FACTOID # 12: It's not the government they hate: Washington DC has the highest number of hate crimes per capita in the US.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "West Germany" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > West Germany
Bundesrepublik Deutschland
Federal Republic of Germany

1949 – 1990 Flag
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit
(German for "Unity and Justice and Freedom")
Anthem
Das Lied der Deutschen
Capital Bonn
Language(s) German
Government Republic
President
 - 19491959 Theodor Heuss
 - 19591969 Heinrich Lübke
 - 19691974 Gustav Heinemann
 - 19741979 Walter Scheel
 - 19791984 Karl Carstens
 - 1984 Richard von Weizsäcker
Chancellor
 - 19491963 Konrad Adenauer
 - 19631966 Ludwig Erhard
 - 19661969 Kurt Georg Kiesinger
 - 19691974 Willy Brandt
 - 19741982 Helmut Schmidt
 - 1982 Helmut Kohl
Historical era Cold War
 - Established May 23, 1949
 - Reunification October 3, 1990
Area
 - 1990 248,717 km² (96,030 sq mi)
Population
 - 1990 est. 63,254,000 
     Density 254.3 /km²  (658.7 /sq mi)
Currency German mark

West Germany (in German Bundesrepublik Deutschland or BRD; informally Westdeutschland) was the common English name[1] for the Federal Republic of Germany, or FRG, from 1949 to 1990. During this period there existed another German state, largely to the east of the FRG, called the German Democratic Republic or GDR, commonly known in English as East Germany. This division resulted from the ending of World War II and the prosecution of the Cold War. From 3 October 1990, after the reformation of the GDR's Länder, the East German states acceded to the Federal Republic. Since this reunification, the Federal Republic of Germany (still the country's legal name) has been commonly known simply as Germany. The C-Pennant Occupation zones in Germany (1945) Capital Berlin (de jure) Political structure Military occupation Governors (1945)  - UK zone F.M. Montgomery  - French zone Gen. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(1946-1949). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... “Deutschland” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_Arms_of_Germany. ... The flag of Germany was adopted in its present form in 1919. ... The Eagle has been the coat of arms of Germany in this form since the later days of the Weimar Republic The coat of arms of Germany is a symbol of Germany; the coat of arms feature an eagle. ... A motto (from Italian) is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization. ... Das Lied der Deutschen (The Song of the Germans, also known as Das Deutschlandlied, The Song of Germany) has been used wholly or partially as the national anthem of Germany since 1922. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Das Lied der Deutschen (The Song of the Germans, also known as Das Deutschlandlied, The Song of Germany) has been used wholly or partially as the national anthem of Germany since 1922. ... File links The following pages link to this file: West Germany Categories: GFDL images ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany, located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The President of Germany is Germanys head of state. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Theodor Heuss (January 31, 1884 - December 12, 1963) was a German politician. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Heinrich Lübke (October 14, 1892 – April 6, 1972) was President of Germany from 1959 to 1969. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Gustav Walter Heinemann (July 23, 1899 - July 7, 1976) was a German politician. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Walter Scheel (born July 8, 1919) is a German politician (FDP). ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... This article is about the year. ... Karl Carstens (December 14, 1914 - May 30, 1992) was a German politician. ... This article is about the year. ... Dr. Richard Freiherr von Weizsäcker â–¶ (help· info) (born April 15, 1920) is a German politician (CDU). ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Konrad Adenauer (disambiguation). ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Ludwig Erhard (February 4, 1897–May 5, 1977) was a German politician (CDU) and Chancellor of West Germany from 1963 until 1966. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Kurt Georg Kiesinger (April 6, 1904–March 9, 1988) was a conservative German politician and Chancellor of West Germany from 1 December 1966 until 21 October 1969. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Willy Brandt, born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm (December 18, 1913 - October 8, 1992), was a German politician, Chancellor of West Germany 1969 – 1974, and leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 1964 – 1987. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Helmut Heinrich Waldemar Schmidt (born December 23, 1918) is a German Social Democratic politician. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born April 3, 1930) is a German conservative politician and statesman. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Following Germanys defeat in World War II and the beginning of the Cold War, Germany was split, representing the focus of the two global blocs in the east and west. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, in English commonly called West Germany). The start of this reunification process is commonly referred to... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... ISO 4217 Code DEM User(s) Germany, Montenegro, Kosovo ERM Since 13 March 1979 Fixed rate since 31 December 1998 Replaced by €, non cash 1 January 1999 Replaced by €, cash 1 January 2002 € = 1. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... “East Germany” redirects here. ... The C-Pennant Occupation zones in Germany (1945) Capital Berlin (de jure) Political structure Military occupation Governors (1945)  - UK zone F.M. Montgomery  - French zone Gen. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, in English commonly called West Germany). The start of this reunification process is commonly referred to...


