, West Virginia, constructed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, depicts the Hatfield-McCoy feud. ... Thurmond is a town located in Fayette County, West Virginia on the New River. ...


Reckless (1984): partially filmed in Weirton. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Weirton is a city located in the Northern Panhandle of West Virginia. ...


The Deer Hunter (1978): partially filmed in Weirton, but is set in Western Pennsylvania. For other uses, see Deer Hunter. ... Weirton is a city located in the Northern Panhandle of West Virginia. ...


Fool's Parade (1971): set in 1930s West Virginia, filmed in Moundsville. Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Moundsville is a city in Marshall County, West Virginia, along the Ohio River. ...


Holy Ghost People (1967): documentary on a congregation in Scrabble Creek, West Virginia. Holy Ghost People is a 1967 documentary directed and narrated by Peter Adair. ...


The Silence of the Lambs (1991): Partly filmed in Weirton, West Virginia. The Silence of the Lambs is a 1991 Academy Award-winning film directed by Jonathan Demme and starring Jodie Foster and Anthony Hopkins. ...


Rocket Science (2007) Look up rocket science in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Whatever (1998): independent film set within Northern New Jersey in the early 1980s, but filmed in Wheeling, West Virginia. An independent film, or indie film, is a film that is produced outside, independent, of the Hollywood Studio system. ... Metropolitan statistical areas and divisions of New Jersey; counties shaded in blue hues are in the New York City metro; counties shaded in green hues are in the Philadelphia metro. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ...


Music

West Virginias folk heritage is a part of the Appalachian folk music tradition, and includes styles of fiddling and other techniques reminiscent of Scotch-Irish music. ...

Appalachian Music

West Virginia's folk heritage is a part of the Appalachian folk music tradition, and includes styles of fiddling, ballad singing, and other styles that draw on Scots-Irish music. Camp Washington-Carver, a Mountain Cultural Arts Center located at Clifftop in Fayette County, hosts an annual Appalachian String Band Festival.[34] The Capitol Complex in Charleston hosts The Vandalia Gathering, where traditional Appalachian musicians compete in contests and play in impromptu jam sessions and evening concerts over the course of the weekend.[35] Appalachian folk music is a distinctive genre of folk music originating in the Appalachia region of the United States of America. ... // Jazz The earliest references to jazz performance using the violin as a solo instrument are documented during the first decades of the 20th century. ... Ulster-Scots is a term mainly used in Ireland and Britain (Scotch-Irish or Scots-Irishis commonly used in North America) primarily to refer to Presbyterian Scots, or their descendents, who migrated from the Scottish Lowlands to Ulster (the northern province of Ireland), largely across the 17th century. ... Clifftop is an unincorporated community in Fayette County, West Virginia, USA. It is the home of historic Camp Washington-Carver. ... Fayette County is a county located in the state of West Virginia. ...


Classical Music

The West Virginia Symphony Orchestra was founded in 1939, as the Charleston Civic Orchestra, before becoming the Charleston Symphony Orchestra in 1943. The first conductor was William R. Wiant, followed by the prominent conductor Antonio Modarelli, who was written about in the November 7, 1949 Time Magazine for his composition of the River Saga, a six-section program piece about the Kanawha River according to the Charleston Gazette's November 6, 1999 photo essay, "Snapshots of the 20th Century".[36] Prior to coming to Charleston, Modarelli had conducted the Wheeling Symphony Orchestra and the Philadelphia Orchestra, according to the orchestra's website.[37] is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... The Wheeling Symphony Orchestra is an American orchestra based in Wheeling, West Virginia. ... The Philadelphia Orchestra, based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is one of the Big Five symphony orchestras in the United States and usually considered among the finest in the world. ...


Musical Innovation

The West Virginia Cultural Center in Charleston[38] is home to the West Virginia Division of Culture and History[39] which helps underwrite and coordinate a large number of musical activities. The Center is also home to Mountain Stage, the internationally broadcast live-performance music radio program established in 1983.[40] The program also travels to other venues in the state such as the West Virginia University Creative Arts Center in Morgantown.[41] Mountain Stage is a radio show distributed by Public Radio International. ... West Virginia University is an institution of higher learning based in Morgantown, West Virginia, USA. Other campuses include: West Virginia University at Parkersburg in Parkersburg; West Virginia University Institute of Technology in Montgomery; Potomac State College of West Virginia University in Keyser; and a clinical campus for the Universitys...


