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Encyclopedia > West Berlin
West Berlin, as of 1978.

West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. It consisted of the American, British, and French occupation sectors established in 1945. It was in many ways integrated with, although legally not a part of, West Germany. The Soviet sector became East Berlin, which East Germany claimed as its capital; however, the Western Allies did not recognize this claim, as they asserted that the whole city was legally under four-power occupation. The building of the Berlin Wall in 1961 sealed the border to West Berlin, which since the end of the Second World War had been surrounded by communist East Berlin and East Germany. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into West Berlin. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into West Berlin. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into West Berlin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1164x1352, 1289 KB) Summary From the Perry-Castaneda Map Collection [1]. Produced by the US Department of State. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1164x1352, 1289 KB) Summary From the Perry-Castaneda Map Collection [1]. Produced by the US Department of State. ... Location of Berlin within Germany / EU Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE3 City subdivisions 12 boroughs Governing Mayor Klaus Wowereit (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Left. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Soviet redirects here. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... GDR redirects here. ... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, 20 November 1961. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


Officially, West Berlin was called "Berlin (West)" by the West Germany government, and, for most of the period of its existence, "Westberlin" by the East German government, which suggested that West Berlin wasn't really part of "Berlin" as a whole; the latter began to use "Berlin (West)" in the period just before reunification. East Berlin was officially called Berlin, Hauptstadt der DDR ("Berlin, Capital of the GDR"), or simply "Berlin," by East Germany. The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, in English...

Contents

Origins

The Potsdam Agreement established the legal framework for the occupation of Germany in the wake of World War II. According to the agreement, Germany would be formally under the sovereignty of the four major wartime allies -- the United States, the United Kingdom, France, and the Soviet Union -- until a German government acceptable to them all could be reconstituted. Germany would be divided into four sectors, each administered by one of the allies. Berlin, though surrounded by the Soviet sector, would be similarly divided, with the western allies occupying an enclave consisting of the western parts of the city. According to the agreement, the occupation of Berlin would end only as a result of a quadripartite agreement. (This clause did not apply to Germany as a whole.) The western allies were guaranteed an air corridor to their sectors of Berlin, and the Soviets also informally allowed road and rail access between West Berlin and the western parts of Germany. The Potsdam Agreement, or the Potsdam Proclamation, was an agreement on policy for the occupation and reconstruction of Germany and other nations after fighting in the European Theatre of World War II had ended with the German surrender of May 8, 1945. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Quadripartite division of Berlin
Quadripartite division of Berlin

At first, this arrangement was officially a temporary administrative expedient, and all parties declared that Germany and Berlin would soon be reunited. However, as the relations between the western allies and the Soviet Union soured and the cold war began, the joint administration of Germany and Berlin broke down. Soon Soviet-occupied Berlin and western-occupied Berlin had entirely separate city administrations. In 1948, the Soviets tried to force the issue and expel the western allies from Berlin by imposing a land blockade on the western sectors. The west responded by using its guaranteed air corridors to resupply the city in what became known as the Berlin Airlift. In May 1949, the Soviets lifted their blockade, and the future of West Berlin as a separate jurisdiction was ensured. By the end of that year, two new states had been created out of occupied Germany - the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) in the West and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) in the East - with West Berlin an enclave surrounded by, but not part of, the latter. Image File history File links map showing sectors of occupation of berlin File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links map showing sectors of occupation of berlin File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The Soviet Union blocked Western rail and road access to West Berlin from June 24, 1948 - May 11, 1949. ... GDR redirects here. ...


Legal status

According to the legal theory followed by the western allies, the occupation of most of Germany ended in 1949 with the declaration of the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic. However, because the occupation of Berlin could only be ended by a quadripartite agreement, Berlin remained an occupied territory under the formal sovereignty of the allies. The Soviets unilaterally declared the occupation of East Berlin at an end along with the rest of East Germany, but this move was not recognized by the western allies.


In many ways, West Berlin functioned as a de facto part of West Germany, and was portrayed on maps published in the West as being a part of that state. Inhabitants of West Berlin were treated as citizens by West German authorities, and there was freedom of movement (to the extent allowed by geography) between West Berlin and West Germany. (A separate West German citizenship did not formally exist; West German authorities considered the pre-war all-German citizenship to continue.) De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...

