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Encyclopedia > West Florida
Map of East and West Florida in the early 1800s.

West Florida was a region on the north shore of the Gulf of Mexico, which underwent several boundary and sovereignty changes during its history. Parts of the territory were held at various times by France, Spain, Britain, and the United States (as well as the short-lived Republic of West Florida and the Confederate States of America). Eventually, the United States assumed control over the entire region, which now forms parts of the states of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. The University of West Florida is a public university, located in Pensacola, Florida. ... Image File history File links Spanish Florida. ... Image File history File links Spanish Florida. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... A U.S. state is any one of the 50 states which have membership of the federation known as the United States of America (USA or U.S.). The separate state governments and the U.S. federal government share sovereignty. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ...

Contents

A pawn of war

The expanded West Florida territory in 1767.

West Florida was, from 1682 until 1763, divided between the Spanish, who held an outpost at Pensacola as part of their Florida colony, and the French, who garrisoned Mobile as part of the French colony of Louisiana (part of New France). In the treaty negotiations concluding the Seven Years' War (French and Indian War) in 1763, Britain received the Spanish colony of Florida and that portion of the French colony of Louisiana lying between the Mississippi and Perdido rivers and north of Lake Pontchartrain. (The French transferred the remainder of Louisiana to Spain by a separate treaty.) The British reorganized this territory into the provinces of East Florida, which consisted of most of the present U.S. state of Florida, and West Florida, bounded by the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain in the west, by the 31st parallel on the north and the Apalachicola River on the east. The British capital of West Florida was in Pensacola. The Governor of West Florida in November 1763 was George Johnstone. Image File history File links Map of West Florida in 1767. ... Image File history File links Map of West Florida in 1767. ... Nickname: Location of Pensacola, Florida (top left) Coordinates: Country United States State Florida County Escambia Government  - Mayor John Fogg Area  - City 39. ... It has been suggested that List of people from Mobile, Alabama be merged into this article or section. ... Flag In 1803, the United States concluded the Louisiana Purchase (green area) with France. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... The Perdido River is a river in the U.S. states of Alabama and Florida, approximately 60 miles (97km) long. ... Lake Pontchartrains north shore at Fontainebleau State Park near Mandeville, Louisiana in 2004 Lake Pontchartrain (local English pronunciation ) (French: Lac Pontchartrain, pronounced ) is a brackish lake located in southeastern Louisiana. ... Map of East and West Florida in 1810. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Lake Pontchartrains north shore at Fontainebleau State Park near Mandeville, Louisiana in 2004 Lake Pontchartrain (local English pronunciation ) (French: Lac Pontchartrain, pronounced ) is a brackish lake located in southeastern Louisiana. ... View of the Apalachicola River near Fort Gadsden, Florida. ... Nickname: Location of Pensacola, Florida (top left) Coordinates: Country United States State Florida County Escambia Government  - Mayor John Fogg Area  - City 39. ... George Johnstone (1730-1787) was a British naval officer and member of Parliment during the American Revolution. ...


In 1764, the British moved the northern boundary to a line extending from the mouth of the Yazoo River east to the Chattahoochee River (32° 22′ north latitude), consisting of approximately the lower third of the present states of Mississippi and Alabama. During the American Revolutionary War the Governor of West Florida was Peter Chester. The commander of British forces during the American Revolutionary War was John Campbell of Strachur. hTe Yazoo River is a river in the U.S. state of Mississippi and the second longest tributary of the Mississippi River that flows into that river from the east (the longest is the Ohio River). ... Map of the Apalachicola River system with the Chattahoochee highlighted. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about military actions only. ... John Campbell of Strachur, (1727-1806) often known as General John Campbell (17th of Strachur), was a British military leader and minor nobleman who succeeded Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester as commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America in 1783. ...


In the 1783 Treaty of Paris, which ended the American Revolutionary War, the British agreed to a boundary between the United States and West Florida at 31° north latitude between the Mississippi and Apalachicola Rivers. Britain also ceded both Florida provinces back to Spain (see Spanish Florida), but did not specify the boundaries. Spain wanted the expanded 1764 boundary, while the United States demanded that the boundary be at the 31st parallel. Negotiations in 1785-1786 between John Jay and Don Diego de Gardoqui failed to reach a satisfactory conclusion. The border was finally resolved in 1795 by the Treaty of San Lorenzo, in which Spain recognized the 31st parallel as the boundary. Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ... This article is about military actions only. ... Spanish Florida (Florida Española) refers to the Spanish colony of Florida. ... The Jay-Gardoqui Treaty of 1789 between the United States and Spain guaranteed Spains exclusive right to navigate Mississippi River for 30 years. ... John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American politician, statesman, revolutionary, diplomat, and jurist. ... Pinckneys Treaty, also known as the Treaty of San Lorenzo or the Treaty of Madrid, was signed in San Lorenzo de El Escorial on October 27, 1795 and established intentions of friendship between the United States and Spain. ...


