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Encyclopedia > West Indies Federation
West Indies Federation
1958 – 1962

Flag of West Indies Jan. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_West_Indies. ...


Flag

Motto
To dwell together in unity
Anthem
God Save the Queen
Capital Chaguaramas
Language(s) English
Government Constitutional monarchy
Queen Elizabeth II
Governor-General Lord Hailes
Prime minister Grantley Herbert Adams¹
History
 - Established January 3, 1958
 - Disestablished May 31, 1962
Area
 - 1960 20,253 km² (7,820 sq mi)
Population
 - 1960 est. 3,117,300 
     Density 153.9 /km²  (398.6 /sq mi)
Currency BWI dollar (XBWD)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Barbados
Jamaica
Trinidad-Tobago
Leeward Islands
Windward Islands
Antigua
Barbados
Cayman Islands
Dominica
Grenade
Jamaica
Montserrat
Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent
Trinidad and Tobago
Turks and Caicos Islands
¹ West Indies Federal Labour Party

The West Indies Federation, also known as the Federation of the West Indies, was a short-lived Caribbean federation that existed from January 3, 1958 to May 31, 1962. It consisted of several Caribbean colonies of the United Kingdom. The expressed intention of the Federation was to create a political unit that would become independent from Britain as a single state--possibly similar to the Australian Federation, or Canadian Confederation; however, before that could happen, the Federation collapsed due to internal political conflicts. For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Publication of an early version in The Gentlemans Magazine, 15 October 1745. ... File links The following pages link to this file: West Indies Federation Categories: Images with unknown source ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Chaguaramas lies in the North West Peninsula of Trinidad west of Port-of-Spain; the name if often applied to the entire peninsula, but is sometimes used to refer to the most developed area. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not bound by a... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... The Federation of the West Indies (Antigua, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. ... Patrick George Thomas Buchan-Hepburn, Baron Hailes (April 2, 1901-November 5, 1974) was the first and only Governor-General of the short-lived West Indies Federation, from January 3, 1958, to May 31, 1962, when the country was disbanded. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Sir Grantley Herbert Adams, CMG, QC, (April 28, 1898 - November 28, 1971) was a Bajan politician. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... The British West Indies dollar (BWI$) was the currency of the various British West Indies territories from 1935 and, later, of the unitary West Indies Federation. ... The British West Indies dollar (BWI$) was adopted in 1935. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 400 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 550 pixel, file size: 111 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses of the word Trinidad, see Trinidad (disambiguation) Motto Together we aspire, together we achieve Anthem Forged From The Love of Liberty Capital Port of Spain Largest town Chaguanas [1] Official languages English Demonym Trinidadian, Tobagonian Government Republic  -  President George Maxwell Richards  -  Prime Minister Patrick Manning Independence  -  from... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Anthem God Save the Queen Capital Not specified Language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1952-1960 (last) Elizabeth II History  - Established 1833  - Federation 1871  - Dominica joined 1871  - Dominica left 1940  - West Indies Federation 1958  - Federation dissolved May 31, 1962 The British Leeward Islands was a British colony existing between... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Windward Islands are the southern islands of the Lesser Antilles. ... Image File history File links Antiguaflag. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Grenade may refer to: The well-known hand grenade commonly used by soldiers. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jamaica. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Montserrat. ... A former British colony in the Caribbean. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links St_Vincent_colonial_flag. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Trinidad_and_Tobago. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Turks_and_Caicos_Islands. ... The West Indies Federal Labour Party was one of the two Federal parties in the short-lived West Indies Federation. ... West Indies redirects here. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location of the British Overseas Territories The British Overseas Territories are fourteen[1] territories which the United Kingdom considers to be under its sovereignty, but not as part of the United Kingdom itself. ... The Federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia federated on 1 January 1901, to form the Commonwealth of Australia, of which they became component states. ... We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ...

Contents

Population and geography

The total population of the West Indies Federation was between 3 and 4 million people, with the majority being of African descent. Minorities included Indians from the subcontinent (called “East Indians”), Europeans, Chinese, and Caribs. There was also a large population of mixed descent (mainly mulattos, but also Afro-Indian, Euro-Indian and mixed-Chinese). In terms of religion, most of the population was Protestant, with significant numbers of Catholics and some Hindus and Muslims (both almost exclusively from the East Indian population). A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Island Carib, who lived on the islands of the Caribbean. ... Mulatto (Spanish mulato, small mule, person of mixed race, mulatto, from mulo, mule, from Old Spanish, from Latin mÅ«lus. ...


