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Encyclopedia > West Nile virus
West Nile virus

Virus classification
Group: Group IV ((+)ssRNA)
Family: Flaviviridae
Genus: Flavivirus
Species: West Nile virus
West Nile Fever
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 A92.3
DiseasesDB 30025
MeSH D014901

West Nile virus (or WNV) is a virus of the family Flaviviridae; part of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) antigenic complex of viruses, it is found in both tropical and temperate regions. It mainly infects birds, but is known to infect humans, horses, dogs, cats, bats, chipmunks, skunks, squirrels, and domestic rabbits. The main route of human infection is through the bite of an infected mosquito. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Virus classification involves naming and placing viruses into a taxonomic system. ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Genera Flavivirus Pestivirus Hepacivirus The Flaviviridae are a family of viruses that infect mammals. ... Species see text Flavivirus is a genus of the family Flaviviridae. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Genera Flavivirus Pestivirus Hepacivirus The Flaviviridae are a family of viruses that infect mammals. ... A noontime scene from the Philippines on a day when the Sun is almost directly overhead. ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... This article is about modern humans. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... “Chiroptera” redirects here. ... This article is about the animal. ... Polecat redirects here. ... This article is about the animal. ... For other uses, see Rabbit (disambiguation). ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ...


Image reconstructions and cryoelectron microscopy reveal a 45-50 nm virion covered with a relatively smooth protein surface. This structure is similar to the dengue fever virus; both belong to the genus flavivirus within the family Flaviviridae. WNV is a positive-sense, single strand of RNA, it is between 11,000 and 12,000 nucleotides long which encode seven non-structural proteins and three structural proteins. The RNA strand is held within a nucleocapsid formed from 12 kDa protein blocks; the capsid is contained within a host-derived membrane altered by two viral glycoproteins. Electron cryomicroscopy (aka cryoelectron microscopy) is a developing method in structural biology. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Dengue Fever redirects here. ... Possible meanings: Kachin Defense Army Kentucky Distillers Association Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in another language. ...

Contents

Symptoms

Electron micrograph of West Nile virus.
Electron micrograph of West Nile virus.


W.N.V. has three different effects on humans. The first is an asymptomatic infection; the second is a mild febrile syndrome termed West Nile Fever;[1] the third is a neuroinvasive disease termed West Nile meningitis or encephalitis.[2] In infected individuals the ratio between the three states is roughly 110:30:1.[3] In medicine, a disease is asymptomatic when it is at a stage where the patient does not experience symptoms. ... Hyperthermia: Characterized on the left. ... Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges. ... Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, commonly caused by a viral infection. ...


The second, febrile stage has an incubation period of 3-8 days followed by fever, headache, chills, diaphoresis, weakness, lymphadenopathy, and drowsiness. Occasionally there is a short-lived truncal rash and some patients experience gastrointestinal symptoms including nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, or diarrhea. All symptoms are resolved within 7-10 days, although fatigue can last for some weeks and lymphadenopathy can take up to two months to resolve. Diaphoresis is excessive sweating commonly associated with shock and other medical emergency conditions. ... Lymphadenopathy is a term meaning disease of the lymph nodes. ...


The more dangrous encephalitis is characterized by similar early symptoms but also a decreased level of consciousness, sometimes approaching near-coma. Deep tendon reflexes are hyperactive at first, later diminished. There are also extrapyramidal disorders. Recovery is marked by a long convalescence with fatigue. List of Movement disorders Akinesia (lack of movement) Athetosis (contorted torsion or twisting) Ataxia Ballismus (violent involuntary rapid and irregular movements) Hemiballismus Bradykinesia (slow movement) Chorea (rapid, involuntary movement) Sydenhams chorea Rheumatic chorea Huntingtons disease Dystonia (sustained torsion) Dystonia muscularum Blepharospasm Writers cramp Spasmodic torticollis (twisting of...


