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Encyclopedia > West Azarbaijan Province
West Azarbaijan Province
استان آذربایجان غربی
Location
Map of Iran with West Azarbaijan highlighted.
Info
Admin. Center:
 • Coordinates:
Urmia
 • 37.5528° N 45.0759° E
Area : 37,437 km²
Population(2005):
 • Density :
2,949,426
 • 78.8/km²
No. of Counties: 14
Time zone: UTC+3:30
Main language(s): Azeri, Kurdish,Armenian and Persian
Parthian fire temple, Takht-e Sulaiman,Takab
Parthian fire temple, Takht-e Sulaiman,Takab
This Sassanid relief is located near Salmas, and is believed to depict either Ardashir I or Shapur I.
This Sassanid relief is located near Salmas, and is believed to depict either Ardashir I or Shapur I.

West Azarbaijan or West Azerbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان غربی Āzarbāijān-e Gharbī; Azeri: Batı Azərbaycan; Kurdish: Azerbaycanî Rojawa) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. Image File history File links province of Iran File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Urmia, officially Orumiyeh (Persian: ارومیه, Azeri: Urmu, UrumiyÉ™,Urmiye, Wurmê, Syriac: ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; previously called رضائیه, Rezaiyeh), is a district and a city located in northwestern Iran. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... The provinces of Iran are divided into counties or shahrestānhā (Persian: شهرستان, singular shahrestān), and each shahrestan is subdivided into districts or bakhshānhā (Persian: بخش, singular bakhsh). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. ... The Kurdish language (Kurdish: Kurdî or کوردی) is the language spoken by Kurds. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Image File history File links Parthian_azarbaijan. ... Image File history File links Parthian_azarbaijan. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... Takab (or Tekab, Farsi: تکاب) is one of the cities and townships in the West Azarbaijan province in Iran . ... Image File history File links Salmas_relief. ... Image File history File links Salmas_relief. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... This Sassanid relief is located near Salmas, and is believed to depict either Ardashir I or Shapur I. Salmas or Salamas (Persian: سلماس) is a district in West Azarbaijan Province of Iran. ... Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ... A coin of Shapur I Shapur I, son of Ardashir I, was king of Persia from 241 to 272. ... Farsi redirects here. ... The Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. ... The Kurdish language (Kurdish: Kurdî or کوردی) is the language spoken by Kurds. ... Iran consists of 30 provinces: Provinces are governed from a local center, mostly the largest local city. ...


The province of West Azarbaijan covers an area of 39,487 km², or 43,660 km² including Lake Urmia. In 2006 the province had a population of 3015361 [1]. The capital city of the province is Urmia. Lake Urmia (Persian: دریاچه ارومیه) is a salt lake in northwestern Iran between the provinces of East Azarbaijan and West Azarbaijan, west of the southern portion of the similarly shaped Caspian Sea. ... Urmia, officially Orumiyeh (Persian: ارومیه, Azeri: Urmu, UrumiyÉ™,Urmiye, Wurmê, Syriac: ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; previously called رضائیه, Rezaiyeh), is a district and a city located in northwestern Iran. ...

Contents

History

See also: History of the name Azerbaijan

The name of Azerbaijan derives from Atropates[1] [2], a Iranian satrap of Media under the Achaemenid empire, who later was reinstated as the satrap of Media under Alexander of Macedonia[3]. The original etymology of this name is thought to have its roots in the ancient Zoroastrianism, namely, in Avestan Frawardin Yasht ("Hymn to the Guardian Angels"), there is a mentioning of: âterepâtahe ashaonô fravashîm ýazamaide, which literally translates from Old Persian as "we worship the Fravashi of the holy Atare-pata"[4] . Atropates ruled over the region of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan is the name used by the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Iranian region of Azerbaijan. ... Atropates (Greek Aτρoπάτης, from Old Persian Aturpat protected by fire[1]) was a Mede nobleman who served Darius III, then Alexander the Great, and eventually founded an independent kingdom and dynasty that was named after him. ... Iranian peoples are peoples who speak an Iranian language and/or belong to the Iranian stock. ... Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... Atropates (Greek Aτρoπάτης, from Old Persian Aturpat protected by fire[1]) was a Mede nobleman who served Darius III, then Alexander the Great, and eventually founded an independent kingdom and dynasty that was named after him. ... Iranian Azerbaijan or Iranian Azarbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان ایران; Ä€zārbāijān-e Irān), (Azeri: اذربایجان, c. ...