The West Indies Federation (or just “West Indies”) consisted of around 24 main inhabited islands and approximately 220-230 minor offshore islands, islets and cays (some inhabited, some uninhabited). The largest island was Jamaica, located in the far northwest of the Federation. To the southeast lay the second largest island, Trinidad, followed by Barbados, located at the eastern extremity of the Federation. For other uses, see Trinidad (disambiguation). ...


The Federation spanned across all the island groupings in the Caribbean: West Indies redirects here. ...

At its widest (west to east), from the Cayman Islands to Barbados it spanned some 2,425 kilometres (and across approximately 22 degrees of longitude) and from the Turks and Caicos Islands in the north, to the Icacos Point, Trinidad in the south it extended 1,700 kilometres (and across 12 degrees of latitude). However, most of the area along either of these distances was taken up by open water (with the exception of some of the other islands lying in between). By comparison Great Britain stretches across nearly 10 degrees of latitude and Spain extends across almost 20 degrees of longitude. Even though the West Indies was spread across such a vast area, most of its provinces were mostly contiguous and clustered fairly close together in the Eastern Caribbean, with the obvious exceptions of Jamaica, the Cayman Islands, and Turks and Caicos Islands. The Greater Antilles, an island group in the Caribbean Sea, are part of the Antilles. ... The Commonwealth of The Bahamas is an independent English_speaking nation in the West Indies. ... Location of the Lesser Antilles (green) in relation to the rest of the Caribbean Islands of the Lesser Antilles The Lesser Antilles, also known as the Caribbees,[1] are part of the Antilles, which together with the Bahamas and Greater Antilles form the West Indies. ... The Leeward Islands are the northern islands of the Lesser Antilles. ... A former British colony in the Caribbean. ... The Windward Islands are the southern islands of the Lesser Antilles. ... Icacos Point is the southwestern most point in Trinidad and Tobago. ...


Most of the islands had mountainous interiors surrounded by narrow coastal plains. The exceptions were Anguilla, Antigua, Barbuda, the Cayman Islands, the Turks and Caicos Islands (which were all fairly flat), and Trinidad (which had a large mountain range in the north and a small central mountain range in the interior of the otherwise flat island). The narrow coastal plains as well as historical trade is the main reason why almost all of the major settlements (cities and towns) of the Federation were located on the coast. Chief towns included Kingston, Port of Spain, Bridgetown, Spanish Town, Montego Bay, Mandeville, Castries, Roseau, St. George’s, Kingstown, St. John’s and Basseterre. Barbuda is an island in the Antigua and Barbuda. ... The City of Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica. ... Port of Spain, population 49,000 (2000), is the capital of Trinidad and Tobago and the countrys second largest city by population, after San Fernando. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Spanish Town (disambiguation). ... Doctors Cave Beach Club is a popular tourist destination in Montego Bay Montego Bay is a city in Jamaica that contains Jamaicas largest airport, Sangster International Airport. ... Mandeville may refer to any of the following: People Bernard Mandeville, philosopher Geoffrey de Mandeville, 1st Earl of Essex Geoffrey de Mandeville, 2nd Earl of Essex Sir John Mandeville, French language author William de Mandeville, 3rd Earl of Essex Places Mandeville, Jamaica Mandeville, Louisiana, United States Mandeville, Normandy, France Mandeville... For the town in France, see Castries, Hérault. ... There are also separate articles concerning the Minnesota county of the same name, and its chief town. ... St. ... Kingstown Kingstown, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Location Map Kingstown, estimated population 15,900 (July 1999), is the chief port of Saint Vincent, and the capital of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. ... St Johns is the capital city of the nation of Antigua and Barbuda, a country located in the West Indies in the Caribbean Sea. ... Distinguish from Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe. ...


The climate in all the islands was tropical, with hot and humid weather, although inland regions in the larger islands had more temperate climates. Regions falling within the rain shadows (southern coasts of Jamaica and Trinidad and eastern coasts of the Lesser Antilles) are relatively drier. There are two seasons annually: the dry season for the first six months of the year, and the rainy season (also known as the hurricane season) in the second half of the year. All of the islands fell within the traditional hurricane belt, with the exception of Trinidad (although it occasionally experiences low latitude hurricanes) and thus are at risk from potential wind and flood damage. For the television series see Rain Shadow. ... The Hurricane Belt is an area in the Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, which are prone to Hurricanes during the Atlantic Hurricane Season. ...


