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Encyclopedia > West Branch Susquehanna River Valley
The West Branch Susquehanna Valley looking north from above the Bald Eagle Mountain ridge. The village of Castanea is in the foreground at the foot of the ridge. Bald Eagle Creek is in front of Lock Haven and the William T. Piper Memorial Airport, with the West Branch Susquehanna River behind. The foothils below the Allegheny Front are in the background.
Map of the West Branch Susquehanna River (dark blue) and Major Streams in the West Branch Susquehanna Valley.

The West Branch Susquehanna Valley of central Pennsylvania, United States, in the Ridge-and-valley Appalachians, is the low lying area draining into the West Branch Susquehanna River southeast of the Allegheny Front, northeast of the Bald Eagle Valley, southwest of the Wyoming Valley and nort of the water gap formed between Shamokin Mountain and Montour Ridge. Bald Eagle Mountain is a stratigraphic ridge in central Pennsylvania, United States, running east of the Allegheny Front and northwest of Mount Nittany. ... Bald Eagle Creek from Pennsylvania Route 150 near Lock Haven Bald Eagle Creek is a tributary of the West Branch Susquehanna River mostly in Centre County, Pennsylvania in the United States. ... Lock Haven is a city in and the county seat of Clinton CountyGR6, Pennsylvania, United States. ... William T. Piper Memorial Airport (IATA: LHV, ICAO: KLHV, FAA LID: LHV) is a public general aviation airport located two miles (3 km) east of the central business district of Lock Haven, a city in Clinton County, Pennsylvania, USA. Named for William T. Piper, the airport is located at the... The West Branch Susquehanna River is one of the two principal branches, along the with North Branch, of the Susquehanna River in the northeastern United States. ... The Allegheny Front is an escarpment delineating the eastern edge of the Allegheny Mountains. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... The Ridge-and-valley Appalachians are a belt within the Appalachian Mountains extending from northern New Jersey westward into Pennsylvania and southward into Maryland, West Virginia, and Virginia. ... The West Branch Susquehanna River is one of the two principal branches, along the with North Branch, of the Susquehanna River in the northeastern United States. ... The Allegheny Front is an escarpment delineating the eastern edge of the Allegheny Mountains. ... A wave window over the Bald Eagle Valley looking north from Port Matilda. ... A lesser-known Wyoming Valley exists in western New York in Wyoming County, where the valley of Oatka Creek is commonly known as the Wyoming Valley and includes the villages of Wyoming and Warsaw. ... Water gap is a term geologists use to describe a notch which flowing water has carved into a mountain. ...


The river enters the valley after emerging from a deep gorge in the Allegheny Plateau above Lock Haven, then turns east entering a broad alluvial flood plain, where it receives the Bald Eagle Creek after passing the town. The flood plain lies at the foot of the Bald Eagle Mountain ridge, with large fertile farm fields in and around the river's meanders and islands. The valley above the flood plain is a series of knolls below the plateau. Further down the valley, the river receives Pine Creek which has also entered the valley from a deep gorge, the Grand Canyon of Pennsylvania. East of Williamsport, the Bald Eagle ridge ends, the river turns south, and the valley opens up and follows the river to the water gap at Lewisburg. A gorge is a narrow passage between steep mountains or hills. ... The Allegheny Plateau is a large, dissected plateau area in southern New York, western Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and eastern Ohio. ... Lock Haven is a city in and the county seat of Clinton CountyGR6, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Alluvium is soil land deposited by a river or other running water. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Floodplain. ... Bald Eagle Creek from Pennsylvania Route 150 near Lock Haven Bald Eagle Creek is a tributary of the West Branch Susquehanna River mostly in Centre County, Pennsylvania in the United States. ... Bald Eagle Mountain is a stratigraphic ridge in central Pennsylvania, United States, running east of the Allegheny Front and northwest of Mount Nittany. ... Meanders in a river A meander is a bend in a river, also known as an oxbow loop. ... Pine Creek is a town in the Katherine region of the Northern Territory, Australia. ... The Grand Canyon of Pennsylvania is situated in approximately 160,000 acres of the Tioga State Forest. ... Map of Lycoming County, Pennsylvania highlighting Williamsport Williamsport is a city in and the county seat of Lycoming County,GR6 Pennsylvania in the United States. ... Lewisburg is a borough in Union County, Pennsylvania, 30 miles (48 km) south by east of Williamsport and 60 miles (97 km) north of Harrisburg. ...