According to various sources cited in Encyclopedia Iranica,[5] the current province of West Azarbaijan was part of the Sassanid Azarbadegan satrap as far back as the 3rd century.[6] The current ruins of Takht-i Suleiman in today’s West Azarbaijan was the capital of the Azarbaijan Satrapy.[7] Encyclopædia Iranica is a project of Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian Studies to create a comprehensive and authoritiative English language encyclopedia about the history and culture of Iran and Persia. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The remains of Takhte_Soleyman. ...


Permanent settlements were established in the province as early as the 6th millennium BCE as excavation at sites such as Teppe Hasanlu establish. In Hasanlu, a famous Golden Vase was found in 1958. The province is also the location of Tepe Hajji Firuz, site of some of the world’s earliest evidence of wine production.[8][9] Gooy Teppe is another significant site, where a metal plaque dating from 800 BCE was found that depicts a scene from the epic of Gilgamesh. Golden Vase with Winged Monsters Marlik Region, 14th-13th centuries BCE was found here. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gilgamesh (disambiguation). ...


Ruins such as these and the UNESCO world heritage site at the Sassanid compound of Takht-i-Suleiman illustrate the strategic importance and tumultuous history of the province through the millennia. Overall, the province enjoys a wealth of historical attractions, with 169 sites registered by the Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Takht e Soleyman, or Takht e Soleiman, is the holiest shrine of Zoroastrism and Sassanid Empire, now a World Heritage Site near the town of Takab in West Azarbaijan, Iran. ... Iran Cultural Heritage, Handcrafts and Tourism Organization (سازمان میراث فرهنگي، صنايع دستي و گردشگري) is an educational and research institution overseeing numerous associated museum complexes throughout Iran. ...


While some Islamic researchers[10] have proclaimed that the birth of the prophet Zoroaster was in this area, in the vicinity of Lake Orumieh (Chichesht), Konzak City, recent scholarship indicates that Ardabil or sites in Central Asia are more likely.[11] Lake Urmia (Persian: دریاچه ارومیه) is a salt lake in northwestern Iran between the provinces of East Azarbaijan and West Azarbaijan, west of the southern portion of the similarly shaped Caspian Sea. ... Ardabil (Persian: اردبیل; Azeri: اردبيل; also known as Ardebil; Old Persian: Artavil) is a historical city in north-western Iran. ...


The province continued to experience many wars over the centuries. Numerous Azeris arrived in the region, including to the west of Lake Urmia beginning around the 13th century.[12]


The first monarch of Iran's Qajar dynasty, Agha Muhammad Khan, was coronated in Urmia in 1795. The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... Agha Mohammad Khan by a European Engraver Agha Muhammad Khan (1742 - June 17, 1797) was the chief of a Turkic tribe, the Qajars. ... Urmia, officially Orumiyeh (Persian: ارومیه, Azeri: Urmu, Urumiyə,Urmiye, Wurmê, Syriac: ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; previously called رضائیه, Rezaiyeh), is a district and a city located in northwestern Iran. ...


Significant events in 19th and 20th century that took place are:

  • Shaikh Ubeidullah Revolts, west and south of Lake Urmia in 1880;[13]
  • Simko Insurrections, west of Lake Urmia from 1918 to 1922;[14]
  • the Soviet occupation in 1946;
  • the foundation and destruction of the Republic of Mahabad in 1946; and
  • periodic severe fighting from 1979 until 1990s (and even to the present, but on a smaller scale [2]) between Kurdish (nationalist and communist) forces and the Iranian government. At times, large parts of the province were without government control[3].

These separatist movements may have many motivations and origins; however, the colonialist policies of the Soviet Union and Imperial Russia encouraged such movements. In a cable sent on July 6th 1945 by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the local Soviet commander in Russian held Azerbaijan (northern Azerbaijan) was instructed: Urmia, officially Orumiyeh (Persian: ارومیه, Azeri: Urmu, Urumiyə,Urmiye, Wurmê, Syriac: ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; previously called رضائیه, Rezaiyeh), is a district and a city located in northwestern Iran. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Urmia, officially Orumiyeh (Persian: ارومیه, Azeri: Urmu, Urumiyə,Urmiye, Wurmê, Syriac: ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; previously called رضائیه, Rezaiyeh), is a district and a city located in northwestern Iran. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Flag Anthem: Ey Reqîb (English: Hey Guardian) Approximate extent of the Republic. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ...