More recent outbreaks have resulted in a deeper study of the disease and other, rarer, outcomes have been identified.The spinal cord may be infected, marked by anterior myelitis with or without encephalitis.[4] WNV-associated Guillain-Barré syndrome has been identified[5] and other rare effects include multifocal chorioretinitis (which has 100% specificity for identifying WNV infection in patients with possible WNV encephalitis)[6] hepatitis, myocarditis, nephritis, pancreatitis, and splenomegaly.[7][8][9] Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) (IPA pronunciation: is an acute, autoimmune, polyradiculoneuropathy affecting the peripheral nervous system, usually triggered by an acute infectious process. ... In medicine, Chorioretinitis is an inflammation of the choroid and retina of the eye. ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... In medicine (cardiology), myocarditis is inflammation of the myocardium, the muscular part of the heart. ... Nephritis is inflammation of the kidney. ... Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. ... Splenomegaly is an enlargement of the spleen, which usually lies in the left upper quadrant (LUQ) of the human abdomen. ...


Transmission and susceptibility

Transmission

The proboscis of an Aedes albopictus mosquito feeding on human blood. Under experimental conditions the Aedes albopictus mosquito, also known as the Asian Tiger Mosquito, has been found to be a vector of West Nile Virus.
The proboscis of an Aedes albopictus mosquito feeding on human blood. Under experimental conditions the Aedes albopictus mosquito, also known as the Asian Tiger Mosquito, has been found to be a vector of West Nile Virus.

The virus is transmitted through mosquito vectors, which bite and infect birds. The birds are amplifying hosts, developing sufficient viral levels to transmit the infection to other biting mosquitoes which go on to infect other birds (in the Western hemisphere the American robin and the American crow are the most common carriers) and also humans. The infected mosquito species vary according to geographical area; in the US Culex pipiens (Eastern US), Culex tarsalis (Midwest and West), and Culex quinquefasciatus (Southeast) are the main sources.[10] Binomial name Aedes albopictus Skuse, 1895 Aedes albopictus (Family Culicidae), the Asian Tiger Mosquito or Forest Day Mosquito, is characterized by its black and white striped legs and small, black and white body. ... In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1766 The American Robin (Turdus migratorius) is a migratory songbird of the thrush family. ... Binomial name Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm, 1822 American Crow range The American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) is slightly smaller than the European Carrion Crow in overall size (39-49 cm in length) and also has a proportionately smaller bill. ...


In mammals the virus does not multiply as readily (i.e. does not develop high viremia during infection), and it is believed that mosquitoes biting infected mammals do not ingest sufficient virus to become infected,[11] making mammals so-called dead-end infections. Viremia is a condition where viruses enter the bloodstream. ...


A 2004 paper in Science found that Culex pipiens mosquitoes existed in two populations in Europe, one which bites birds and one which bites humans. In North America 40% of Culex pipiens were found to be hybrids of the two types which bite both birds and humans, providing a vector for West Nile virus. This is thought to provide an explanation of why the West Nile disease has spread more quickly in North America than Europe. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Susceptibility

It was initially believed that direct human-to-human transmission was only caused by occupational exposure,[12] or conjunctival exposure to infected blood.[13] The US outbreak revealed novel transmission methods, through blood transfusion,[14] organ transplant,[15] intrauterine exposure,[16] and breast feeding.[17] Since 2003 blood banks in the US routinely screen for the virus amongst their donors.[18] As a precautionary measure, the UK's National Blood Service runs a test for this disease in donors who donate within 28 days of a visit to the United States or Canada. The National Blood Service is the organisation for England and North Wales which collects blood (and other tissue) tests, process’s, and supplies all the hospitals in England and North Wales. ...


The more severe outcomes of WNV infection are clearly associated with advancing age[19] and a patient history of organ transplantation[20] and diabetes. A genetic factor also appears to increase susceptibility to West Nile disease. A mutation of the gene CCR5 gives some protection against HIV but leads to more serious complications of WNV infection. Carriers of two mutated copies of CCR5 made up 4 to 4.5% of a sample of West Nile disease sufferers while the incidence of the gene in the general population is only 1%.[21][22] Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ...


