FACTOID # 6: Michigan is ranked 22nd in land area, but since 41.27% of the state is composed of water, it jumps to 11th place in total area.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > West Frisian language
West Frisian (Frysk)
Spoken in: Netherlands
Region: Friesland
Total speakers: between 360,000 and 700,000
Ranking: Not in top 100
Genetic classification: Indo-European
 Germanic
  West Germanic
   Anglo-Frisian
    Frisian
     Western Frisian
Official status
Official language of: Netherlands
Regulated by: Fryske Akademy
Language codes
ISO 639-1 fy
ISO 639-2 fry
SIL FRI
See also: LanguageList of languages

The West Frisian language (Frysk) is a language spoken mostly in the province of Fryslân in the north of the Netherlands. West Frisian is the name by which this language is usually known outside of the Netherlands, to distinguish it from the closely related languages of East Frisian and North Frisian, which are spoken in Germany. Within the Netherlands, however, the term West Frisian (West-Fries) is used to indicate a Dutch dialect spoken in the province of North Holland, while the language of the province of Fryslân is virtually always just called Frisian: Fries in Dutch, and Frysk in Frisian. The 'official' name linguists use to indicate the West Frisian language is West Lauwers Frisian, the Lauwers being the border stream separating the Dutch provinces of Fryslân and Groningen. Fryslân province Frisian cattle The Frisian flag (water lily leaves on water) Friesland is a province in the north of the Netherlands. ... This is a list of languages ordered by number of first-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families (families hereforth). ... The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe, as well as many languages of Southwest and South Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... West Germanic is the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages, including such languages as English, Dutch, and German. ... The Anglo-Frisian languages (also known as Ingvaeonic languages or North Sea Germanic languages) are a group of West Germanic languages consisting of Old English, Old Frisian, and their descendants. ... Frisian is a Germanic language, or group of closely related languages, spoken by around half a million members of an ethnic group living on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany. ... The Fryske Akademy, founded in 1938, is the scientific center for research and education concerning Friesland and its people, language and culture, this in the broadest sense of those words. ... ISO 639 is one of several international standards that lists short codes for language names. ... SIL International is a non-profit, Christian, scientific organization with the main purpose to study, develop and document lesser-known languages for the purpose of expanding linguistic knowledge, promoting world literacy and aiding minority language development. ... This list of languages is alphabetical by English name. ... This article is about the province Friesland in the Netherlands. ... Categories: Language stubs | Frisian language ... North Frisian is a minority language of Germany, spoken by about 10000 people in North-Frisia (North Frisian Fraschlönj). ... North Holland: (Dutch: Noord-Holland) is a province of the Netherlands, located in the northwest part of the country. ... The flag of Groningen Groningen is the northeast province of the Netherlands with a typical dialect (Gronings) with regional nuances. ...

Contents


Speakers

Most speakers of West Frisian live in the province of Fryslân in the north of the Netherlands. This province was formerly called Friesland, but officially changed its name to Frisian Fryslân in 1997. The province has 643,000 inhabitants (2005); of these 94% can understand spoken Frisian, 74% can speak Frisian, 65% can read Frisian, and 17% can write it. This article is about the province Friesland in the Netherlands. ...


For over half of the inhabitants of the province of Fryslân, 55% (c. 354,000 people), Frisian is the native tongue. In the central east, Frisian speakers spil over the province border, with some 4-6,000 of them actually living in the province of Groningen, in the triangular area of the villages Marum (Frisian: Mearum), De Wilp (De Wylp), and Opende (De Grinzer Pein). The flag of Groningen Groningen is the northeast province of the Netherlands with a typical dialect (Gronings) with regional nuances. ...


Also, many Frisians have left their province in the last sixty years for more prosperous parts of the Netherlands. Therefore, possibly as many as 150,000 Frisian speakers live in other Dutch provinces now, particularly in the urban agglomeration in the West, and in neighbouring Groningen and newly reclaimed Flevoland. Flevoland is a province of the Netherlands. ...