The foundation for the influential position held by Germany today was laid by West Germany. During the economic miracle of the 1950s, West Germany rose from the massive destruction wrought by World War II to become home to the world's fourth largest economy. West Germany's first chancellor, Konrad Adenauer, cemented West Germany's alignment with the West by securing membership in NATO, and he also was a founder of what has today become known as the European Union. By the time of the establishment of the G6/G8 in 1975, there was no question that West Germany was to be a member in that organization as well. The term Wirtschaftswunder (English: economic miracle) designates the upturn experienced in the West German and Austrian economies after the Second World War. ... For other uses, see Konrad Adenauer (disambiguation). ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... Group of Eight redirects here. ...


West Germany's capital was Bonn. Germans sometimes now refer to the old West Germany as die Bonner Republikthe Bonn Republic[2]. Not to be confused with capitol. ... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany, located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia. ...

This image shows the Cold War alliances of Europe, with NATO in blue and the Warsaw Pact in red.

Contents

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ...

History

Main article: History of Germany since 1945

After World War II, leaders from the United States, United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, organized a meeting at the Potsdam Conference. Talks were focused towards future arrangements with post-war Europe and actions to be made against Japan in the Pacific. The nations came to the agreement to split Germany into four occupation zonesFrench in the southwest, British in the northwest, American in the south, and Soviet in the east. In 1946, the first three zones were combined. First the British and American zones were combined into the quasi-state of Bizonia, then only months afterward, Bizonia and the French zone were combined into Trizonia. In 1949, with the beginning of the Cold War, the two zones (Trizonia and the Soviet zone) became known as West Germany and East Germany. Following Germanys defeat in World War II and the beginning of the Cold War, Germany was split, representing the focus of the two global blocs in the east and west. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... The C-Pennant Occupation zones in Germany (1945) Capital Berlin (de jure) Political structure Military occupation Governors (1945)  - UK zone F.M. Montgomery  - French zone Gen. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... The Bizone was the combination of the American and the British occupation zones during the occupation of Germany after World War II. In 1946, the USSR stopped delivering agricultural products from their sector (East Germany) to the more industrial western sectors and zones. ... The Bizone was the combination of the American and the British occupation zones during the occupation of Germany after World War II, and is also referred to as Bizonia, later changed to Trizonia, as Germanys control was split even further. ...

Berlin Occupation Zones
Berlin Occupation Zones
Allied Occupation Zones. Note the special statuses of Saar (protectorate of France), West Berlin, and the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen.
Allied Occupation Zones. Note the special statuses of Saar (protectorate of France), West Berlin, and the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen.

West Germany was declared "fully sovereign" 5 May 1955, although with the former occupying troops remaining on the ground, due to their alliance with West Germany after it joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) on 9 May 1955. Image File history File links Occupied_Berlin. ... Image File history File links Occupied_Berlin. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x646, 26 KB) Beschreibung, Quelle und Lizenz Manche Bundesländer sind erst 1946 gebildet worden. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x646, 26 KB) Beschreibung, Quelle und Lizenz Manche Bundesländer sind erst 1946 gebildet worden. ... The Saar, corresponding to the current German state of Saarland, was a protectorate under French control between 1947 and 1959. ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE5 State subdivisions 2 urban districts Capital Bremen Senate President Jens Böhrnsen (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Alliance 90/The Greens Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  408 km² (158 sq mi) Population 664,000... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ...