In Clinton and Lycoming Counties, it is northeast of the Bald Eagle Valley and runs from Lock Haven to Williamsport. Clinton County is a county located in the state of Pennsylvania. ... Lycoming County is a county located in the state of Pennsylvania. ... A wave window over the Bald Eagle Valley looking north from Port Matilda. ... Lock Haven is a city in and the county seat of Clinton CountyGR6, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Map of Lycoming County, Pennsylvania highlighting Williamsport Williamsport is a city in and the county seat of Lycoming County,GR6 Pennsylvania in the United States. ...

Contents

History

The lands along the West Branch were vital hunting grounds and agricultural lands for Native Americans. During Pennsylvania’s great lumbering era, the most significant log drive was conveyed on the West Branch of the Susquehanna River. The Susquehanna’s West Branch Canal Division further shaped the corridor, linking towns and villages and providing vital opportunities for commerce. Finally, railroads in the corridor fused the links between communities and commerce within the corridor. [1] Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ... Native Americans are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ... Logging is the process in which trees are felled (cut down) usually as part of a timber harvest. ... The Canal du Midi, Toulouse, France Canals are man-made channels for water. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ...


Ostuagy

Madame Montour's village of Ostuagy was a vitally important location during the settlement of what is now Lycoming County. Her village at the mouth of Loyalsock Creek on the West Branch Susquehanna River was an important stopping point for the Moravian missionaries who were spreading the gospel throughout the wilderness of Pennsylvania during the 1740s. Count Zinzendorf, a missionary being guided by Conrad Weiser with the permission of Chief Shikellamy came to Ostuagy in 1742. Loyalsock Creek is a tributary of the West Branch Susquehanna River located chiefly in Sullivan and Lycoming counties in Pennsylvania in the United States. ... The Moravian Seal, as rendered by North Carolina artist Marie Nifong The Moravian churches form a modern, mainline Protestant denomination with a religious heritage that began in 15th-century Bohemia, Czech Republic. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf, Count of Zinzendorf and Pottendorf, (May 26, 1700 - May 9, 1760), German religious and social reformer, was born at Dresden. ... Johann Conrad Weiser (November 2, 1696 – July 13, 1760) was a German Pennsylvanian pioneer, farmer, monk, tanner, judge, and soldier. ... Shikellamy (?- December 6, 1748), also known as Swatana, was an Oneida chief and overseer for the Iroquois confederacy. ...


Madame Montour was known to be a friend of the British. She welcomed the white men who were beginning to migrate into the West Branch Susquehanna River Valley. She also had a great amount of influence with the various Indian tribes they were feeling the pressure of colonial expansion. Madame Montour remained loyal to the British despite several attempts by the French to bring her over to their side. Historians note that this was remarkable due to the fact the that British colonial government sometimes went as long as a year without paying her for her services.