Recently, the potential for mosquito saliva to impact the course of WNV disease was demonstrated.[23][24][25] Mosquitoes inoculate their saliva into the skin while obtaining blood. Mosquito saliva is a pharmacologic cocktail of secreted molecules, principally proteins, that can affect vascular constriction, blood coagulation, platelet aggregation, inflammation, and immunity. It has become clear that mosquito saliva alters the immune response in a manner that may be advantageous to a virus.[26][27][28][29] Studies have shown that it can specifically modulate the immune response during early virus infection,[30] and mosquito feeding can exacerbate WNV infection leading to higher viremia and more severe forms of disease.[23][24][25] For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ... Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... Immunity may refer to: Immunity (medical), a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, and is related to the functions of the immune system Immunity (legal), conferring a status on a person or body that makes that person or body free from... A request has been made on Wikipedia for this article to be deleted in accordance with the deletion policy. ... Viremia is a condition where viruses enter the bloodstream. ...


There is no vaccine for humans. A vaccine for horses based on killed viruses exists; some zoos have given this vaccine to their birds, although its effectiveness there is unknown. Dogs and cats show few if any signs of infection. There have been no cases of direct canine-human or feline-human transmission, although these pets can become infected it is unlikely that they are in turn capable of infecting naive mosquitoes and thus continue the disease cycle.[31] A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... For other uses, see Zoo (disambiguation). ...


Avoiding mosquito bites is the most straightforward means to avoid infection[32] - remaining indoors (while preventing mosquitoes from entering) at dawn and dusk, wear light-colored clothing that covers arms and legs as well as trunk, use insect repellents on both skin and clothing (such as DEET, picaradin, or oil of lemon eucalyptus for skin and permethrin for clothes).[33] If one becomes infected, generally, treatment is purely supportive: analgesia for the pain of neurologic diseases; rehydration for nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea; encephalitis may also require airway protection and seizure management. N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide, abbreviated DEET, is an insect repellent chemical. ... Icaridin, also known as picaridine, KBR 3023, Bayrepel, and hydroxyethyl butyl piperidine carboxylate is an insect repellent owned and manufactured by Lanxess AG. It has a broad efficacy against different insects and is almost colorless and odorless. ... Binomial name (Hook. ... Permethrin is a common synthetic chemical, widely used as an insecticide and acaricide and as an insect repellent. ...


Reported cases in the U.S. in 2005 exceeded those in 2004 and cases in 2006 exceeded 2005's totals. On August 19, 2006, the LA Times reported that the expected incidence rate of West Nile was dropping as the local population becomes exposed to the virus. "In countries like Egypt and Uganda, where West Nile was first detected, people became fully immune to the virus by the time they reached adulthood, federal health officials said.[34] However day s later the CDC said that West Nile cases could reach a 3-year high because hot temperatures had allowed a larger brood of mosquitoes.[35] is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Los Angeles Times (also L.A. Times) is a daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California and distributed throughout the Western United States. ...


History

Studies of phylogenetic lineages have determined that WNV emerged as a distinct virus around 1000 years ago.[36] This initial virus developed into two distinct lineages, Lineage 1 and its multiple profiles is the source of the epidemic transmission in Africa and throughout the world, while Lineage 2 remains as an Africa zoonose. Zoonosis is any infectious disease that can be transmitted from animals, both wild and domestic, to humans. ...


WNV was first isolated from a feverish adult woman in the West Nile District of Uganda in 1937 during research on yellow fever. A series of serosurveys in 1939 in central Africa found anti-WNV positive results ranging from 1.4% (Congo) to 46.4% (White Nile region, Sudan). It was subsequently identified in Egypt (1942) and India (1953), a 1950 serosurvey in Egypt found 90% of those over 40 years in age had WNV antibodies. The ecology was characterized in 1953 with studies in Egypt[37] and Israel.[38] The virus became recognized as a cause of severe human meningoencephalitis in elderly patients during an outbreak in Israel in 1957. The disease was first noted in horses in Egypt and France in the early 1960s and found to be widespread in southern Europe, southwest Asia and Australia. Surprisingly the first strain of what is thought to be West Nile can be traced all the way back to the 1600's. West Nile sub-region (previously known as West Nile District) is a region in north-eastern Uganda that consists of the districts of Koboko, Moyo, Yumbe and Arua. ... Meningoencephalitis is a type of infection that simultaneously resembles both meningitis, which is an infection or inflammation of the meninges, and encephalitis, which is an infection or inflammation of the brain. ...