"Begin preparatory work to form a national autonomous Azerbaijan district with broad powers within the Iranian state and simultaneously develop separatist movements in the provinces of Gilan, Mazandaran, Gorgan, and Khorasan".[15]

Gilan (Persian: گیلان, locally known as Guilan) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, known during ancient times as part of Hyrcania, with a population of approximately 2 million and an area of 14,700 sq. ... Mazandaran (Persian: مازندران) is a province in northern Iran, bordering the Caspian Sea in the north. ... Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Gorgan Gorgan (Persian: گرگان, Land of the Wolf) is the capital city of the Iranian province of Golestan. ... Map showing the pre-2004 Khorasan Province in Iran Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, anciently called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times is currently a region located in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire...

Geography and Climate

With an area of 43,660 square kilometers, including Lake Urmia,the province of West Azarbayjan is located on the north-west of Iran. Lake Urmia (Persian: دریاچه ارومیه) is a salt lake in northwestern Iran between the provinces of East Azarbaijan and West Azarbaijan, west of the southern portion of the similarly shaped Caspian Sea. ...


The climate of the province is largely influenced by the rainy winds of the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean. Cold northern winds affect the province during winter and cause heavy snow. According to existing meteorological data, local temperatures vary within the province. Average temperature differs from 9.4 °C in Piranshahr to 11.6 °C in Mahabad, while it is 9.8 °C in Urmia, 10.8 °C in Khoy, 9.4 °C in Piranshahr, and in Mahabad 11.6 °C. According to same data, the highest temperature in the province reaches 34 °C in July, and the lowest temperature is –16 °C in January. Maximum change of temperature in summer is 4 °C, and in winter 15 °C. West- Azarbayjan province, encompassing vast and fertile plains, high mountains, enjoying moderate and healthy weather, rivers with high volume of water, vineyards, orchards, luxuriant forest and rangelands, mountain outskirt with wonderful flora, magnificent wildlife and beautiful shores around the lake with different recreational facilities, which all together form one of the most beautiful and spectacular region in Iran. A land with wonderful flora during the spring and the summer covered with tulip, poppy, narcissus and hyacinth extending from Arass rivers banks in the north to Zab Kouchak valley in the south. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Meteorology is the scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Piranshahr (Persian: پیرانشهر , meaning City of Piran and is derived from the name of the local tribe of Piran [1], also local: Xanê (trans. ... View over Mahabad Mahabad (in Persian: مهاباد , in Kurdish: Mehabad or Mihabad, alternative name: سابلاخ, Sablax) is a city in northwestern Iran with an estimated population of 168,328 inhabitants in 2006. ... Urmia, officially Orumiyeh (Persian: ارومیه, Azeri: Urmu, UrumiyÉ™,Urmiye, Wurmê, Syriac: ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; previously called رضائیه, Rezaiyeh), is a district and a city located in northwestern Iran. ... Khoy (Persian: , Azerbaijani: , Kurdish: ), also spelt Khoi or Khvoy, is a city in West Azarbaijan Province, Iran. ... Piranshahr (Persian: پیرانشهر , meaning City of Piran and is derived from the name of the local tribe of Piran [1], also local: Xanê (trans. ...


Demographics

The shahrestans (districts)of West Azarbaijan province
The shahrestans (districts)of West Azarbaijan province