West Germany became a focus of the Cold War with its juxtaposition to East Germany, a member of the subsequently founded Warsaw Pact. The former capital, Berlin, was also divided into East Berlin and West Berlin, but West Berlin was completely surrounded by East German territory. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ...


The outbreak of war in Korea (June 1950) led to U.S. calls for the rearmament of West Germany in order to defend Western Europe from the perceived Soviet threat. But the memory of German aggression led other European states to seek tight control over the West German military, the Bundeswehr. Germany's partners in the Coal and Steel Community decided to establish a European Defence Community (EDC), with an integrated army, navy and air force, composed of the armed forces of its member states. The West German military would be subject to complete EDC control, but the other EDC member states (Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands) would cooperate in the EDC while maintaining independent control of their own armed forces. Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... Soviet redirects here. ... The Bundeswehr (German for Federal Defence Force;  ) is the name of the unified armed forces of Germany. ... The European Defence Community (EDC) was a plan proposed by René Pleven, the French prime minister at the time, in response to the American call for the rearmament of West Germany. ...


Though the EDC treaty was signed (May 1952), it never entered into force. France's Gaullists rejected it on the grounds that it threatened national sovereignty, and when the French National Assembly refused to ratify it (August 1954), the treaty died. The French had killed their own proposal. Other means then had to be found to allow West German rearmament. In response, the Brussels Treaty was modified to include West Germany, and to form the Western European Union (WEU). West Germany was to be permitted to rearm, and have full sovereign control of its military; the WEU would however regulate the size of the armed forces permitted to each of its member states. Gaullism is a French political ideology based on the thought and action of Charles de Gaulle. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... This article is on the 1948 treaty, which served as a basis for the Western European Union. ...  â€¢  â€¢  â€¢ Membership 10 member states 6 associate member states 5 observer countries 7 associate partner countries Establishment Treaty of Brussels  -  Signed 17 March 1948  The Western European Union (WEU) is a partially dormant European defence and security organization, established on the basis of the Treaty of Brussels of 1948 with the...

West Germany map after Allied Occupation (green)
West Germany map after Allied Occupation (green)

The three Western Allies retained occupation powers in Berlin and certain responsibilities for Germany as a whole. Under the new arrangements, the Allies stationed troops within West Germany for NATO defense, pursuant to stationing and status-of-forces agreements. With the exception of 45,000 French troops, Allied forces were under NATO's joint defense command. (France withdrew from the collective military command structure of NATO in 1966.) Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A representation of the changes in territory controlled by Allies and Axis powers over the course of the war. ...


The official German reunification ceremony on October 3, 1990, was held at the Reichstag building, including Chancellor Helmut Kohl, President Richard von Weizsäcker, former Chancellor Willy Brandt and many others. One day later, the parliament of the united Germany would assemble in an act of symbolism in the Reichstag building. is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Reichstag may refer to: Reichstag (institution), the Diets or parliaments of the Holy Roman Empire, of the Austrian-Hungarian monarchy and of Germany from 1871 to 1945 Reichstag building, Berlin location where the German legislature met from 1894 to 1933 and again since 1999 The Reichstag fire in 1933, which... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born April 3, 1930) is a German conservative politician and statesman. ... The President of Germany is Germanys head of state. ... Dr. Richard Freiherr von Weizsäcker â–¶ (help· info) (born April 15, 1920) is a German politician (CDU). ... Willy Brandt, born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm (December 18, 1913 - October 8, 1992), was a German politician, Chancellor of West Germany 1969 – 1974, and leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 1964 – 1987. ... Reichstag may refer to: Reichstag (institution), the Diets or parliaments of the Holy Roman Empire, of the Austrian-Hungarian monarchy and of Germany from 1871 to 1945 Reichstag building, Berlin location where the German legislature met from 1894 to 1933 and again since 1999 The Reichstag fire in 1933, which...