The Federation was considered to be part of the North American continent as all of its islands are in the Caribbean, even though Trinidad is located just off-shore from South America and lies on the same continental shelf as South America.[citation needed] See Bicontinental countries. North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... A bicontinental country is a country whose contiguous continental territory (or in case an island state - its different islands) lie in two different continents. ...


Provinces

The provinces or unit territories of the West Indies Federation were:

Historically "West Indian" nations The Bahamas, Bermuda, Belize, the British Virgin Islands and Guyana opted not to join because they believed that their future lay with association with North America (for both the Bahamas and Bermuda), Central America, the United States Virgin Islands and South America respectively. However, the Bahamas did participate in the 1960 West Indies Federation Games, with the future prime minister of the Bahamas, Perry Christie, as an athlete. A former British colony in the Caribbean. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Perry Gladstone Christie (born August 21, 1944) is the third and current Prime Minister of the Bahamas and a former athlete. ...


Government and legal status

The Federation was an internally self-governing, federal state made up of ten provinces, all British colonial possessions. The federation was created by the United Kingdom in 1958 from most of the British West Indies. Britain intended that the Federation would shortly become a fully independent state, thus simultaneously satisfying the demands for independence from all the colonies in the region. However, the project was doomed by political squabbling among the provinces, and the Federation never achieved full sovereignty, either as a Commonwealth realm or as a republic within the Commonwealth. A self-governing colony is a colony with an elected legislature, in which politicians are able to make most decisions without reference to the colonial power with formal or nominal control of the colony. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... Jan. ... Roadtown, Tortola The term British West Indies refers to territories in and around the Caribbean which were colonised by Great Britain. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total...


The legal basis for the federation was the British Caribbean Federation Act 1956, and the date of formation -- January 3, 1958 -- was set by an Order-in-Council proclaimed in 1957. is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... An Order-in-Council is an executive order issued in Commonwealth Realms operating under the Westminster system. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ...


As with all British colonies of the period, Queen Elizabeth II was the head of state, and the Crown was vested with the legislative authority for matters concerning executive affairs, defence and the financing of the Federation. Her representative, Patrick Buchan-Hepburn, 1st Baron Hailes, was given the title of Governor-General rather than that of Governor more typical for a British colony. The title may have reflected the federal nature of the state, or indicated the expectations that the Federation would soon become independent. The Governor-General also had the full power by the Queen to veto any laws passed by the Federation. Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Patrick George Thomas Buchan-Hepburn, Baron Hailes (April 2, 1901-November 5, 1974) was the first and only Governor-General of the short-lived West Indies Federation, from January 3, 1958, to May 31, 1962, when the country was disbanded. ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ...


The Federal Parliament was bicameral, consisting of a nominated Senate and a popularly elected House of Representatives. The Senate consisted of 19 members appointed by the Governor General after consulting the respective state governments- one from Montserrat and 2 each from other units. The House of Representatives had 45 elected members - Jamaica had 17 seats, Trinidad and Tobago 10 seats, Barbados 5 seats, Montserrat 1 seat and the other Islands 2 seats each . In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... For the band, see Senate (band). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      House of Representatives is a name used for legislative bodies in many countries. ...


However the government (executive) would be a Council of State, not a Cabinet. It would be presided over by the Governor-General and consist of the Prime Minister and 10 other officials.


There would also be a Federal Supreme Court consisting of a Chief Justice and three (later five) other Justices.


The proposed site for the capital city was Chaguaramas, a few miles west of Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, but the site was part of a United States naval base. In practice, Port of Spain served as the federal capital for the duration of the Federation's existence. Not to be confused with capitol. ... Chaguaramas lies in the North West Peninsula of Trinidad west of Port-of-Spain; the name if often applied to the entire peninsula, but is sometimes used to refer to the most developed area. ... Port of Spain, population 49,000 (2000), is the capital of Trinidad and Tobago and the countrys second largest city by population, after San Fernando. ... Modern Naval Tactics It is tempting to regard modern naval combat as the purest expression of tactics. ...