And then there is the surprisingly large Frisian diaspora abroad, with Fryslân having had in relative terms the highest percentage of emigrants of all Dutch provinces between the Second World War and the seventies. It is estimated that there may be as many as 80-100,000 Frisian speakers scattered around the world, with the largest concentrations located in Canada, the USA, Australia, and New Zealand. Therefore, the total number of Frisian speakers in the world today may be as high as 600,000. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


Apart from the use of Frisian as a first language, it is also spoken as a second language by about 120,000 people in the province of Fryslân.


Dialects

The West Frisian language consists of eight mutually intelligible dialects, of which four are widely spoken and the other four are confined to small communities of les than a hundred to several hundreds of speakers.


The least used dialect of West Frisian is Skiermûntseagersk, the island dialect of Schiermonnikoog (Frisian: Skiermûntseach), which is actually on the verge of extinction, spoken as it is by no more than 50-100 people (out of an island population of 900 people). Schiermonnikoog (Frisian: Skiermûntseach) is a municipality and an island in the northern Netherlands, one of the West Frisian Islands. ...


Hylpersk (in Dutch known as Hindeloopers), the archaic Frisian dialect of the peninsular harbour town of Hindelopen (Hylpen), on the west coast, is still spoken by some 300 people at the most.


Skylgersk (also known as Westersk) and Aastersk are the dialects of the western and eastern parts of the island of Terschelling (Skylge) and have about 800 and 400 speakers respectively. They are separated from eachother by the Dutch dialect of Midslands, which is spoken in the central part of Terschelling. Terschelling (Frisian: Skylge) is a municipality and an island in the northern Netherlands, one of the West Frisian Islands. ...


Because of their insular nature these four less used dialects are exactly those that have deviated the most from mainstream Frisian. In fact, three of the four widely used mainland dialects are so much alike that a non-Frisian could probably not make out any differences.


The fourth mainland dialect, that of Súdwesthoeksk ("South Western"), which is spoken in an area called de Súdwesthoeke ("the South West Corner"), deviates from mainstream Frisian in that it does not adhere to the so-called newer breaking system, a prominent grammatical feature in the three other main dialects.


The Noardhoeksk ("Northern") dialect is spoken in the north eastern corner of the province. It actually differs from Wâldfrysk so little that it is quite often not acknowledged to be a dialect within its own right, but merely the northern variety of Wâldfrysk.


By far the two most widely spoken West Frisian dialects are Klaaifrysk and Wâldfrysk. Both these names are derived from the Frisian landscape. In the westeren and north-western parts of the province, the region where Klaaifrysk is spoken, the soil is made up of thick marine clay, hence the name Klaaifrysk, which literally means "Clay Frisian". While in the Klaaifrysk speaking area didges are used to separate the pastures, in the eastern part of the province, where the soil is sandy, and water sinks away much faster, rows of trees are used to that purpose. Therefore, the dialect spoken in the eastern area is called Wâldfrysk, meaning "Wood Frisian" or "Forest Frisian".


Although Klaaifrysk and Wâldfrysk are mutually very easily intelligible, there are, at least to native Frisian speakers, a few very conspicuous differences. These include the pronunciation of the words my ("me"), dy ("you"), hy ("he"), sy ("she" or "they"), wy ("we") and by ("by"), and the diphthongs ei and aai.


Of the two, Wâldfrysk probably has the most speakers, but because the western clay area was originally the more prosperous part of the mostly agricultural province, Klaaifrysk has had the larger influence on the West Frisian standardised language.


History

Old Frisian

In the early Middle Ages the Frisian lands stretched from the area around Bruges, in what is now Belgium, to the river Weser, in northern Germany. At that time, the Frisian language was spoken along the entire southern North Sea coast. Today this region is sometimes referred to as Greater Frisia or Frisia Magna, and many of the areas within it still treasure their Frisian heritage, even though in most places the Frisian language has been lost. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Sometimes referred to as the Venice of the North, Bruges has many waterways that run through the city. ... Weser watershed The Weser is a river of north-western Germany. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ...