In 1969 U.S. tanks roar through rush hour traffic in the residential district of Zehlendorf, a routine reminder that West Berlin was still legally occupied by the World War II allies.
In 1969 U.S. tanks roar through rush hour traffic in the residential district of Zehlendorf, a routine reminder that West Berlin was still legally occupied by the World War II allies.

But the western allies remained the ultimate political authorities there. West Berlin was run by an elected Mayor and city government at Rathaus Schöneberg, but this government formally derived its authority from the occupying forces, not its electoral mandate. West Berlin was not considered to be a state, nor part of one, and the Grundgesetz (constitution of the Federal Republic) had no application there. Image File history File links Berlin_Alert_0400. ... Image File history File links Berlin_Alert_0400. ... Zehlendorf is the southwestern-most district in Berlin. ... Rathaus Schöneberg The Rathaus Schöneberg is the city hall for the Borough of Schöneberg in Berlin. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of modern Germany. ...


This meant that West Berliners were not eligible to vote in federal elections; instead, they were indirectly represented in the Bundestag by 20 non-voting delegates chosen by the West Berlin House of Representatives. Similarly, the West Berlin Senate sent non-voting delegates to the Bundesrat. However as citizens of the Federal Republic, West Berliners could still be elected from party lists to the proportional seats in the Bundestag; West Berlin Mayor Willy Brandt became Chancellor through this method in 1969. The Bundestag (Federal Diet) is the parliament of Germany. ... The Bundesrat (federal council) is the representation of the 16 Germany at the federal level. ... Willy Brandt, born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm (December 18, 1913 - October 8, 1992) was a German politician, Chancellor of West Germany 1969 – 1974, and leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 1964 – 1987. ... The head of government in Germany has traditionally been called Kanzler (Chancellor). ...


The ambiguous status of West Berlin also meant that men there were exempt from the Federal Republic's compulsory military service; this exemption made the city a popular home for West German youths, which resulted in a flourishing counterculture that became one of the defining features of the city. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Other anomalies included "provisional ID cards" without the German coat of arms, a ban on Lufthansa flights to the city because the air corridors between West Germany and West Berlin as agreed in the post-war era were to be used by UK, French or US planes only. West Berlin had its own postal administration, separate from West Germany's, which issued its own postage stamps until 1990. Deutsche Lufthansa AG (ISIN: DE0008232125) (pronounced ) is the largest airline in Germany, and the second-largest in Europe (behind Air France-KLM, but before British Airways). ... Air Corridor is an airline based in Nampula, Mozambique. ... This 1974 stamp from Japan depicts a Class 8620 steam locomotive. ...


Communist countries however did not recognize West Berlin as part of West Germany and usually portrayed it as a "third" German jurisdiction. The disagreement about Berlin's status was one of the most important debates of the Cold War.


The years of division

Map showing location of the Berlin wall and transit points
Map showing location of the Berlin wall and transit points

While West Berlin was a formally separate jurisdiction from East Berlin after 1949, there was for more than a decade freedom of movement between the two, and in many ways Berlin still functioned as a single city. The U-Bahn and S-Bahn public transit networks, rebuilt after the war, spanned all occupation sectors. Many people lived in one half of the city and had family members, friends, and jobs in the other. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1368x1100, 243 KB) Map Shows the Berlin Wall and the border control checkpoints until 1989. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1368x1100, 243 KB) Map Shows the Berlin Wall and the border control checkpoints until 1989. ... The Oberbaumbrücke on the U1. ... Berlins S-Bahn network The Berlin S-Bahn is a metro system operated by S-Bahn Berlin GmbH, a subsidiary of the Deutsche Bahn. ...


As the Cold War continued, many East Germans began leaving East Germany for the West. East Germany closed the borders between East and West Germany in 1952, but did not seal off West Berlin; because there was freedom of movement between West Berlin and West Germany, Easterners could use the city as a transit point to the West. It was in large part to stop this drain that the East German government built the Berlin Wall, thus physically closing off West Berlin from East Germany, on August 13, 1961. It was still possible to travel from West Berlin to West Germany by air and by specific rail and autobahn transit routes set aside for that purpose, but inhabitants of the two Berlins were now physically and legally separated from each other. East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, 20 November 1961. ... August 13 is the 225th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (226th in leap years), with 140 days remaining. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


On July 25, 1963, U.S. President John F. Kennedy visited West Berlin and gave a public speech known for its famous phrase "Ich bin ein Berliner." July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... ö Plaque commemorating Kennedys speech next to the front entrance of Rathaus Schöneberg Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a citizen of Berlin) is a famous quotation from a June 26, 1963 speech of U.S. President John F. Kennedy in West Berlin. ...