The first elections

In preparation for the first federal elections, two Federation-wide parties were organised as confederations of local political parties. Both were organised by Jamaican politicians: the West Indies Federal Labour Party by Norman Manley, and the Democratic Labour Party by Alexander Bustamante. In broad terms, the WIFLP consisted of the urban-based parties throughout the Federation, while the DLP consisted of the rural-based parties. A small third party, the Federal Democratic Party was founded in November 1957 by a group of Trinidadians, although it did not win any seats. The West Indies Federal Labour Party was one of the two Federal parties in the short-lived West Indies Federation. ... Norman Washington Manley (July 4, 1893 - September 2, 1969), was a Jamaican statesman. ... The Democratic Labour Party was one of the two Federal parties in the short-lived West Indies Federation. ... Sir William Alexander Clarke Bustamante (February 24, 1884 - August 6, 1977) was a conservative Jamaican politician and labor leader. ...


The platforms for the two major national parties were similar in many respects. Both advocated maintaining and strengthening ties with the United Kingdom, United States and Canada (countries with which the islands had strong cultural and economic links); encouraging and expanding tourism; working to bring British Guiana and British Honduras into the Federation and to obtain loans, financial aid and technical assistance. Despite these similarities, there were differences. The WIFLP had advocated the encouragement of agriculture while the DLP had promised a climate favourable to both private industry and labour, development of human and economic resources. The WIFLP promised to encourage the Bahamas (in addition to British Guiana and British Honduras) to join the Federation, whereas the DLP did not. The WIFLP also campaigned to establish a central bank for the extension of credit resources and advocated a democratic socialist society and full internal self-government for all the unit territories, whilst avoiding the issues of freedom of movement and a customs union. The DLP said nothing about full internal self-government, attacked socialism, wished to avoid high taxation (via loans and technical aid) and emphasized West Indian unity, freedom of worship and speech and encouragement of trade unions.


Federal elections were held on March 25, 1958. The WIFLP won the election, winning 26 seats while the DLP carried 19 seats. The bulk of the WIFLP seats came from the smaller islands while the DLP carried the majority in Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago. The DLP won 11 of the Jamaican seats and 6 of the Trinidadian seats. In appointing the Senate, Governor General Lord Hailes realized that only the St Vincent island government was DLP controlled and as a result the Senate was going to be disproportionately pro WIFLP. In a controversial decision, he contacted the opposition DLP groups in Jamaica and Trinidad, and appointed one DLP senator from each of those islands. Thus the Senate consisted of a total of 15 WIFLP members and 4 DLP members. is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... Patrick George Thomas Buchan-Hepburn, Baron Hailes (April 2, 1901-November 5, 1974) was the first and only Governor-General of the short-lived West Indies Federation, from January 3, 1958, to May 31, 1962, when the country was disbanded. ...


WIFLP leader Sir Grantley Adams of Barbados became Prime Minister. The selection of Adams as Prime Minister was indicative of the problems the Federation would face. The expected leader of the WIFLP was Norman Manley, Premier of Jamaica, and the next logical choice was Dr. Eric Williams, Premier of Trinidad and Tobago. However, neither had contested the Federal elections, preferring to remain in control of their respective island power bases. This suggested that the leaders of the two most important provinces did not see the Federation as viable. Similarly, Alexander Bustamante, the Jamaican founder of the DLP, also declined to contest the Federal election, leaving the party leadership to the Trinidadian Ashford Sinanan. The absence of the leading Jamaican politicians from any role at the federal level was to undermine the Federation's unity. Grantley Herbert Adams (April 28, 1898 - November 28, 1971) was a Barbados politician. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Dr. Eric Williams Dr. Eric Eustace Williams (September 25, 1911 – March 29, 1981) was the first Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago. ...


Other members of the Council of State included:

  • Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Trade and Industry: The Hon. Dr. C.G.D. La Corbiniere
  • Minister of Finance: The Hon. R.L Bradshaw
  • Minister of Communications and Works: The Hon. W. A. Rose
  • Minister of Natural Resources and Agriculture: The Hon. F.B. Ricketts
  • Minister of Labour and Social Affairs: The Hon. Mrs. P.B.S. [Phyllis Byam Shand] Allfrey
  • Ministers without Portfolio: The Hon. N.H. Richards, The Hon. Mr. V.B Vaughn, Senator A.G.R. Byfield, Senator J.W. Liburd, and Senator J.L. Charles

Federal problems

The politics of the embryonic Federation were wracked by struggles between the federal government and the provincial governments, and between the two largest provinces (Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago) and the smaller provinces.