The first appearance of West Nile virus in the Western hemisphere was in 1999 with encephalitis reported in humans and horses, and the subsequent spread in the United States may be an important milestone in the evolving history of this virus. The American outbreak began in the New York City area, including New Jersey and Connecticut, and the virus is believed to have entered in an infected bird or mosquito, although there is no clear evidence.[39] The US virus was very closely related to a lineage 1 strain found in Israel in 1998. Since the first North American cases in 1999, the virus has been reported throughout the United States, Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean and Central America. There have been human cases and horse cases, and many birds are infected. Both the US and Israeli strains are marked by high mortality rates in infected avian populations, the presence of dead birds - especially corvidae - can be an early indicator of the arrival of the virus. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... Genera many, see article text Corvidae is a family of oscine passerine birds that contains the crows, ravens, rooks, jackdaws, jays, magpies, treepies and nutcrackers (Clayton and Emery 2005, [1]). Collectively its members are called corvids and there are over 120 species. ...


A high level of media coverage through 2001/2002 raised public awareness of West Nile virus. This coverage was most likely the result of successive appearances of the virus in new areas, and had the unintended effect of increasing funding for research on this virus and related arthropod-borne viruses. Such research has expanded our understanding of viruses transmitted by mosquitoes. INS agents recover Elián González by force from his uncles house; this photo, taken by AP photographer Alan Diaz won him a Pulitzer Prize. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ...


Overwintering mechanism

Vertical transmission of West Nile Virus from female Culex pipiens mosquitoes to their progeny has been demonstrated in the laboratory. It has been suggested that vertically infected Culex could survive the winter to initiate a WNV amplification cycle the following spring. Culex mosquitoes spend the winter hibernating in protected structures such as root cellars, bank barns, caves, abandoned tunnels and other subterranean locations. The first overwintering adult mosquitoes to test positive for WNV were collected in New York, 2000. Since then positive samples have been identified in New Jersey, 2003 and in Pennsylvania, 2003, 2004 and 2005.[40] Vertical transmission refers to transmission of an infection, such as HIV, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C, from mother to child during the perinatal period, the period immediately before and after birth. ...


Geographic distribution

West Nile virus has been described in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, west and central Asia, Oceania (subtype Kunjin), and most recently, North America. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ...


Recent outbreaks of West Nile virus encephalitis in humans have occurred in Algeria (1994), Romania (1996 to 1997), the Czech Republic (1997), Congo (1998), Russia (1999), the United States (1999 to 2003), Canada (1999–2003), and Israel (2000). Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


Epizootics of disease in horses occurred in Morocco (1996), Italy (1998), the United States (1999 to 2001), and France (2000). In 2003, West Nile virus spread among horses in Mexico.

In the US in 2002, West Nile virus was documented in animals in 44 states and the District of Columbia with Illinois, Louisiana, Michigan, and Ohio reporting the most deaths. By 2003, 45 states and D.C. had reported human cases. pub domain upload from National Wildlife Health Center [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Recent outbreaks

United States: From 1999 through 2001, the CDC confirmed 149 West Nile virus infections, including 18 deaths. In 2002, a total of 4,156 cases were reported, including 284 fatalities. 13 cases in 2002 were contracted through blood transfusion. The cost of West Nile-related health care in 2002 was estimated at $200 million. The first human West Nile disease in 2003 occurred in June and one West Nile-infected blood transfusion was also identified that month. In the 2003 outbreak, 9,862 cases and 264 deaths were reported by the CDC. At least 30% of those cases were considered severe involving meningitis or encephalitis. In 2004, there were only 2,539 reported cases and 100 deaths. In 2005, there was a slight increase in the number of cases, with 3,000 cases and 119 deaths reported. 2006 saw another increase, with 4,261 cases and 174 deaths. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ...