The Center hosts concerts sponsored by the Friends of Old Time Music and Dance, which brings an assortment of acoustic roots music to West Virginians.[42] The Center also hosts the West Virginia Dance Festival, which features classical and modern dance.[43]


Huntington's historic Keith-Albee Theatre, built by brothers A.B. and S.J. Hyman, was originally opened to the public on May 7, 1928, and hosts a variety of performing arts and music attractions. The theatre was eventually gifted to Marshall University and is currently going through renovation to restore it to its original splendor. Along 4th Avenue in downtown Huntington. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Marshall University is a public university based in Huntington, West Virginia. ...


The town of Glenville has long been home to the annual West Virginia State Folk Festival.[44] Glenville is a town located in Gilmer County, West Virginia along the Little Kanawha River. ...


The Mountaineer Opera House in Milton hosts a variety of musical acts. Milton is a town located in Cabell County, West Virginia. ...


The Boston, Massachusetts band Big Wreck wrote a song titled "West Virigina". Boston redirects here. ... Big Wreck was a neo-progressive hard rock band of the late 1990s. ... The Pleasure and the Greed was the second and final album from Big Wreck. ...


See also

List of airports in West Virginia (U.S. state), grouped by type and sorted by location. ... The United States Census Bureau has defined three Combined Statistical Areas (CSAs),[1] ten Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs),[2] and six Micropolitan Statistical Areas (μSAs)[3] in the State of West Virginia. ... List of census-designated places in West Virginia, arranged in alphabetical order. ... This is a list of cities, towns, and communities along the Potomac River and its branches in the United States. ... List of cities in West Virginia, arranged in alphabetical order. ... This is a list of colleges and universities in the U.S. state of West Virginia. ... List of communities in the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia, arranged in alphabetical order. ... This is a list of counties in West Virginia: West Virginia county boundaries Barbour County Berkeley County Boone County Braxton County Brooke County Cabell County Calhoun County Clay County Doddridge County Fayette County Gilmer County Grant County Greenbrier County Hampshire County Hancock County Hardy County Harrison County Jackson County Jefferson... Barbour County - Philippi Berkeley County - Martinsburg Boone County - Madison Braxton County - Sutton Brooke County - Wellsburg Cabell County - Huntington Calhoun County - Grantsville Clay County - Clay Doddridge County - West Union Fayette County - Fayetteville Gilmer County - Glenville Grant County - Petersburg Greenbrier County - Lewisburg Hampshire County - Romney Hancock County - New Cumberland Hardy County - Moorefield... This is a list of West Virginia county name etymologies. ... This is a list of Governors of West Virginia Categories: Lists of United States governors | Governors of West Virginia ... // This is a list of high schools in the U.S. state of West Virginia. ... This is a list of islands in the U.S. state of West Virginia. ... This is a list of lakes in the U.S. state of West Virginia. ... This is a list of prominent people from the U.S. state of West Virginia. ... State highways in the U.S. state of West Virginia are owned and maintained by the state. ... The following radio stations are located in West Virginia by market area. ... The following radio stations are located in West Virginia by market area. ... Current common carriers Amtrak (AMTK) Appalachian and Ohio Railroad CSX Transportation (CSXT) Norfolk Southern (NS) Wheeling and Lake Erie Railway (WE) [1] Commuter railroads Excursion and tourist railroads Defunct railroads Consolidated Rail Company (CR) (Conrail, now operating local freight service for CSX and NS) [2] New York Central Railroad (NYC... List of Registered Historic Places in the U.S. state of West Virginia: This list is complete as of December 27, 2005 [1] Barbour County Berryberg Adaland Carrollton Carrolton Covered Bridge Elk City J. N. B. Crim House Philippi Barbour County Courthouse Peck-Crim-Chesser House Philippi B & O Railroad... This is a list of rivers in the U.S. state of West Virginia. ... Since the 1930s, all public school districts in the U.S. state of West Virginia have by law exactly followed county boundaries. ... This is an incomplete list of