The West Indies Federation had an unusually weak federal structure. For instance, its provinces were not contained in a single customs union. Thus, each province functioned as a separate economy, complete with tariffs, largely because the smaller provinces were afraid of being overwhelmed by the large islands' economies. Also, complete freedom of movement within the Federation was not implemented, as the larger provinces were worried about mass migration from the smaller islands. In this sense, the current European Union can be said to have implemented a more unified economic space than the West Indian attempt. A customs union is a free trade area with a Common External Tariff. ...


Nor could the federal government take its component states to task. The initial federal budget was quite small, limiting the federal government's ability to use its financial largesse as a carrot. It was dependent upon grants from the United Kingdom and from its member states. The provincial budgets of Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago were both larger than the federal budget. This led to repeated requests for those states to provide greater financing to the federal government. These requests were not well received, as Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago together already contributed 85 percent of the federal revenue, in roughly equal portions. Carrot and stick is a term (idiom) used to refer to the act of simultaneously rewarding good behaviour while punishing bad behaviour. ...


Furthermore, the post of prime minister was a weak one. Unlike other Westminster system prime ministers, the West Indian PM could not dissolve Parliament.


Relationship with Canada

The Federation maintained a particularly close relationship with the nation of Canada, which had a similar past in that it was a confederation of several former British colonies. In the early years, several Caribbean leaders suggested that the West Indies Federation should investigate the possibility of becoming a Canadian province, though this was never more than a fleeting interest. We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ... Provincial Creationism is the wish for an area in one of Canadas provinces or territories to form its own province distinct from that which it is currently part of. ...


Despite the break down in talks, in May 1961, Canada presented the West Indies Federation with two of the region's most important gifts: two merchant ships, named The Federal Palm and The Federal Maple. These two vessels visited every island in the federation twice monthly and were a crucial sea-link between the islands. Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship that carries goods and materials from one port to another. ...


Dissolution

Many reasons have been put forward to explain the demise of the federation, some of them detailed in "Problems" above. These include the utter lack of local popular support, competing island nationalisms, the weakness of the federal government, prohibitions on federal taxation and freedom of movement, inadequacies in the Federal constitution, fundamental changes made to the constitution very early in its existence, political feuds between the influential leaders, the decision of the three most influential politicians not to contest Federal elections, friction between these leaders and the Federal government, the overwhelming concentration of population and resources in the two largest units, geographic and cultural distance between the units, the lack of a history of common administration, and the impact of the period of self-government that followed the promotion from Crown Colony system. Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... A self-governing colony is a colony with an elected legislature, in which politicians are able to make most decisions without reference to the colonial power with formal or nominal control of the colony. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (almost exclusively Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ...


However, the immediate catalyst for the dissolution of the Federation was Jamaican discontent. By 1961, there were a number of reasons for Jamaica's dissatisfaction with the state of affairs:

  • Jamaica was fairly remote from most of the other islands in the Federation, lying several hundred miles to the west.
  • Jamaica's share of the seats in the federal parliament was smaller than its share of the total population of the Federation.
  • It was believed that the smaller islands were draining Jamaica's wealth.
  • Many in Jamaica were upset that Kingston had not been chosen as the federal capital.

The most important reason for Jamaican dissatisfaction was the Federation's continuing colonial status. Jamaica had joined the Federation because its leaders had believed that the West Indies would quickly be granted independence. Nearly three years after the formation of the Federation, this had not occurred; meanwhile, smaller British colonies, like Cyprus and Sierra Leone, had gained independence. Thus, many Jamaicans believed that the island could and should seek independence in its own right. Also there were problems with the Federation's proposed capital in Chaguramas. Chaguramas was at that time still in the hands of the United States (US) which had leased it as a naval base from the United Kingdom (UK) during World War 2. Many of the Caribbean provincial leaders wanted Chaguramas to be the Federation's capital. Provincial leaders such as Norman Manley of Jamaica and Dr Eric Williams pushed for handing over of Chaguramas to the Federation from the US. However the US and the UK disagreed and the Federation's prime minister Grantley Adams denied the provincial leaders from obtaining Chaguramas. For many Jamaicans it appeared that the Federation would then just hamper their development and movement towards independence.