West Nile Virus Cases in the United States
West Nile Virus Cases in the United States

See also Progress of the West Nile virus in the United States Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1056x816, 78 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1056x816, 78 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... The West Nile virus quickly spread across North America after its introduction in 1999. ...


Canada: One human death occurred in 1999. In 2002, ten human deaths out of 416 confirmed and probable cases were reported by Canadian health officials. In 2003, 14 deaths and 1,494 confirmed and probable cases were reported. Cases were reported in 2003 in Nova Scotia, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. In 2004, only 26 cases were reported and two deaths; however, 2005 saw 239 cases and 12 deaths. By October 28, 2006, 127 cases and no deaths had been reported. One case was asymptomatic and only discovered through a blood donation. Currently in 2007, 445 Manitobans have confirmed cases of West Nile and two people have died with a third unconfirmed but suspected.[41] 17 people have either tested positive or are suspected of having the virus in Saskatchewan, and only one person has tested positive in Alberta.[42] Saskatchewan has reported 826 cases of West Nile plus three deaths.[43] Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... For other uses, see Saskatchewan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... This article is about the Canadian territory. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Saskatchewan (disambiguation). ...


Israel: In 2000, the CDC found that there were 417 confirmed cases with 326 hospitalizations. 33 of these people died. The main clinical presentations were encephalitis (57.9%), febrile disease (24.4%), and meningitis (15.9%).[44] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ...


Romania: In 1996-1997 about 500 cases occurred in Romania with a fatality rate of nearly 10%.


Surveillance methods

West Nile virus can be sampled from the environment by the pooling of trapped mosquitoes, testing avian blood samples drawn from wild birds and dogs and sentinel monkeys, as well as testing brains of dead birds found by various animal control agencies and the public. Testing of the mosquito samples requires the use of RT-PCR to directly amplify and show the presence of virus in the submitted samples. When using the blood sera of wild bird and sentinel chickens, samples must be tested for the presence of West Nile virus antibodies by use of immunohistochemistry (IHC)[45] or Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).[46] RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription-PCR) is a modification of PCR in which an RNA strand is first reverse transcribed into its DNA complement or cDNA, followed by amplification of the resulting DNA using PCR. This can either be a 1 or 2 step process. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Immunohistochemistry or IHC refers to the process of localizing proteins in cells of a tissue section exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues. ...


Dead birds, after necropsy, have their various tissues tested for virus by either RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry, where virus shows up as brown stained tissue because of a substrate-enzyme reaction. For the former Death Metal band called Autopsy, see Autopsy (band). ... RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription-PCR) is a modification of PCR in which an RNA strand is first reverse transcribed into its DNA complement or cDNA, followed by amplification of the resulting DNA using PCR. This can either be a 1 or 2 step process. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ...


Control

West Nile virus warning sign in Southern California.
West Nile virus warning sign in Southern California.

West Nile control is achieved through mosquito control, by elimination of mosquito breeding sites, larviciding active breeding areas and encouraging personal use of mosquito repellents. The public is also encouraged to spend less time outdoors, wear long covering clothing, apply bug repellant that contains DEET and ensure that mosquitoes cannot enter buildings.[47] Environmentalists have condemned attempts to control the transmitting mosquitoes by spraying pesticide, saying that the detrimental health effects of spraying outweigh the relatively few lives which may be saved, and that there are more environmentally friendly ways of controlling mosquitoes. They also question the effectiveness of insecticide spraying, as they believe mosquitoes that are resting or flying above the level of spraying will not be killed; the most common vector in the northeastern U.S., Culex pipiens, is a canopy feeder. Mosquito control is the task of managing the population of mosquitoes to reduce their damage to human health, economies, and enjoyment of mosquito-ridden areas. ... This mosquito has ironically landed on a bottle of herbal mosquito repellent. ... N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide, abbreviated DEET, is an insect repellent chemical. ... Bold textHello ... A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used for preventing, controlling, or lessening the damage caused by a pest. ... The canopy is the habitat found at the uppermost level of a forest, especially rainforest. ...