secondary state highways in the U.S. state of West Virginia. ... http://www. ... |List of state parks in West Virginia: Audra State Park Babcock State Park Beartown State Park Beech Fork State Park Berkeley Springs State Park Blackwater Falls State Park Blennerhassett Island Historical State Park Bluestone State Park Cacapon Resort State Park Camp Creek State Park Canaan Resort State Park Carnifex Ferry... This is a list of television shows and/or movies that were either filmed, or set, in the U.S. state of West Virginia Movies A Beautiful Mind (2001) A Killing Affair (1986) Act of Vengeance (1986) The Antler Boy (1994) Bubble (2006) Chillers (1986) Correct Change (2001) The Dancing... List of towns in West Virginia, arranged in alphabetical order. ... List of villages in West Virginia, arranged in alphabetical order. ... This is a list of wildlife management areas in West Virginia. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). Retrieved on November 9, 2006.
  2. ^ In the event of a vacancy in the office of Governor, the President of the State Senate is first in line for succession.
  3. ^ Appalachian Region: Counties in Appalachia. Appalachian Regional Commission. Retrieved on 2007-11-13.
  4. ^ WVU Social and Cultural Study
  5. ^ An Introduction to West Virginia's Ethnic Communities
  6. ^ http://www.wvculture.org/history/statehood/statehood12.html " Chapter Twelve "Reorganized Government of Virginia Approves Separation"
  7. ^ Charles Ambler "The History of West Virginia", 1933, pg. 309
  8. ^ J. McGregor "The Disruption of Virginia", pg. 193
  9. ^ The United States Constitution provides that no state may be divided without its consent.
  10. ^ Richard O. Curry "A House Divided", pg. 147
  11. ^ C. Ambler "The History of West Virginia", pg. 318
  12. ^ Virgil Lewis "How West Virginia Was Made" pgs. 79-80
  13. ^ Charles Ambler "The History of West Virginia", pg. 318
  14. ^ Richard O. Curry "A House Divided", pgs. 141-152
  15. ^ Richard O. Curry "A House Divided", pg. 149
  16. ^ J. McGregor "The Disruption of Virginia", pg. 270
  17. ^ Richard O. Curry "A House Divided" map, pg. 49
  18. ^ Richard O. Curry "A House Divided", pg. 86
  19. ^ Virginia v. West Virginia, 78 U.S. 39 (1870)
  20. ^ Charles Ambler "Disfranchisement in West Virginia", Yale Review, 1905, pg. 41
  21. ^ State Rankings-Statistical Abstract of the United States-Personal Income per Capita in Constant (2000) Dollars 2004
  22. ^ State Rankings-Statistical Abstract of the United States-Median Household Income, 2003
  23. ^ State Rankings-Statistical Abstract of the United States-Persons 25 Years Old and Over With a Bachelor's Degree or More, 2004
  24. ^ WV State Tax Department - TSD Publications
  25. ^ West Virginia Department of Transportation, accessed 9 June 2006
  26. ^ de Hart, A, and Sundquist, B., Monongahela National Forest Hiking Guide, West Virginia Highlands Conservancy, Charleston, WV 1993.
  27. ^ West Virginia Rails-to-Trails Council, accessed 9 June 9, 2006
  28. ^ Hatfield and McCoys Trail web site, accessed 6 June 2006
  29. ^ WV White Water web site, access 6 June 2006
  30. ^ Cass Scenic Railroad web site, accessed 6 June 9, 2006
  31. ^ Potomac Eagle Scenic Railroad, accessed 6 June 2006
  32. ^ The Times West Virginian - State earns ‘D’ in prosperity study
  33. ^ The New River Gorge Bridge is one of just two U.S. sites which have granted explicit permission for BASE jumping. This occurs each year on the third Saturday in October, known as "Bridge Day". Bridge Day website, accessed January 17, 2006.
  34. ^ Appalachian String Band Festival
  35. ^ Vandalia Gathering
  36. ^ http://www.wvgazette.com/static/century/gz1106.html
  37. ^ West Virginia Symphony Orchestra
  38. ^ West Virginia Cultural Center accessed January 19, 2006.
  39. ^ West Virginia Division of Culture and History accessed January 19, 2006
  40. ^ In 2001, Mountain Stage debuted a television show featuring many of the radio program's guests. Mountain Stage, accessed January 20, 2006.
  41. ^ Greater Morgantown Convention & Visitors Bureau, accessed January 20, 2006.
  42. ^ A list of events can be found on the FOOTMAD website<ref>[http://www.footmad.org Footmad<!-- Bot generated title -->]</li> <li id="cite_note-42">'''[[#cite_ref-42|^]]''' [http://www.wvculture.org/dance/index.html West Virginia Dance Festival], accessed [[January 20]], [[2006]].</li> <li id="cite_note-43">'''[[#cite_ref-43|^]]''' [http://www.etc4u.com/folkfest/ West Virginia State Folk Festival<!-- Bot generated title -->]</li></ol></ref>