As a result the Bustamante-led Jamaica Labour Party (the local component of the West Indian DLP) successfully forced Manley to hold a referendum in September 1961 on political secession from the Federation. It passed, with 54 percent of the vote, despite the opposition of Manley, the province's Premier at the time. Manley himself lost the subsequent island elections in April 1962, and Bustamante became the first Prime Minister of an independent Jamaica on August 6, 1962. Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After Jamaica left, there was an attempt to salvage a new federation from the wreckage of the old. Much depended on Premier Williams of Trinidad and Tobago, who had stated previously that he wanted a "strong federation." Premier Vere Bird of Antigua responded that his province would only be in a federation with Trinidad as an equal partner, not as "a little Tobago." He did indicate that a strong federation was acceptable provided that no attempt was made to create a unitary state. Vere Cornwall Bird (December 7, 1910–June 28, 1999) was the first Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda. ...


Negotiations on this new federation began in September 1961; however, they indicated that Trinidad would have to provide 75 to 80 percent of the new Federation's revenue. Also, even though Trinidad would now represent 60 percent of the new Federation's population, the proposals under consideration would give it less than half of the seats in parliament.


By November, Williams indicated that he was now in favour of the idea of a unitary state. Failing that, he resolved to take Trinidad and Tobago into independence. In this, he was buoyed by his re-election as Trinidadian leader on December 4, 1961. Later that December, Premier Errol Barrow of Barbados met with Williams, but failed to persuade him to keep Trinidad in the Federation. is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Errol Walton Barrow (January 21, 1920 June 1, 1987) was a Caribbean statesman and the first Prime Minister of Barbados. ...


On January 14, 1962, the People's National Movement (the Williams-led Trinidad component of the WIFLP) passed a resolution rejecting any further involvement with the Federation. Williams himself stated that "one from ten leaves nought" -- in other words, without Jamaica, no Federation was possible. Trinidad and Tobago became independent on August 31, 1962. is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Peoples National Movement is the ruling conservative political party in Trinidad and Tobago. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Without Trinidad and Jamaica, the remaining "Little Eight" attempted to salvage some form of a West Indian Federation, this time centred on Barbados. However, these negotiations ultimately proved fruitless. Without its two largest states, the Federation was doomed to financial insolvency. Barbados now refused to shoulder the financial burden, and Antigua and Grenada began toying with the idea of merging with Jamaica and Trinidad, respectively.


The West Indies Federation was legally dissolved with the Parliament of the United Kingdom's West Indies Act 1962. The remaining "Little Eight" provinces once again became separate colonies supervised directly from London, most of which became independent later on, as follows: Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin...

Montserrat remains an overseas territory of the United Kingdom. The Cayman Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands had been separated from Jamaica upon the latter's independence in 1962; Anguilla was separated from Saint Kitts and Nevis in 1980. All three remain UK territories as well. Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ...


Legacy

The federation's currency was the West Indies dollar (though Jamaica continued to use the pound), which was later succeeded by the East Caribbean dollar, the Barbadian dollar, and the Trinidad and Tobago dollar. Successor organisations included the West Indies Associated States and CARICOM. The British West Indies dollar (BWI$) was adopted in 1935. ... The East Caribbean dollar (currency code XCD) is the currency of eight members of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States. ... The Barbados dollar – currency symbol $ or Bds$ – is the national unit of currency of Barbados. ... The dollar (ISO 4217 code: TTD; also TT$) is the currency of Trinidad and Tobago. ... ... The Caribbean Community and Common Market or CARICOM was established by the Treaty of Chaguaramas which came into effect on August 1, 1973. ...


Some see the West Indian cricket team as a legacy of the Federation, although the side was actually organised thirty years prior to the birth of the federation. Learie Constantine, was one of the first great West Indian players. ...


Another lasting regional fixture, officially created before the Federation, is the University of the West Indies. During the Federation, the University pursued a policy of regional expansion beyond the main Jamaica campus. Two other campuses were established: one in Trinidad and Tobago, established in 1960, and one in Barbados, established a short time after the Federation dissolved in 1963. The University of the West Indies, also known as UWI, is an autonomous regional institution supported by and serving 16 countries and territories in the Caribbean - Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. ...


Stamps

During the Federation's existence, each member continued to issue its own postage stamps as before; but on April 22, 1958, each of the members (except for the Cayman Islands) issued a set of three commemorative stamps. All of these stamps used a common design depicting a map of the Caribbean and a portrait of Queen Elizabeth, with an inscription at the top reading "THE WEST INDIES / FEDERATION 1958" at the top and the name of the member at the bottom. All of these stamps are quite common in both mint and used condition. A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... This 1998 stamp of the Faroe Islands marks the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ...