Treatment research

Morpholino antisense oligos conjugated to cell penetrating peptides have been shown to partially protect mice from WNV disease.[48] There have also been attempts to treat infections using ribavirin, intravenous immunoglobulin, or alpha interferon.[49] GenoMed, a US biotech company, has found that blocking angiotensin II can treat the "cytokine storm" of West Nile virus encephalitis as well as other viruses.[50] Segment of a Morpholino-RNA heteroduplex, 8-mer shown In molecular biology, a Morpholino is a kind of molecule used to modify gene expression. ... Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short polycationic sequences as found in the article by Simon. ... Ribavirin (Copegus®; Rebetol®; Ribasphere®; Vilona®,Virazole®, also generics from Sandoz, Teva, Warrick) is an anti-viral drug which is active against a number of DNA and RNA viruses. ... Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein complex used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ... Interferons (IFNs) are natural proteins produced by the cells of the immune systems of most animals in response to a challenge by a foreign agents such as viruses, bacteria, parasites and tumour cells. ... A cytokine storm is a potentially fatal immune reaction consisting of a positive feedback loop between cytokines and immune cells. ...


In 2007 the World Community Grid launched a project where by computer modeling of the West Nile Virus (and related viruses) thousands of small molecules are screened for their potential anti-viral properties in fighting the West Nile Virus. This is a project which by the use of computer simulations potential drugs will be identified which will directly attack the virus once a person is infected. This is a distributed process project similar to [email protected] where the general public downloads the World Community Grid agent and the program (along with thousands of other users) screens thousands of molecules while their computer would be otherwise idle. If the user needs to use the computer the program sleeps. There are several different projects running, including a similar one screening for anti-AIDS drugs. The project covering West Nile Virus is called "Discovering Dengue Drugs – Together." The software and information about the project can be found at: [email protected] logo [email protected] (SETI at home) is a distributed computing project using Internet-connected computers, hosted by the Space Sciences Laboratory, at the University of California, Berkeley, in the United States. ...


See also

CCR5, short for chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5, is a chemokine receptor. ...

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(low literacy materials in Spanish for WNV prevention) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