The province is divided into 14 shahrestans (districts). The present number of shahrestans was achieved over time by subdivision of many of the larger shahrestans into smaller ones. The shahrestans in the province are: Piranshahr, Urmia, Mahabad, Oshnaviyeh, Miandoab, Naghadeh, Takab, Shahindej, Maku, Chaldoran, Salmas, Khoy, Sardasht and Bukan. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (717x1066, 73 KB) Beschreibung: die iranische provinz West-Aserbaidschan mit ihren kreisen Quelle: selbst gezeichnet Lizenz: File links The following pages link to this file: West Azarbaijan ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (717x1066, 73 KB) Beschreibung: die iranische provinz West-Aserbaidschan mit ihren kreisen Quelle: selbst gezeichnet Lizenz: File links The following pages link to this file: West Azarbaijan ... Piranshahr (Persian: پیرانشهر , meaning City of Piran and is derived from the name of the local tribe of Piran [1], also local: Xanê (trans. ... Urmia, officially Orumiyeh (Persian: ارومیه, Azeri: Urmu, Urumiyə,Urmiye, Wurmê, Syriac: ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; previously called رضائیه, Rezaiyeh), is a district and a city located in northwestern Iran. ... View over Mahabad Mahabad (in Persian: مهاباد , in Kurdish: Mehabad or Mihabad, alternative name: سابلاخ, Sablax) is a city in northwestern Iran with an estimated population of 168,328 inhabitants in 2006. ... Oshnavieh (in Kurdish: Şino) is a city in northwestern Iran with more than 50 000 inhabitants, west of Lake Urmia about 1,300 metres above sea level. ... Miandoab is a city in north west of Iran in the West Azerbaijan province. ... Naghadeh (in Kurdish: Nexede, in Persian: نقده, is a city in northwestern Iran with 74,821 inhabitants [1], 23 km southeast of Lake Urmia about 1,300 metres above sea level. ... Takab (or Tekab, Farsi: تکاب) is one of the cities and townships in the West Azarbaijan province in Iran . ... Shahindej شاهینـدژ (in Kurdish: Sayin Qela صائین قلاء) is a city in northwestern Iran with more than 100,000 inhabitants, southeast of Lake Urmia about 1,300 metres above sea level. ... Region of the old Armenia c. ... Chaldran is a city in the north of West Azarbaijan province of Iran. ... This Sassanid relief is located near Salmas, and is believed to depict either Ardashir I or Shapur I. Salmas or Salamas (Persian: سلماس) is a district in West Azarbaijan Province of Iran. ... Khoy (Persian: , Azerbaijani: , Kurdish: ), also spelt Khoi or Khvoy, is a city in West Azarbaijan Province, Iran. ... Sardasht (in Kurdish: Serdeşt, also Zerdeşt) is a city in northwestern Iran with more than 50,000 inhabitants, [1] southwest of Lake Urmia about 1,300 metres above sea level. ... Image:Bokan. ...


There are no official statistics or census figures on the ethnic makeup of Iranian cities. The Encyclopedia Iranica however states that the geographic extent of Azeri-speaking people goes "well beyond the boundaries of West Azarbaijan",[16] and that Kurdish people "are found in the border regions of the West Azerbaijan province".[17] Other sources claim the Azeris as a major population of the province as well.[18]. Five of the cities in the province have predominantly Kurdish populations, namely: Piranshahr, Mahabad, Oshnaviyeh, Sardasht and Bukan.[citation needed] Some sources[19] have claimed Urmia to have an Azeri majority. The remaining shahrestans are heterogeneous and their populations have long been a mixture of Azeri and Kurdish peoples.[citation needed] Encyclopædia Iranica is a project of Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian Studies to create a comprehensive and authoritiative English language encyclopedia about the history and culture of Iran and Persia. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Piranshahr (Persian: پیرانشهر , meaning City of Piran and is derived from the name of the local tribe of Piran [1], also local: Xanê (trans. ... View over Mahabad Mahabad (in Persian: مهاباد , in Kurdish: Mehabad or Mihabad, alternative name: سابلاخ, Sablax) is a city in northwestern Iran with an estimated population of 168,328 inhabitants in 2006. ... Oshnavieh (in Kurdish: Åžino) is a city in northwestern Iran with more than 50 000 inhabitants, west of Lake Urmia about 1,300 metres above sea level. ... Sardasht (in Kurdish: SerdeÅŸt, also ZerdeÅŸt) is a city in northwestern Iran with more than 50,000 inhabitants, [1] southwest of Lake Urmia about 1,300 metres above sea level. ... Image:Bokan. ... This article is about the Azerbaijani ethnic group. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts...


There are three small ethnic and religious groups who are native to the province but who have minority status: Assyrians, Armenians, and Jews. For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ...


The Shi’a Azeris predominate in the the eastern lowlands in the province, while western and southern highlands in the province are dominated by the Sunni and Yarsan Kurds. Few number of Armenian and Assyrian Christians live in Urmia. Although the present borders of the province are compatible with natural borders of historical Azerbaijan[citation needed] or Atropatene[citation needed], it does not correspond with the ethnic demography of Iran. Azerbaijanis or Azerbaijani Turks, are a Muslim people who number more than 25 million worldwide. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Urmia, officially Orumiyeh (Persian: ارومیه, Azeri: Urmu, UrumiyÉ™,Urmiye, Wurmê, Syriac: ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; previously called رضائیه, Rezaiyeh), is a district and a city located in northwestern Iran. ... Azerbaijan or Azerbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan, Azərbeycan) is a country in the Caucaus region, adjacent to the Caspian Sea. ...