Prior attempts at federation

The Federation of the West Indies was not the first attempt at a British Caribbean federation (nor would it be the last). The history of the previous attempts at federations and unions, in part, explains the failure of the 1958 Federation.


The initial federal attempts never went so far as to try to encompass all of the British West Indies (BWI), but were more regional in scope. The historical regional groupings included the British Leeward Islands, British Windward Islands and Jamaica with nearby colonies. See History of the British West Indies. Roadtown, Tortola The term British West Indies refers to territories in and around the Caribbean which were colonised by Great Britain. ... Anthem God Save the Queen Capital Not specified Language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1952-1960 (last) Elizabeth II History  - Established 1833  - Federation 1871  - Dominica joined 1871  - Dominica left 1940  - West Indies Federation 1958  - Federation dissolved May 31, 1962 The British Leeward Islands was a British colony existing between... The Windward Islands are the southern islands of the Lesser Antilles. ... In the history of the British West Indies there has been several attempts of political unions. ...


See also

  • History of the Caribbean
  • Canada-Caribbean relations
  • CARICOM

The Caribbean The history of the Caribbean reveals the significant role the region played in the colonial struggles of the European powers between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries. ... The long established relationship between Canada and the many nation states of the Caribbean/West Indies have been on-going throughout the history of both regions. ... Map showing CARICOM members, associates and observers Seat of Secretariat Georgetown, Guyana Official languages English4 Membership  15 full members1  5 associate members2  7 observers3 Leaders  -  Secretary-General Edwin W. Carrington (since 1992)  -  CARICOM Heads of Government   Establishment  -  August 1, 1973  Website http://www. ...

References

  • Carmichael, Dr. Trevor A. 2001. Passport to the Heart: Reflections on Canada Caribbean Relations. Ian Randle Publishers, Kingston 6, Jamaica. ISBN 976-637-028-1 The book's Forward passage, synopsis
  • Fraser, Cary. 1994. Ambivalent anti-colonialism : the United States and the genesis of West Indian independence, 1940-1964. Greenwood Press
  • Ghany, Dr Hamid 1996. Kamal: a Lifetime of Politics Religion and Culture Multimedia Production Centre, University of the West Indies.
  • Gonsalves, Ralph E. 1994. History and the Future: A Caribbean Perspective. Quik-Print, Kingstown, St. Vincent.
  • Hoyes, F. A. 1963. The Rise of West Indian Democracy: The Life and Times of Sir Grantley Adams. Advocate Press.
  • Mahabir, Dr Winston 1978 In and Out of Politics Inprint Caribbean.
  • Mordecai, John, Sir. 1968. Federation of the West Indies Evanston, Northwestern University Press
  • Wickham, P.W. 1997 "Factors in the Integration and Disintegration of the Caribbean" published as part of Issues in the Government an Politics of the West Indies, edited by JG LaGuerre ,Multimedia Production Centre, University of the West Indies.
  • Williams, Eric. 1964. British Historians and the West Indies. P.N.M. Publishing Company, Port of Spain.

Ralph Everard Gonsalves (born August 8, 1946), also known as Comrade Ralph, is the Prime Minister of St Vincent and the Grenadines. ...

External link

  • Why 'Federation' really fell apart - Sunday, October 22, 2006: Trinidad and Tobago Express

  Results from FactBites:
 
West Indies. The Columbia Gazetteer of North America. 2000 (545 words)
West Indies) are Guadeloupe and its dependencies and Martinique.
Jamaica, the most populous and prosperous member, voted (1961) to leave the federation, fearing that it would have to shoulder the burdens of the economically underdeveloped members; Trinidad and Tobago followed suit and the federation was dissolved in May 1962.
In 1967 the West Indies Associated States were created, made up of Antigua, St. Kitts and Nevis, Dominica, Grenada, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent.
West Indies - MSN Encarta (2028 words)
West Indies, an archipelago, or group of islands, that extends in an arc from near southern Florida to the coast of Venezuela.
The West Indies archipelago consists of four island chains: The Bahamas, the Greater Antilles, and the eastern and southern islands of the Lesser Antilles.
Except for the northern half of The Bahamas, the islands of the West Indies are all in the tropics, the warm climate zone between latitudes 10° and 23°27’ north.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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