Early inhabitants

The first recorded inhabitants of the West Branch Susquehanna River valley were the Iroquoian speaking Susquehannocks. Their name meant "people of the muddy river" in Algonquin. Decimated by diseases and warfare, they had died out, moved away, or been assimilated into other tribes by the early 18th century. The lands of the West Branch Susquehanna River Valley were then chiefly occupied by the Munsee phratry of the Lenape (or Delaware), and were under the nominal control of the Five (later Six) Nations of the Iroquois. The Iroquoian languages are a Native American language family. ... Susquehannock The Susquehannock people were natives of areas adjacent to the Susquehanna River and its tributaries from the southern part of what is now New York, through Pennsylvania, to the mouth of the Susquehanna in Maryland at the north end of the Chesapeake Bay. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ... The Lenape or Lenni-Lenape (later named Delaware Indians by Europeans) were, in the 1600s, loosely organized bands of Native American people practicing small-scale agriculture to augment a largely mobile hunter-gatherer society in the region around the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, and western Long Island Sound. ... A phratry (Greek φρατρία, brotherhood, kinfolk, derived from φρατήρ - brother, see also frater) is an anthropological term for a kinship division consisting of two or more distinct clans which are considered a single unit, but which retain separate indentities within the phratry. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Languages Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, Tuscarora, English, French Religions Christianity, Longhouse religion Related ethnic groups other Iroquoian peoples The Iroquois Confederacy or Haudenosaunee (also known as the League of Peace and Power; the Five Nations; the Six Nations; or the People of the Long house) is a group of...


The British purchased land from the Iroquois in the Treaty of Fort Stanwix of 1768, opening what is now Lycoming County to settlement. However, the Line of Property (or Purchase Line) border defined by "Tiadaghton Creek" dividing colonial and Native American lands was disputed. The colonists claimed this was Pine Creek, the Iroquois and other tribes Lycoming Creek. The area between Pine and Lycoming Creeks was disputed territory. The illegal settlers there were part of the "Fair Play Men" system of self-government, with their own Declaration of Independence from Britain on July 4, 1776. Two different treaties between Native Americans and European-Americans were signed at Fort Stanwix, which was located near present-day Rome, New York. ... The Purchase Line is the name commonly given to the line dividing Indian from British Colonial lands established in the Treaty of Fort Stanwix of 1768 in western Pennsylvania. ... Map of the West Branch Susquehanna River (dark blue) and Major Streams in Lycoming County, Pennsylvania. ... For other meanings of Lycoming, please see Lycoming (disambiguation). ... For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ... Year 1776 (MDCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


In the American Revolutionary War, settlements throughout the Susquehanna valley were attacked by Loyalists and Native Americans allied with the British. After the Wyoming Valley battle and massacre in the summer of 1778 (near what is now Wilkes-Barre) and smaller local attacks, the "Big Runaway" occurred throughout the West Branch Susquehanna valley. Settlers fled feared and actual attacks by the British and their allies. Homes and fields were abandoned, with livestock driven along and a few possessions floated on rafts on the river east to Muncy, then further south to Sunbury. The abandoned property was burnt by the attackers. Some settlers soon returned, only to flee again in the summer of 1779 in the "Little Runaway". Sullivan's Expedition helped stabilize the area and encouraged resettlement, which continued after the war. Combatants American Revolutionaries French Monarchy Spanish Empire Dutch Republic Oneida and Tuscarora tribes Polish volunteers Prussian volunteers Kingdom of Great Britain Iroquois Confederacy Hessian mercenaries Loyalists Commanders George Washington Nathanael Greene Gilbert de La Fayette Comte de Rochambeau Bernardo de Gálvez Tadeusz KoÅ›ciuszko Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben Sir... Britannia gives a heros welcome to returning American Loyalists. ... Combatants Britain United States Commanders Colonel John Butler Colonel Zebulon Butler Strength 900 regulars and Native American warriors 360 milita Casualties 3 killed 8 wounded 300+ killed and captured (164+6 known dead) The Wyoming Valley battle and massacre was an encounter during the American Revolutionary War between American Patriots... Nickname: The Diamond City Motto: Pattern After Us Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Luzerne Founded Incorporated  Borough  City 1769  1806  1871 Government  - Mayor Thomas M. Leighton (D) Area    - City  7. ... Combatants Britain United States Commanders Unknown Colonel Hunter The Big Runaway occurred in 1778, during the American Revolutionary War, when settlements throughout the West Branch Susquehanna Valley in Pennsylvania in what became the United States were attacked by Loyalists and Native Americans allied with the British. ... Muncy is a borough located in Lycoming County, Pennsylvania. ... Sunbury is a city located in Northumberland County, Pennsylvania. ...