However, at that time, the role of Berlin had not yet been decided upon. Only after a fierce debate, considered by many as one of the most memorable sessions of parliament, the Bundestag concluded on June 20, 1991, with a quite slim majority that both government and parliament should return to Berlin from Bonn. A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... Type Lower house President of the Bundestag Dr. Norbert Lammert, CDU since October 18, 2005 Members 614 Political groups (as of September 18, 2005 elections) Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union of Bavaria Bloc (226), Social Democratic Party of Germany (222), Free Democratic Party (61), The Left Party. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany, located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia. ...


German Economic Miracle

The West German Wirtschaftswunder (English: "economic miracle") coined by The Times of London in 1950), was partly due to the economic aid provided by the United States and the Marshall Plan, but mainly due to the currency reform of 1948 which replaced the Reichsmark with the Deutsche Mark as legal tender, halting rampant inflation. This act to strengthen the German economy had been explicitly forbidden during the two years that the occupation directive JCS 1067 was in effect. The Allied dismantling of the West German coal and steel industry finally ended in 1950. The term Wirtschaftswunder (English: economic miracle) designates the upturn experienced in the West German and Austrian economies after the Second World War. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1788. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... A 100 Reichsmark banknote from Germany of 1935 (http://www. ... The Deutsche Mark (DM, DEM) was the official currency of West and, from 1990, unified Germany. ...

In the postwar years, Volkswagen became a very important element, symbolically and economically, of West German economic recovery.

In addition to the physical obstacles that had to be overcome for the German economic recovery (see the Morgenthau Plan) there were also intellectual challenges. The Allies confiscated intellectual privileges of huge value, such as all German patents, both in Germany and abroad, and used them to strengthen their own industrial competitiveness by licensing them to Allied companies.[3][4] Meanwhile some of the best German researchers were being put to work in the Soviet Union and in the U.S. This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... Volkswagen AG (ISIN: DE0007664005), or VW, is an automobile manufacturer based in Wolfsburg, Germany. ... The Morgenthau Plan showing the planned partitioning of Germany into a North State, a South State, and an International zone. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ...

West German industry map, 1972
West German industry map, 1972

Contrary to popular belief, the Marshall Plan, which was extended to also include the newly formed West Germany in 1949, was not the main force behind the Wirtschaftswunder.[5][6] Had that been the case, other countries such as Great Britain and France (which both received higher economic assistance from the plan than Germany) should have experienced the same phenomenon. In fact, the amount of monetary aid (which was in the form of loans) received by Germany through the Marshall Plan was far overshadowed by the amount the Germans had to pay back as war reparations and by the charges the Allies made on the Germans for the ongoing cost of occupation (about $2.4 billion per year). In 1953 it was decided that Germany was to repay $1.1 billion of the aid it had received. The last repayment was made in June 1971. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 416 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (444 × 640 pixel, file size: 79 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) industry map File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 416 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (444 × 640 pixel, file size: 79 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) industry map File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Indian Ocean Territory,[1] the British Virgin Islands, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 2. ...


The Korean war (1950–53) led to a worldwide increased demand for goods, and the resulting shortage helped overcome lingering resistance to the purchase of German products. At the time Germany had a large pool of skilled and cheap labour, partly as a result of the deportations and migrations which affected up to 16.5 million Germans. This helped Germany to more than double the value of its exports during the war. Apart from these factors, hard work and long hours at full capacity among the population and in the late 1950s and 1960s extra labour supplied by thousands of Gastarbeiter ("guest workers") provided a vital base for the economic upturn. Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ... Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green). ...


From the late 1950s onwards, West Germany had one of the strongest economies in the world, almost as strong as before the Second World War. The East German economy showed strong growth, but not as much as in West Germany, due in part to continued reparations to the USSR in terms of resources.