is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The West Virginia Senate is the upper house of the West Virginia Legislature. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... BASE jumping is the sport of using a parachute to jump from fixed objects. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • Charles H. Ambler, A History of Education in West Virginia From Early Colonial Times to 1949 (1951)
  • Charles H. Ambler and Festus P. Summers. West Virginia, the Mountain State (1958)
  • Jane S. Becker, Inventing Tradition: Appalachia and the Construction of an American Folk, 1930-1940 1998.
  • Richard A. Brisbin, et al. West Virginia Politics and Government (1996)
  • James Morton Callahan, History of West Virginia (1923) 3 vol
  • John C. Campbell, The Southern Highlander and His Homeland (1921)reissued 1969.
  • Richard Orr Curry, A House Divided: A Study of Statehood Politics and Copperhead Movement in West Virginia (1964)
  • Donald Edward Davis. Where There Are Mountains: An Environmental History of the Southern Appalachians 2000.
  • Ronald D, Eller. Miners, Millhands, and Mountaineers: Industrialization of the Appalachian South, 1880–1930 1982.
  • Carl E. Feather, Mountain People in a Flat Land: A Popular History of Appalachian Migration to Northeast Ohio, 1940–1965. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1998.
  • Thomas R. Ford ed. The Southern Appalachian Region: A Survey. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1967.
  • Horace Kephart, Our Southern Highlanders. Rev. ed. New York: Macmillan, 1922. Reprinted as Our Southern Highlanders: A Narrative of Adventure in the Southern Appalachians and a Study of Life among the Mountaineers . With an Introduction by George Ellison. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1976.
  • Gerald Milnes, Play of a Fiddle: Traditional Music, Dance, and Folklore in West Virginia. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1999.
  • Otis K. Rice, The Allegheny Frontier: West Virginia Beginnings, 1730-1830 (1970),
  • Otis K. Rice and Stephen W. Brown, West Virginia: A History, 2d ed. (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1993), standard
  • Curtis Seltzer, Fire in the Hole: Miners and Managers in the American Coal Industry (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1985), conflict in the coal industry to the 1980s.
  • Joe William Trotter Jr., Coal, Class, and Color: Blacks in Southern West Virginia, 1915-32 (1990)
  • John Alexander Williams, West Virginia: A History for Beginners. 2nd ed. Charleston, W.Va.: Appalachian Editions, 1997.
  • John Alexander Williams. West Virginia: A Bicentennial History (1976)
  • John Alexander Williams. West Virginia and the Captains of Industry 1976.
  • John Alexander Williams. Appalachia: A History (2002)

Primary sources Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

  • Elizabeth Cometti, and Festus P. Summers. The Thirty-fifth State: A Documentary History of West Virginia. Morgantown: West Virginia University Library, 1966.