This article is about biological infectious particles. ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... This article is about the disease. ... Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a condition that frequently affects survivors of poliomyelitis, a viral infection of the nervous system, after recovery from an initial paralytic attack of the virus. ... Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare chronic, progressive encephalitis that affects primarily children and young adults, caused by defective measles virus (which can be a result of a mutation of the virus itself). ... This article is about the viral disease. ... Encephalitis lethargica (EL) is an atypical form of encephalitis. ... Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM), is a rodent-borne viral infectious disease that presents as aseptic meningitis, encephalitis or meningoencephalitis. ... Tick-borne meningoencephalitis or Tick-borne encephalitis is a tick-borne viral infection of the central nervous system affecting humans as well as most other mammals. ... Tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) is an infection of the spinal cord by Human T-lymphotropic virus resulting in paraparesis or weakness of the legs. ... Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of illnesses that are caused by several distinct families of viruses: Arenavirus, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae and Flavivirus. ... Dengue Fever redirects here. ... Chikungunya is a relatively rare form of viral fever caused by an alphavirus that is spread by mosquito bites from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, though recent research by the Pasteur Institute in Paris claims the virus has suffered a mutation that enables it to be transmitted by Aedes albopictus (Tiger mosquito). ... Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a viral zoonosis (affects primarily domestic livestock, but can be passed to humans) causing fever. ... Onyongnyong virus was first isolated by the Uganda Virus Research Institute in Entebbe, Uganda. ... Red areas show the distribution of Japanese Enecphalitis in Asia 1970-1998 Japanese encephalitis (Japanese: 日本脳炎, Nihon-nōen; previously known as Japanese B encephalitis to distinguish it from von Economos A encephalitis) is a disease caused by the mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus. ... St. ... Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a flavivirus endemic to northern Australia and Papua New Guinea. ... Ross River virus (RRV) is an arbovirus of the genus Alphavirus. ... Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widespread tick-borne viral disease, a zoonosis of domestic animals and wild animals, that may affect humans. ... Omsk hemorrhagic fever is a viral hemorrhagic fever caused by a Flavivirus. ... Kyasanur forest disease is a tick-borne viral hemorrhagic fever endemic to South Asia. ... Alkhurma virus is a member of the Flaviviridae virus family (class IV) so has a positive sense single stranded RNA genome and the virus will replicate in the cytoplasm of the infected host cell. ... The Powassan virus is a tick-borne encephalitis virus related to the classic TBE flavivirus. ... Zoonosis is any infectious disease that can be transmitted from animals, both wild and domestic, to humans. ... In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ... Menangle virus is a virus that infects pigs, humans and bats. ... Species Hendravirus Nipahvirus Henipavirus is a genus of the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales containing two members, Hendravirus and Nipahvirus. ... Borna disease is an infectious neurological syndrome of warm-blooded animals, which causes abnormal behaviour and fatality. ... Lassa fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever first described in 1969 in the Nigerian town of Lassa in the Yedseram River valley. ... Species Guanarito virus Venezualan hemorrhagic fever (VHF) is a zoonotic human illness, first identified in 1989, causing fever and malaise followed by hemorrhagic manifestations and convulsions. ... Species Junín virus Argentine hemorrhagic fever, known locally as mal de los rastrojos, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease occurring in Argentina. ... Species Machupo virus Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), also known as black typhus or Machupo virus, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease occurring in Bolivia. ... Puumala virus is a species of hantavirus, and causes nephropathia epidemica. ... Andes virus (ANDV) is a hantavirus, which, in South America, is the major causative agent of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS or HPS). ... The Sin Nombre virus (Spanish for virus without name) (SNV) is the prototypical etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). ... Species Andes virus (ANDV) Bayou virus (BAYV) Black Creek Canal virus (BCCV) Cano Delgadito virus (CADV) Choclo virus (CHOV) Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) Hantaan virus (HTNV) Isla Vista virus (ISLAV) Khabarovsk virus (KHAV) Laguna Negra virus (LANV) Muleshoe virus (MULV) New York virus (NYV) Prospect Hill virus (PHV) Puumala virus... Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) is a zoonotic virus closely related to rabies virus. ... For other uses, see Ebola (disambiguation). ... The Marburg virus is the causative agent of Marburg hemorrhagic fever. ... Mokola virus is one of four members of the lyssavirus genome found in Africa, the others being Duvenhage virus, Lagos bat virus and classical rabies virus. ... Duvenhage virus is a member of the lyssavirus genus which also contains rabies virus. ... This article is about the organ. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... Skin lesions caused by Chickenpox A lesion is any abnormal tissue found on or in an organism, usually damaged by disease or trauma. ... This article is about the disease. ... For other uses, see Chickenpox (disambiguation). ... Shingles redirects here, for other uses of the term, see Shingle. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... (Cricetomys sp. ... This page is for the disease. ... A plantar wart (verruca plantaris, VP; also commonly called a verruca) is a wart caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). ... Cowpox is a disease of the skin caused by a virus (Cowpox virus) that is related to the Vaccinia virus. ... Vaccinia virus (VACV or VV) is a large, complex enveloped virus belonging to the poxvirus family of viruses. ... Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a viral infection of the skin or occasionally of the mucous membranes. ... species Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) Exanthem subitum (meaning sudden rash), also referred to as roseola infantum (or rose rash of infants), sixth disease and (confusingly) baby measles, or three day fever, is a benign disease of children, generally under two years old, whose manifestations... Fifth disease is also referred to as erythema infectiosum (meaning infectious redness) and as slapped cheek syndrome, slap face or slapped face. ... Not to be confused with Foot-and-mouth disease. ... Not to be confused with hand, foot and mouth disease. ... Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the eighth human herpesvirus; its formal name according to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses is HHV-8. ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... Species Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis A (formerly known as infectious hepatitis) is an acute infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatovirus hepatitis A virus. ... “HBV” redirects here. ... This page is for the disease. ... Hepatitis D is a disease caused by a small circular RNA virus (Hepatitis delta virus); this virus is replication defective and therefore cannot propagate in the absence of another virus. ... Hepatitis E is an acute viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) caused by infection with a virus called hepatitis E virus (HEV). ... Hepatitis G and GB virus C (GBV-C) are RNA viruses that were independently identified in 1995, and were subsequently found to be two isolates of the same virus. ... Among quadrupeds, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza see H5N1. ... Acute viral nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily caused by picornaviruses or coronaviruses. ... Flu redirects here. ... SARS redirects here. ... Viral pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung caused by a virus. ... Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a group of four distinct serotypes of single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the paramyxovirus family. ... Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae, which includes common respiratory viruses such as those causing measles and mumps. ... Species Turkey rhinotracheitis virus Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was isolated for the first time in 2001 in the Netherlands by using the RAP-PCR technique for identification of unknown viruses growing in cultured cells. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... AIDS dementia complex (ADC; also known as HIV dementia, HIV encephalopathy and HIV-associated dementia) has become a common neurological disorder associated with HIV infection and AIDS. It is is a metabolic encephalopathy induced by HIV infection and fueled by immune activation of brain macrophages and microglia. ... HPV redirects here. ... Genital warts (or Condyloma, Condylomata acuminata, or venereal warts) is a highly contagious sexually transmitted infection caused by some sub-types of human papillomavirus (HPV). ... Cervical cancer is a malignant cancer of the cervix. ... Human T cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is believed to be the cause of several diseases, including adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), a rare cancer of the immune systems own T-cells. ... See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea Gastroenteritis is a general term referring to inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Norovirus, an RNA virus of the Caliciviridae taxonomic family, causes approximately 90% of epidemic non-bacterial outbreaks of gastroenteritis around the world,[1][2] and is responsible for 50% of all foodborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the US.[3] Norovirus affects people of all ages. ... Astroviruses that infect humans have been poorly studied due to the fact that they do not grow in culture. ... Coronavirus is a genus of animal virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae. ... Genera Mastadenovirus Aviadenovirus Atadenovirus Siadenovirus Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. ... Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) is a human, single-stranded RNA retrovirus that causes T-cell leukemia and T-cell lymphoma in adults and may also be involved in certain demyelinating diseases, including tropical spastic paraparesis. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (Greek leukos λευκός, white; aima αίμα, blood) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. ... An oncolytic virus is a virus used to treat cancer due to their ability to specifically infect cancer cells, while leaving normal cells unharmed. ... Species see text Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, cell, and -mega-, large) is a viral genus of the Herpesviruses group: in humans it is commonly known as human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5). ... Bornholm disease or pleurodynia is a disease caused by the Coxsackie virus. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
West Nile virus (1924 words)
West Nile virus was first isolated in the West Nile district of Uganda in 1937 and was subsequently isolated from patients, birds, and mosquitoes in Egypt in the early 1950s.
In Europe, West Nile virus circulation is confined to two basic types of cycles and ecosystems: rural cycle (wild, usually wetland birds and bird-biting mosquitoes) and urban cycle (domestic birds and mosquitoes feeding on both birds and humans).
Circulation of West Nile fever in Europe is similar to that of St. Louis encephalitis in North America, where the rural cycle of wild birds alternates with the urban cycle of domestic birds.
West Nile Virus (2299 words)
The virus, genetically very similar to the West Nile Virus which is widespread in the Old World, caused more than 50 documented cases of disease and about 7 deaths of humans (all of people over the age of 60), as well as widespread mortality in crows and sporadic mortality in other birds.
West Nile Virus belongs to a large group of arthropod-borne viruses (nicknamed ARBO viruses) which includes many viruses that cause more familiar forms of encephalitis as well as dengue fever and yellow fever.
The fact that West Nile Virus does not usually kill the birds that carry it is one piece of evidence supporting the hypothesis that it recently arrived in North America, where our crows and other birds have yet to develop any immunity.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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