Ludwig Erhard, who served as the Minister of the Economy in Adenauer's cabinet from 1949 until 1963 and later became Chancellor, is often associated with the German Wirtschaftswunder. Ludwig Erhard (February 4, 1897–May 5, 1977) was a German politician (CDU) and Chancellor of West Germany from 1963 until 1966. ... For other uses, see Konrad Adenauer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chancellor (disambiguation). ...


In 1952 West Germany became part of the European Coal and Steel Community, which would later evolve into the European Union. On 5 May 1955 West Germany was declared "fully sovereign". The British, French and U.S. militaries remained in the country, just as the Soviet Army remained in East Germany. Four days after becoming "fully sovereign" in 1955, West Germany joined NATO. The U.S. retained an especially strong presence in West Germany, acting as a deterrent in case of a Soviet invasion. In 1976 West Germany became one of the founding nations of the Group of Six (G6). In 1973, West Germany which was home to roughly 1.26% of the world's population featured the world's fourth largest GDP of 944 billion (5.9% of the world total). In 1987 the FRG held a 7.4% share of total world production. Members of the European Coal and Steel Community Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded in 1951 (Treaty of Paris), by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to pool the steel and coal resources of its member... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... The Military of the United States, also known as the United States Armed Forces, is structured into five branches consisting of the: United States Army United States Marine Corps United States Navy United States Air Force United States Coast Guard Reserves United States National Guard United States Army Reserve United... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Group of Eight redirects here. ... These are lists of regions and countries sorted by their estimated real gross domestic product (GDP) in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a country/region in a given year. ...


Position towards East Germany

Before the 1970s, the official position of West Germany concerning East Germany was that, according to the Hallstein Doctrine, the West German government was the only democratically elected and therefore legitimate representative of the German people, and any country (with the exception of the USSR) that recognized the existence of East Germany would not have diplomatic relations with West Germany. In the early 1970s, Willy Brandt's policy of Ostpolitik led to a form of mutual recognition between East and West Germany. The Treaty of Moscow (August 1970), the Treaty of Warsaw (December 1970), the Four Power Agreement on Berlin (September 1971), the Transit Agreement (May 1972), and the Basic Treaty (December 1972) helped to normalise relations between East and West Germany and led to both German states joining the United Nations. The Hallstein Doctrine, named after Walter Hallstein, was a key doctrine in the foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) between 1955 and 1969. ... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ... The Treaty of Moscow, was signed on August 12, 1970 between the USSR and West Germany. ... The Treaty of Warsaw is a treaty between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... The Four Power Agreement on Berlin[1] was signed on 3 September 1971 by the foreign ministers of the four powers, United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, and the United States. ... The Transit Agreement of May 1972 arranged access to and from West Berlin from West Germany (the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG)) and secured the right of West Berliners to visit East Berlin and East Germany (the German Democratic Republic (GDR)) and also secured the rights of GDR citizens to... The Basic Treaty in common usage stands for the Treaty concerning the basis of relations between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic. The Basic Treaty of 1972 was part of the Ostpolitik under Federal Chancellor Willy Brandt. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...


The West German Constitution (Grundgesetz / Basic Law) provided two articles for the unification with other parts of Germany:

  • Article 23 provided the possibility for other parts of Germany to join the Federal Republic (under the constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany).
  • Article 146 provided the possibilty for unification of all parts of Germany under a new constitution.

After the democratic revolution of 1989 in Eastern Germany the first freely elected East German parliament decided in June 1990 to join the Federal Republic under Article 23 of the (West-)German Basic Law (Grundgesetz). This made a quick unification possible. In July/August 1990 the East German parliament enacted a law for the establishment of federal states on the territory of the German Democratic Republic. This East German constitutional law converted the former centralized socialist structure of East Germany into a federal structure equal to that of Western Germany. The New Länder (German: Neue Länder) are collectively the states (Länder) of the former German Democratic Republic (East Germany) that joined the Federal Republic of Germany upon German reunification in 1990. ...