In the secret Treaty of San Ildefonso of 1800, Spain returned France's Louisiana colony; however, the boundaries were not specified. After France sold the Louisiana Purchase to the United States in 1803, another boundary dispute erupted. The United States claimed the territory from the Perdido River to the Mississippi River, which had been a part of the old province of Louisiana when the French had ceded it in 1763. The Spanish insisted that they had administered that portion as the province of West Florida and that it was not part of the territory returned to France in 1800. The Treaty of San Ildefonso (formally titled the Preliminary and Secret Treaty between the French Republic and His Catholic Majesty the King of Spain, Concerning the Aggrandizement of His Royal Highness the Infant Duke of Parma in Italy and the Retrocession of Louisiana) was a secretly negotiated treaty between France... For the musical, see Louisiana Purchase (musical) and Louisiana Purchase (film). ... The Perdido River is a river in the U.S. states of Alabama and Florida, approximately 60 miles (97km) long. ...


A short-lived Republic

The Bonnie Blue Flag of Republic of West Florida.
The Bonnie Blue Flag of Republic of West Florida.
East and West Florida in 1810

The United States and Spain held long, inconclusive negotiations on the status of West Florida. In the meantime, American settlers established a foothold in the area and resisted Spanish control. British settlers, who had remained, also resented Spanish rule, leading to a rebellion in 1810 and the establishment for exactly ninety days of the so-called Republic of West Florida. On September 23, after meetings beginning in June, rebels overcame the Spanish garrison at Baton Rouge, and unfurled the flag of the new republic: a single white star on a blue field. This flag would later become known as the "Bonnie Blue Flag". Image File history File links Bonnieblue. ... Image File history File links Bonnieblue. ... The Bonnie Blue Flag, a single white star on a blue field, was the flag of the short-lived Republic of West Florida. ... Image File history File links East_and_West_Florida_1810. ... Image File history File links East_and_West_Florida_1810. ... Look up rebellion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Motto: Authentic Louisiana at every turn Location of Baton Rouge in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana Coordinates: , Country United States State Louisiana Parish East Baton Rouge Parish Founded 1699 Incorporated 16 January 1817 Government  - Mayor Melvin Kip Holden (D) Area  - City  79. ... The Bonnie Blue Flag, a single white star on a blue field, was the flag of the short-lived Republic of West Florida. ...


The boundaries of the Republic of West Florida included all territory south of the 31st parallel, west of the Perdido River, and east of the Mississippi River, but north of Lake Pontchartrain. The southern boundary was the Gulf of Mexico. It included the lower portions of what is now Alabama; the Mississippi counties of Hancock, Pearl River, Harrison, Stone, Jackson, and George, as well as the southernmost portions of Lamar, Forrest, Perry, and Wayne counties; and the Louisiana parishes of East Baton Rouge, East and West Feliciana, Livingston, St. Helena, Tangipahoa, St. Tammany and Washington. Despite its name, none of present-day Florida lay within its borders. The capital of the Republic of West Florida was St. Francisville. The Perdido River is a river in the U.S. states of Alabama and Florida, approximately 60 miles (97km) long. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... Lake Pontchartrains north shore at Fontainebleau State Park near Mandeville, Louisiana in 2004 Lake Pontchartrain (local English pronunciation ) (French: Lac Pontchartrain, pronounced ) is a brackish lake located in southeastern Louisiana. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... List of Louisiana parishes The state of Louisiana is divided into parishes in the same way that the other states of the United States are divided into counties. ... St. ...


The Constitution of West Florida was based largely on the US Constitution, and divided the government into three branches: executive, judicial and legislative. The legislature consisted of a Senate and House of Representatives. The Governor was chosen by the legislature. According to the constitution, the official name of the nation was the "State of Florida". Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme...


The first and only governor was Fulwar Skipwith, a former American diplomat who had helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase. In his inaugural address, Skipwith mentioned the possibility of annexation to the United States: Fulwar Skipwith (February 21, 1765 - January 7, 1839) was an American diplomat, who served as a U.S. Consul in Martinique, and later as the U.S. Consul-General in France. ... For the musical, see Louisiana Purchase (musical) and Louisiana Purchase (film). ...

…wherever the voice of justice and humanity can be heard, our declaration, and our just rights will be respected. But the blood which flows in our veins, like the tributary streams which form and sustain the father of rivers, encircling our delightful country, will return if not impeded, to the heart of our parent country. The genius of Washington, the immortal founder of the liberties of America, stimulates that return, and would frown upon our cause, should we attempt to change its course.

Reuben Kemper led a small force in an attempt to capture Mobile from the Spanish, but the expedition ended in failure. The marching song of the West Floridian army included the lyrics: George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Reuben Kemper (1770-October 10, 1826) was an American adventurer and filibusterer. ... It has been suggested that List of people from Mobile, Alabama be merged into this article or section. ...