The Four Power Agreement on Berlin (September 1971) and the Transit Agreement (May 1972), helped to ease the tensions over West Berlin and at a practical level made it easier for West Berliners to travel to East Germany and simplified the bureaucracy for Germans travelling along the autobahn transit routes. The Four Power Agreement on Berlin[1] was signed on 3 September 1971 by the foreign ministers of the four powers, United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, and the United States. ... The Transit Agreement of May 1972 arranged access to and from West Berlin from West Germany (the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG)) and secured the right of West Berliners to visit East Berlin and East Germany (the German Democratic Republic (GDR)) and also secured the rights of GDR citizens to...


At the Brandenburg Gate in 1987, President Ronald Reagan provided a challenge to the then-Soviet premier: "General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization: Come here to this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall." The Brandenburg Gate The Brandenburg Gate (German: Brandenburger Tor) is a former city gate and the symbol of Berlin, Germany. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981 – 1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967 – 1975). ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; born March 2, 1931) is a Russian politician. ... Reagan speaking by the Berlin Wall Tear down this wall is the famous challenge from United States President Ronald Reagan to Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin Wall. ...


On November 9, 1989 the wall was opened, and the two cities were once again physically - though still not legally - united. The so-called Two Plus Four Treaty, signed by the two German states and the four wartime allies, paved the way for German reunification and an end to the western occupation of West Berlin. On October 3, 1990 West Berlin and East Berlin were united as the city of Berlin, which then acceded to the Federal Republic as a state, along with the rest of East Germany. West Berlin and East Berlin thus both formally ceased to exist. November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany is the final peace treaty negotiated between the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe - France, the United Kingdom, the United States and... The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, in English... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ...


Districts of West Berlin

West Berlin comprised the following boroughs: Berlin is subdivided into 12 boroughs (Bezirke in German), which are administrative units with political rights comparable to incorporated communities in the rest of Germany (although they are not separate legal entities from the city). ...


In the American Sector:

In the British Sector: The location of Neukölln in Berlin. ... Kreuzberg Kreuzberg is possibly the most well-known of the boroughs (Bezirke) of Berlin. ... Schöneberg is a district of Berlin. ... Location of Steglitz within Berlin. ... The Tempelhof town hall - due to the merger with Schöneberg now without a mayor Tempelhof was a borough of the city of Berlin that was united with Schöneberg in 2001 to form the Tempelhof-Schöneberg borough. ... Zehlendorf is the southwestern-most district in Berlin. ...

In the French Sector: Charlottenburg palace Charlottenburg is an area in Berlin, formerly a borough, now part of Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf. ... Tiergarten (Animal Garden) is a large park and a former borough of Berlin, since 2001 a part of the expanded borough Mitte. ... Wilmersdorf is an area of Berlin, formerly a borough but since 2001 part of Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf. ... For the 1980s New Wave group, see Spandau Ballet. ...

Reinickendorf is a borough of Berlin. ... Wedding is a district in the borough of Mitte, Berlin, Germany and was a separate borough in north-western Berlin until it was fused with Tiergarten and Mitte in 2001. ...

See also

Preceded by
Amsterdam
European City of Culture
1988
Succeeded by
Paris

  Results from FactBites:
 
West Berlin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1140 words)
Berlin, though surrounded by the Soviet sector, would be similiarly divided, with the western allies occupying an enclave consisting of the western parts of the city.
West Berlin was run by an elected Mayor and city government at Rathaus Schöneberg, but this government formally derived its authority from the occupying forces, not its electoral mandate.
The ambiguous status of West Berlin also meant that men there were exempt from the Federal Republic's compulsory military service; this exemption made the city a popular home for West German youths, which resulted in a flourishing counterculture that became one of the defining features of the city.
MSN Encarta - Berlin (1237 words)
Berlin is located in the northern European lowlands on a broad, sandy plain that surrounds the Spree River.
To the west of the medieval city is a formal grid of streets laid out on either side of Unter den Linden, a wide central avenue stretching from east to west and flanked with double rows of linden trees.
The rebuilding of West Berlin was particularly dramatic in the 1960s, when the West German government and its allies made an effort to make the city a showcase for the benefits of capitalism.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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