The two German states entered into a currency and customs union in July 1990, and on 3 October 1990, the German Democratic Republic dissolved and the reestablished 5 East German states (as well East and West Berlin became unified) joined the Federal Republic of Germany bringing an end to the East-West divide. From a West German point of view Berlin already was a member state of the Federal Republic, therefore it was regarded as an old state. A customs union is a free trade area with a Common External Tariff. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... “East Germany” redirects here. ... The New Länder (German: Neue Länder) are collectively the states (Länder) of the former German Democratic Republic (East Germany) that joined the Federal Republic of Germany upon German reunification in 1990. ...

The last President of West Germany, Richard von Weizsäcker, then became President of united Germany.
The last President of West Germany, Richard von Weizsäcker, then became President of united Germany.

Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ...

Politics

Political life in West Germany was remarkably stable and orderly. The Adenauer era (1949–63) was followed by a brief period under Ludwig Erhard (1963–66) who, in turn, was replaced by Kurt Georg Kiesinger (1966–69). All governments between 1949 and 1966 were formed by the united caucus of the Christian-Democratic Union (CDU) and Christian Social Union (CSU), either alone or in coalition with the smaller Free Democratic Party (FDP). For other uses, see Konrad Adenauer (disambiguation). ... Ludwig Erhard (February 4, 1897–May 5, 1977) was a German politician (CDU) and Chancellor of West Germany from 1963 until 1966. ... Kurt Georg Kiesinger (April 6, 1904–March 9, 1988) was a conservative German politician and Chancellor of West Germany from 1 December 1966 until 21 October 1969. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Christian Social Union in Bavaria (CSU – ) is a conservative Germany. ... The Free Democratic Party (Freie Demokratische Partei - FDP) is a liberal political party in Germany. ...


Kiesinger's 1966–69 "Grand Coalition" was between West Germany's two largest parties, the CDU/CSU and the Social Democratic Party (SPD). This was important for the introduction of new emergency acts—the Grand Coalition gave the ruling parties the two-thirds majority of votes required to see them in. These controversial acts allowed basic constitutional rights such as freedom of movement to be limited in case of a state of emergency. Social Democratic Party may refer to: Afghan Social Democratic Party Social Democratic Party (Albania) Social Democratic Party (Andorra) Social Democratic Party of Austria Brazilian Social Democracy Party Social Democratic Party (Central African Republic) Social Democratic Party of Croatia Czech Social Democratic Party Socialdemokratiet, Denmark Social Democratic Party (East Timor) Social... A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government, may work to alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors, or may order government agencies to implement emergency preparedness plans. ...

Social Democratic Party Poster

During the time leading up to the passing of the laws, there was fierce opposition to them, above all by the FDP, the rising German student movement, a group calling itself Notstand der Demokratie ("Democracy in a State of Emergency") and the labour unions. Demonstrations and protests grew in number, and in 1967 the student Benno Ohnesorg was shot in the head and killed by the police. The press, especially the tabloid Bild-Zeitung newspaper, launched a massive campaign against the protesters and in 1968, apparently as a result, there was an attempted assassination of one of the top members of the German socialist students' union, Rudi Dutschke. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The German student movement (in Germany commonly called 68er-Bewegung, movement of 1968) was a protest movement that took place during the late 1960s in Germany. ... A trade union or labor union is a continuous association of wage-earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Bild-Zeitung (often abbreviated Bild, lit. ... Alfred Willi Rudolf Dutschke, commonly called Rudi Dutschke (March 7, 1940 – December 24, 1979, Århus, Denmark) was the most prominent spokesperson of the German student movement of the 1960s. ...