External links

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An insular area is United States territory that is neither a part of one of the fifty states nor a part of the District of Columbia, the nations federal district. ... Motto Samoa, Muamua Le Atua(Samoan) Samoa, Let God Be First Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner, Amerika Samoa Capital Pago Pago; Fagatogo (seat of government) Official languages English, Samoan Government  -  Governor Togiola Tulafono United States unincorporated territory  -  Treaty of Berlin 1899   -  Deed of Cession of Tutuila 1900   -  Deed of Cession... Anthem: Gi Talo Gi Halom Tasi(Chamorro) Satil Matawal Pacifiko(Carolinian) Capital Saipan Official languages English, Chamorro, Carolinian Government Presidential representative democracy  -  Governor Benigno R. Fitial  -  Lt. ... For the board game, see Puerto Rico (board game). ... Motto United in Pride and Hope Anthem Virgin Islands March Capital (and largest city) Charlotte Amalie Official languages English Government  -  Head of State George W. Bush  -  Governor John de Jongh Organized, unincorporated territory  -  Revised Organic Act 22 July 1954  Area  -  Total 346. ... The flag of the United States is used for all of the United States Minor Outlying Islands The United States Minor Outlying Islands, a statistical designation defined by ISO 3166-1, consists of nine insular United States possessions: All of these islands are in the Pacific Ocean except Navassa Island... Bajo Nuevo Bank, also called the Petrel Islands, is located in the western United States and Jamaica. ... Baker Island is an uninhabited atoll located just north of the equator in the central Pacific Ocean at 0°13′N 176°31′W, about 3,100 km (1,675 nautical miles) southwest of Honolulu. ... Howland Island Howland Island is an uninhabited atoll located just north of the equator in the central Pacific Ocean at 0°48′N 176°38′W, about 3,100 km (1,675 nautical miles) southwest of Honolulu. ... Jarvis Island (formerly also known as Bunker Island[1]) is an uninhabited 4. ... Johnston Atoll is a 130 km² atoll in the North Pacific Ocean at 16°45′N 169°30′W, about one-third of the way from Hawaii to the Marshall Islands. ... The flag of the US is used for Kingman Reef Kingman Reef Kingman Reef—NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Kingman Reef is a one-square-kilometer tropical coral reef located in the North Pacific Ocean, roughly half way between Hawaiian Islands and American Samoa at 6°24... Orthographic projection centred over Midway. ... Navassa Island map from The World Factbook Navassa Island - NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Navassa Island (La Navase in French, Lanavaz in Haitian Kreyòl) is a small, uninhabited island in the Caribbean Sea. ... Palmyra Atoll - Landsat Image N-03-05_2000 (1:50,000) Palmyra Atoll - Marplot Map (1:50,000) Orthographic projection over Palmyra Atoll Palmyra Atoll, is an incorporated atoll administered by the United States government. ... Serranilla Bank is a western Caribbean island located about 210 miles north-northeast of Nicaragua. ... USGS Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite image of Wake Island. ... Historic Southern United States. ... The South Atlantic States form one of the nine divisions within the United States that are formally recognized by that countrys census bureau. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... The East South Central States constitute one of the nine geographic divisions within the United States that are officially recognized by that countrys census bureau. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... The West South Central States form one of the nine geographic divisions within the United States that are officially recognized by the United States Census Bureau. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: West Virginia (2344 words)
West of the Allegheny Range and that of the Shenandoah on the east, and the Greenbrier and Laurel Mountains on the west, are numerous short parallel ridges of which the most important are Potts or Middle Warm Spring and Jackson River Mountains.
West Virginia is richly invested with timber, comprising many varieties of the oak and fir, the hemlock, cedar, laurel, tulip-tree, the fl and white walnuts, hickory, beech, sycamore, elm, maple, birch, white and mountain
West Virginia was organized and became a state during the early years of the Civil War, and was composed of the western and northern counties of the State of Virginia.
West Virginia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5464 words)
West Virginia broke away from the Commonwealth of Virginia during the American Civil War and was admitted to the Union as a separate state on June 20, 1863.
West Virginia is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north; by Ohio to the north and west; by Kentucky to the west; by Maryland to the north and east; and by Virginia to the east and south.
West Virginia's capital and seat of government is the city of Charleston, located in the southwest area of the state.
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