West Floriday, that lovely nation,
Free from king and tyranny,
Thru’ the world shall be respected,
For her true love of Liberty.

Annexation

The Republic of West Florida, today divided among three states.

On October 27, 1810, parts of West Florida were annexed by proclamation of U.S. President James Madison, who claimed the region as part of the Louisiana Purchase. At first, Skipwith and the West Florida government were opposed to the proclamation, preferring to negotiate terms to join the Union. However, William C.C. Claiborne, who was sent to take possession of the territory, refused to recognize the legitimacy of the West Florida government. Skipwith proclaimed that he was ready to "die in defense of the Lone Star flag." However, Skipwith and the legislature eventually backed down, and agreed to accept Madison's proclamation. Image File history File links Map showing the territory of the short lived Republic of West Florida. ... Image File history File links Map showing the territory of the short lived Republic of West Florida. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836), an American politician and fourth President of the United States of America (1809–1817), was one of the most influential Founders of the United States. ... William Charles Cole Claiborne William Charles Cole Claiborne (1775 - 23 November 1817) was a United States politician, best known as the first U.S. governor of Louisiana. ...


Possession was taken of St. Francisville on December 6, 1810, and of Baton Rouge on December 10, 1810. These portions were incorporated into the newly formed Orleans Territory. The U.S. annexed the Mobile District of West Florida to the Mississippi Territory in 1812. Spain continued to dispute the area, though the United States gradually increased the area it occupied until Spain ceded all of Florida to the United States in the Adams-Onís Treaty in 1819. The United States organized Florida Territory, consisting of most of East Florida and a small portion of West Florida, on March 30, 1822. December 6 is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Nickname: Motto: Authentic Louisiana at every turn Location of Baton Rouge in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana Coordinates: , Country United States State Louisiana Parish East Baton Rouge Parish Founded 1699 Incorporated 16 January 1817 Government  - Mayor Melvin Kip Holden (D) Area  - City  79. ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Orleans Territory was a historic, organized territory of the United States formed out of the first subdivision of the Louisiana Purchase. ... The Mobile District was an administrative region of the Spanish territory of West Florida, which became part of the independent Republic of West Florida on September 23, 1810. ... all about mississippi! Mississippi state bird is a mocking bird mississippi state tree is mangoila tree ... The Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819 (formally titled the Treaty of Amity, Settlement, and Limits Between the United States of America and His Catholic Majesty, and also known as the Transcontinental Treaty of 1819, and sometimes the Florida Purchase Treaty) was a historic agreement between the United States and... The Florida Territory was a historic organized territory of the United States from 1822 to 1845. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The portions of West Florida now located in Louisiana are today known as the Florida parishes. The Republic of West Florida Historical Museum is located in Jackson. In 1993, the Louisiana State Legislature renamed Interstate 12 through the Florida Parishes as the "Republic of West Florida Parkway." The Florida Parishes The Florida Parishes are those parishes in Louisiana which were part of West Florida in the early 19th century. ... Jackson is a town in East Feliciana Parish, Louisiana, United States. ... The Louisiana State Legislature is the legislative branch of the U.S. state of Louisiana. ... Map of Interstate 12 Interstate 12 (abbreviated I-12) is an intrastate interstate highway located entirely within the state of Louisiana, United States. ...


In 2002, Leila Lee Roberts, a great-granddaughter of Fulwar Skipwith, donated the original copy of the constitution of the West Florida Republic and supporting papers to the Louisiana State Archives. This article is about the U.S. State. ...


See also

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... British colonization of the Americas (including colonization under the Kingdom of England before the 1707 Acts of Union created the Kingdom of Great Britain) began in the late 16th century, before reaching its peak after colonies were established throughout the Americas, and a protectorate was established in Hawaii. ... The Spanish colonization of the Americas began with the arrival in the Western Hemisphere of Christopher Columbus (Cristóbal Colón) in 1492. ...

References

  • Stanley Clisby Arthur, The Story of the West Florida Rebellion, St. Francisville Democrat, 1935, paperback, 164 pages (Several copies are available on ABE); Pioneer Publishing, paperback reprint, ISBN 1-885480-47-4 (probably not available)
  • David A. Bice, The Original Lone Star Republic: Scoundrels, Statesmen and Schemers of the 1810 West Florida Rebellion, Heritage Publishing Consultants, 2004.
  • I. J. Cox, The West Florida Controversy (1918, reprinted 1967)
  • Andrew McMichael, "The Kemper 'Rebellion': Filibustering and Resident Anglo American Loyalty in Spanish West Florida," Louisiana History, vol. 43, no. 2 (Spring 2002), p. 140.

Abebooks (ABE) is an international internet based listing service for booksellers based in Victoria, British Columbia. ...

External links

  • The U.S. Takeover of West Florida
  • West Florida by Ann Gilbert
  • Map of West Florida, 1806
  • Historical Background Material for the British Period

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