Originally, Frisian was the language closest related to English, but after at least five hundred years of being subjected to the influence of Dutch it is obvious to most observers that nowadays it bears a greater similarity to Dutch than to English. Also, one has to take into account the centuries long drift of English away from Frisian. Thus the modern languages are unintelligible to each other today, partly due to the marks Low Franconian languages (such as Dutch) and Low Saxon/Low German have left on Frisian and partly due to the vast influence some languages, in particular French, have had on English over the centuries. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Low Franconian is any of several West Germanic languages spoken in The Netherlands, northern Belgium, and South Africa. ... Low Saxon (in Low Saxon, Nedersaksisch, Neddersassisch, Plattdüütsch or Nedderdüütsch) is any of a variety of Low German dialects spoken in northern Germany and the Netherlands. ...


Old Frisian, however, did bear a striking similarity to Old English. This similarity was reinforced in the late Middle Ages by the Ingaevonic sound shift, which affected Frisian and English, but hardly the other West Germanic varieties at all. Historically, both English and Frisian are marked by the suppression of the Germanic nasal in a word like us (ús), soft (sêft) or goose (goes): see Anglo-Frisian nasal spirant law. Also, when followed by some vowels the Germanic k softened to a ch sound. For example, the Frisian for cheese and church is tsiis and tsjerke, whereas in Dutch it is kaas and kerk. Old Frisian was the West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries by the people who, from their ancient homes in North Germany and Denmark, had settled in the area between the Rhine and Elbe on the European North Sea coast in the 4th and 5th centuries. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Ingaevones or Ingvaeones (also referred to as North Sea Germans) — Ingäwonen, Ingwäonen, Nordsee-Germanen in German — were a West Germanic cultural group or proto-tribe along the North Sea coast. ... West Germanic is the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages, including such languages as English, Dutch, and German. ... In historical linguistics, the Anglo-Frisian nasal spirant law is a description of a philological development in some dialects of West Germanic, which is attested in Old English, Old Frisian, and Old Saxon. ...


One rhyme demonstrates the palpable similarity between Frisian and English: "Bread, butter and green cheese is good English and good Friese," which is pronounced more or less the same in both languages (Frisian: "Brea, bûter, en griene tsiis is goed Ingelsk en goed Fries.")


One major difference between Old Frisian and modern Frisian is that in the Old Frisian period (c.1150-c.1550) grammatical cases still occurred. Some of the texts that are preserved from this period are from the twelfth or thirteenth, but most are from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Generally, all these texts are restricted to legalistic writings. Although the earliest definite written examples of Frisian are from approximately the 9th century, there are a few examples of runic inscriptions from the region which are probably older and possibly in the Frisian language. These runic writings however usually do not amount to more than single- or few-word inscriptions, and cannot be said to constitute literature as such. The transition from the Old Frisian to the Middle Frisian period (c.1550-c.1820) in the sixteenth century, is based on the fairly abrupt halt in the use of Frisian as a written language. This earthenware dish was made in 9th century Iraq. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Open Directory Project: Literature World Literature Electronic Text Archives Magazines and E-zines Online Writing Writers Resources Libraries, Digital Cataloguing, Metadata Distance Learning Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Classicism in Literature The Universal Library, by Carnegie Mellon University Project Gutenberg Online Library Abacci - Project Gutenberg texts matched with Amazon...


Middle Frisian and New Frisian

Up until the fifteenth century Frisian was a language widely spoken and written, but from 1500 onwards it became an almost exclusively oreal language, mainly used in rural areas. This was in part due to the occupation of its stronghold, the Dutch province of Friesland (Fryslân), in 1498, by Duke Albert of Saxony, who replaced Frisian as the language of government with Dutch. Fryslân province Frisian cattle The Frisian flag (water lily leaves on water) Friesland is a province in the north of the Netherlands. ...