In the 1960s a desire to confront the Nazi past came into being. Successfully, mass protests clamored for a new Germany. Environmentalism and anti-nationalism became fundamental values of West Germany. Rudi Dutschke recovered sufficiently to help establish the Green Party of Germany by convincing former student protesters to join the Green movement. As a result in 1979 the Greens were able to reach the 5% limit required to obtain parliamentary seats in the Bremen provincial election. Dutschke died in 1979 due to the epilepsy he had from the attack. National Socialism redirects here. ... For the psychology topic, see Environmental psychology. ... Anti-nationalism is the idea that nationalism is dangerous in one form or another, and sometimes, though less often, the idea that all nationalism is dangerous and unfavourable in all cases. ... Party symbol of Bündnis 90/Die Grünen Bündnis 90/Die Grünen (literally: Alliance 90/The Greens), the German Green Party, is a political party in Germany whose regional predecessors were founded in the late 1970s as part of the new social movements. ... “Greens” redirects here. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE5 State subdivisions 2 urban districts Capital Bremen Senate President Jens Böhrnsen (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Alliance 90/The Greens Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  408 km² (158 sq mi) Population 664,000...


Another result of the unrest in the 1960s was the founding of the Red Army Faction (RAF) which was active from 1968, carrying out a succession of terrorist attacks in West Germany during the 1970s. Even in the 1990s attacks were still being committed under the name "RAF". The last action took place in 1993 and the group announced it was giving up its activities in 1998. Red Army Faction Insignia - a Red Star and a Heckler & Koch MP5 The Red Army Faction or RAF (German Rote Armee Fraktion) (in its early stages commonly known as Baader-Meinhof Group [or Gang]), was one of postwar West Germanys most active and prominent militant left-wing groups. ...


In the 1969 election, the SPD—headed by Willy Brandt—gained enough votes to form a coalition government with the FDP. Chancellor Brandt remained head of government until May 1974, when he resigned after a senior member of his staff was uncovered as a spy for the East German intelligence service, the Stasi. Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ...


Finance Minister Helmut Schmidt (SPD) then formed a government and received the unanimous support of coalition members. He served as Chancellor from 1974 to 1982. Hans-Dietrich Genscher, a leading FDP official, became Vice Chancellor and Foreign Minister. Schmidt, a strong supporter of the European Community (EC) and the Atlantic alliance, emphasized his commitment to "the political unification of Europe in partnership with the USA". The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


In October 1982, the SPD-FDP coalition fell apart when the FDP joined forces with the CDU/CSU to elect CDU Chairman Helmut Kohl as Chancellor in a Constructive Vote of No Confidence. Following national elections in March 1983, Kohl emerged in firm control of both the government and the CDU. The CDU/CSU fell just short of an absolute majority, due to the entry into the Bundestag of the Greens, who received 5.6% of the vote. Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born April 3, 1930) is a German conservative politician and statesman. ... The Constructive Vote of No Confidence (in German: konstruktives Misstrauensvotum) is a specialty of the 1949 German constitution, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). ...


In January 1987, the Kohl-Genscher government was returned to office, but the FDP and the Greens gained at the expense of the larger parties.


After the fall of the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989, the reunification was quickly arranged. Formally, the Federal Republic of Germany grew by joining of the 5 East German states (which had been reestablished only a few month before). As well both parts of Berlin had been reunited. This took place on 3 October 1990. East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, in English commonly called West Germany). The start of this reunification process is commonly referred to... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...


The four occupying powers officially withdrew from Germany on 15 March 1991. is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...


Culture

World Cup Poster
One part of the Berlin Wall area. The large cleared part was known as the 'kill zone'
One part of the Berlin Wall area. The large cleared part was known as the 'kill zone'

Association Football was the largest sport in West Germany, as the 1974 FIFA World Cup was held in West Germany, in which they defeated the Netherlands 2–1 in the Final to win the Championship. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Berlinermauer. ... Image File history File links Berlinermauer. ... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961. ... “Soccer” redirects here. ... Qualifying countries The 1974 FIFA World Cup, the tenth staging of the World Cup, was held in West Germany from June 13 to July 7. ...


Also, The 1972 Summer Olympics were held in Munich, West Germany. The 1972 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, were held in Munich, West Germany, from 26 August to 11 September 1972. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ...