Fair Play Men

The Fair Play Men were illegal settlers (squatters) who established their own system of self-rule from 1773 to 1785 in the West Branch Susquehanna River valley of Pennsylvania in what is now the United States. Because they settled in territory claimed by Native Americans, they had no recourse to the Pennsylvania colonial government. Accordingly they established what was known as the Fair Play System, with three elected commissioners who ruled on land claims and other issues for the group. In a remarkable coincidence, the Fair Play Men made their own Declaration of Independence from Britain on July 4, 1776 beneath the "Tiadaghton Elm" on the banks of Pine Creek. A family of Russian settlers in the Caucasus region, ca. ... This article is about occupying land without permission. ... The West Branch Susquehanna River is one of the two principal branches, along the with North Branch, of the Susquehanna River in the northeastern United States. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Native Americans are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ... A declaration of independence is an assertion of the independence of an aspiring state or states. ... For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ... Year 1776 (MDCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Map of the West Branch Susquehanna River (dark blue) and Major Streams in Lycoming County, Pennsylvania. ...


Fort Antes

Fort Antes was a stockade surrounding the home of Colonel John Henry Antes, built circa 1778 in Revolutionary Pennsylvania in the United States. The fort was built under the direction of Colonel Antes, who was a member of the Pennsylvania militia. It was on the east side of Antes Creek, overlooking and on the left bank of the West Branch Susquehanna River on a plateau in Nippenose Township south of modern day Jersey Shore in western Lycoming County. The local militia held the fort for a short period of time until it was ordered to abandon Fort Antes during the Big Runaway by Colonel Samuel Hunter.[1] Despite being abandoned and attempts by the attacking British forces to burn it down, Fort Antes was one of only two structures in the valley to survive the Big Runaway. A stockade is an enclosure of palisades and tall walls made of logs placed side by side vertically with the tops sharpened to provide some security. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen Colonies that... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Lexington Minuteman representing militia minuteman John Parker. ... The left bank of a river is the bank on the left when looking in the direction of flow towards the sea. ... The West Branch Susquehanna River is one of the two principal branches, along the with North Branch, of the Susquehanna River in the northeastern United States. ... Image:NONE Monte Roraima In geology and earth science, a plateau, also called a high plateau or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat rural area. ... Nippenose Township is a township located in Lycoming County, Pennsylvania. ... Jersey Shore is a borough located in Lycoming County, Pennsylvania. ... Lycoming County is a county located in the state of Pennsylvania. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ...


Principal towns in the West Branch Susquehanna Valley

From west to east, down stream along the West Branch Susquehanna River:

Lock Haven is a city in and the county seat of Clinton CountyGR6, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Jersey Shore is a borough located in Lycoming County, Pennsylvania. ... Map of Lycoming County, Pennsylvania highlighting Williamsport Williamsport is a city in and the county seat of Lycoming County,GR6 Pennsylvania in the United States. ... Map of Lycoming County, Pennsylvania highlighting Montoursville Montoursville is a borough in Lycoming County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. ... Muncy is a borough located in Lycoming County, Pennsylvania. ... Montgomery is a borough located in Lycoming County, Pennsylvania. ... Watsontown is a borough located in Northumberland County, Pennsylvania. ... Milton is a borough located in Northumberland County, Pennsylvania. ... Lewisburg is a borough in Union County, Pennsylvania, 30 miles (48 km) south by east of Williamsport and 60 miles (97 km) north of Harrisburg. ...

References

[1939] A Picture of Lycoming County (PDF), The Lycoming County Unit of the Pennsylvania Writers Project of the Work Projects Administration, First edition, The Commissioners of Lycoming County Pennsylvania. Retrieved on 2006-07-23.  The Works Progress Administration (later Works Projects Administration, abbreviated WPA), was created on May 6, 1935 with the signing of Executive Order 7034. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 23 is the 204th day (205th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 161 days remaining. ...


External links


 
 

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