Afterwards this practice was continued under the Habsburg rulers of the Netherlands (the German Emperor Charles V and his son, the Spanish King Philip II), and even when the Netherlands became independent, in 1585, Frisian did not regain it former status. The reason for this was the rise of Holland as the dominant part of the Netherlands and its language, Dutch, as the dominant language in judicial, administrative and religious affairs. Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... The name Charles V is used to refer to numerous persons in history: Kings: Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (also Charles I of Spain) Charles V of France Charles V of Naples Charles V of Sweden This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might... See: Philip II of Macedon Philip II of Spain Philip II of France This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Holland is a region in the central-western part of the Netherlands. ...


In this period the great Frisian poet Gysbert Japix (1603-66), a schoolteacher and cantor from the city of Bolsward (Boalsert), who largely fathered modern Frisian literature and orthography, was really an exception to the rule. Bolsward (Frisian: Boalsert) is a municipality and a city in the northern Netherlands. ...


His example was not followed until the nineteenth century, when entire generations of Frisian authors and poets appeared. This coincided with the introduction of the so-called newer breaking system, a prominent grammatical feature in almost all West Frisian dialects, with the notable exception of Súdwesthoeksk. Therefore, the New Frisian period is considered to have begun at this point in time, around 1820.


Status

Since 1956, West Frisian has an official status along with and equal to Dutch, in the province of Fryslân. It is used in many domains of Frisian society, amond which are education, legislation, and administration. This article is about the province Friesland in the Netherlands. ...


Although in the courts of law the Dutch language is still mainly used, in the province of Fryslân Frisians have the right to give evidence in their own language. Also, they can take the oath in Frisian in courts anywhere in the Netherlands.


Primary education in Fryslân was made bilingual in 1956, which means Frisian can be used as a teaching medium. In the same year, Frisian became an official school subject, having been introduced to primary education as an optional extra in 1937. It was not until 1980, that Frisian got the status of fully-fledged, i.e. required, subject in primary schools, and not until 1993, that it got the same position in secondary education.


In 1997, the province of Fryslân officially changed its name from the Dutch form Friesland to the Frisian Fryslân. So far 4 out of 31 municipalities (Tytsjerksteradiel, Boarnsterhim, Littenseradiel, and Ferwerderadiel) have changed their official geographical names from Dutch to Frisian. Tytsjerksteradiel is a municipality in the northern Netherlands. ... Boarnsterhim is a municipality in the northern Netherlands. ... Littenseradiel is a municipality in the northern Netherlands. ... Ferwerderadiel is a municipality in the northern Netherlands. ...


Within ISO 639 West Frisian falls under the codes 'fy' and 'fry', which were assinged to the collective Frisian languages. ISO 639 is one of several international standards that lists short codes for language names. ...


See also

Here is a list of common phrases in different languages. ...

External link

Wikipedia
West Frisian language edition of Wikipedia
  • Frisian - English Dictionary: from Webster's Online Dictionary - the Rosetta Edition.
  • The Frisian Language - a page with some good links.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Frisian language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1102 words)
Frisian is a Germanic language, or group of closely related languages, spoken by around half a million members of an ethnic group living on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany.
Frisian is officially recognised and protected as a minority language in Germany and is one of the two official languages in the Dutch province of Fryslân.
Originally, Frisian was the language closest related to English, but after at least five hundred years of being subjected to the influence of Dutch it is obvious to most observers that nowadays it bears a greater similarity to Dutch than to English.
AllRefer.com - Frisian language (Language And Linguistics) - Encyclopedia (247 words)
Frisian language, member of the West Germanic group of the Germanic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Germanic languages).
North Frisian is spoken along the North Sea coast of Germany and on the Frisian Islands, and East Frisian is spoken farther inland in NW Germany.
Frisian is a subject of instruction in the schools of Friesland and also has a literature of its own.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m