During the 40 years of separation it was inevitable that some divergence would occur in the cultural life of the two parts of the severed nation. Both West Germany and East Germany followed along traditional paths of the common German culture, but West Germany, being obviously more susceptible to influences from western Europe and North America, became more cosmopolitan. Conversely, East Germany, while remaining surprisingly conservative in its adherence to some aspects of the received tradition, was powerfully molded by the dictates of a socialist ideology of predominantly Soviet inspiration. Guidance in the required direction was provided by exhortation through a range of associations and by some degree of censorship; the state, as virtually the sole market for artistic products, inevitably had the last word in East Germany. North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Look up cosmopolitan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ...


Geographical distribution of government

West Germany was known to be much more governmentally decentralized than its communist counterpart East Germany, in which all government agencies were located in East Berlin. // Le de décentralisation de de est le processus de la dispersion prise de décision plus près du point de service ou action. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


However, in West Germany most of the political agencies and buildings were located in Bonn, the German Stock Market was located in Frankfurt am Main, which became the economic center. And the Judicial Branch of both the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht) and the highest Court of Appeals, located in Karlsruhe. Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany, located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia. ... DAX 30 chart in the Frankfurt Stock Exchange DAX 30 (Deutsche Aktien Xchange 30, former Deutscher Aktien-Index 30) is a Blue Chip stock market index consisting of the 30 major German companies trading on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange. ... Frankfurt am Main [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hessen and the fifth largest city of Germany. ... The Federal Constitutional Court (in German: Bundesverfassungsgericht) is a special court established by the German constitution, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). ... Karlsruhe (population 285,812 in 2006) is a city in the south west of Germany, in the Bundesland Baden-Württemberg, located near the French-German border. ...


Present geographical usage of the term

Today, Rhineland and Westphalia are usually considered to be western Germany in geographical terms. The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... Westphalia (German: Westfalen) is a region in Germany, centred on the cities of Bielefeld, Dortmund, Gelsenkirchen, Münster, and Osnabrück and included in the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony. ...


Notes

  1. ^ In German, Westdeutschland was more often and is still used to distinguish the contiguous western states from West Berlin, which was in the middle of East Germany. In German, the western German state was, like its eastern counterpart (DDR), usually known by its initials: BRD (from Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Federal Republic of Germany).
  2. ^ Bundeszentrale für Politische Bildung
  3. ^ David R. Henderson, "German Economic 'Miracle'", The Library of Economics and Liberty website.
  4. ^ Susan Stern, "Marshall Plan 1947–1997: A German View", Germany Info website.
  5. ^ Henderson, op. cit.
  6. ^ Stern, op. cit.

Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ...

External links

Germany Portal
  • www.germannotes.com
Preceded by
Allied Occupation Zones in Germany
Federal Republic of Germany
19491990

Concurrent with: Image File history File links Portal. ... The C-Pennant Occupation zones in Germany (1945) Capital Berlin (de jure) Political structure Military occupation Governors (1945)  - UK zone F.M. Montgomery  - French zone Gen. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...


German Democratic Republic 19491990 “East Germany” redirects here. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...

Succeeded by
Federal Republic of Germany

  Results from FactBites:
 
West Germany - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (528 words)
West Germany was declared "fully sovereign" May 5, 1955, although the British, French and US militaries remained in the country, just as the Soviet Army remained in East Germany.
West Germany and East Germany merged their financial systems in July 1990, and in October, the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) dissolved and became part of the Federal Republic of Germany.
In December 1990, Kohl became the chancellor of the unified Germany.
Germany - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7160 words)
It is bordered to the north by the North Sea, Denmark, and the Baltic Sea, to the east by Poland and the Czech Republic, to the south by Austria and Switzerland, and to the west by France, Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands.
Modern Germany is located in Central Europe on the North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark and north of Austria and Switzerland.
Germany's climate is temperate overall and marine in the northern reaches; characterised by cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers and occasional warm föhn winds.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m