The diversity of religions in the province has been a major factor throughout the entire history of the province. The religions in the province are: Islam (Sunni and Shia sects), Christianity, Judaism, and Yarasani. Both Azeris and Kurds follow Islam, the Kurds belonging to the Sunni branch and the Turks being mainly Shias, except for a very small minority who follow a religion called Yarasani (or Ahl-e Haqq, اهل حق). Christianity is the main religion of the Assyrians and Armenians. The Jews, as the name indicates, belong to the Judaism religion. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Also referred to as Yarsan or Yaresan and also Ali-Ilahis or Aliullahis by outsiders, is one of many Sufi orders in Iran, combining various syncretistic and Islamic ideas with a veneration of Ali Ibn Abi Talib, the son-in-law of Muhammad. ... This article is about the Azerbaijani ethnic group. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Also referred to as Yarsan or Yaresan and also Ali-Ilahis or Aliullahis by outsiders, is one of many Sufi orders in Iran, combining various syncretistic and Islamic ideas with a veneration of Ali Ibn Abi Talib, the son-in-law of Muhammad. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The fourteen cities in the province, plus Chaldoran, and their populations based on 2007 estimates[20][21] are: Chaldran is a city in the north of West Azarbaijan province of Iran. ...

# City Population[20][21] Ethnicity in the shahrestan (district)[citation needed] City Calling Code [22]
1. Piranshahr (Khaneh) 71,718 Kurdish 443
2. Urmia (Rezaiyeh) 644,091 Azeri and Kurdish 441
3. Naghadeh (Sulduz) 76,103 Azeri and Kurdish 443
4. Salmas (Shapur) 85,409 Azeri and Kurdish 44352
5. Mahabad (Savujbolagh) 174,228 Kurdish 442
6. Khoy 182,987 Azeri and Kurdish 461
7. Miandoab (Ghushachay) 143,522 Azeri 481
8. Oshnaviyeh 56,325 Kurdish 444
9. Bukan 38,642 Kurdish 482
10. Shahindej (Sainghal'eh) 44,608 Kurdish and Azeri 482
11. Qareh Zia' od Din 34,921 Azeri and Kurdish 462
12. Takab (Tikantapeh) 53,922 Kurdish and Azeri 482
13. Maku 43,664 Azeri and Kurdish 462
14. Sardasht 52,668 Kurdish 444
15. Chaldoran (Siahcheshmeh) 14,000[21] Azeri and Kurdish 462

Piranshahr (Persian: پیرانشهر , meaning City of Piran and is derived from the name of the local tribe of Piran [1], also local: Xanê (trans. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Urmia, officially Orumiyeh (Persian: ارومیه, Azeri: Urmu, Urumiyə,Urmiye, Wurmê, Syriac: ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; previously called رضائیه, Rezaiyeh), is a district and a city located in northwestern Iran. ... The Azeri, also referred to as Azerbaijanian Turks, are a Turkic-Muslim people. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Naghadeh (in Kurdish: Nexede, in Persian: نقده, is a city in northwestern Iran with 74,821 inhabitants [1], 23 km southeast of Lake Urmia about 1,300 metres above sea level. ... The Azeri, also referred to as Azerbaijanian Turks, are a Turkic-Muslim people. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... This Sassanid relief is located near Salmas, and is believed to depict either Ardashir I or Shapur I. Salmas or Salamas (Persian: سلماس) is a district in West Azarbaijan Province of Iran. ... The Azeri, also referred to as Azerbaijanian Turks, are a Turkic-Muslim people. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... View over Mahabad Mahabad (in Persian: مهاباد , in Kurdish: Mehabad or Mihabad, alternative name: سابلاخ, Sablax) is a city in northwestern Iran with an estimated population of 168,328 inhabitants in 2006. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Khoy (Persian: , Azerbaijani: , Kurdish: ), also spelt Khoi or Khvoy, is a city in West Azarbaijan Province, Iran. ... The Azeri, also referred to as Azerbaijanian Turks, are a Turkic-Muslim people. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Miandoab is a city in north west of Iran in the West Azerbaijan province. ... The Azeri, also referred to as Azerbaijanian Turks, are a Turkic-Muslim people. ... Oshnavieh (in Kurdish: Şino) is a city in northwestern Iran with more than 50 000 inhabitants, west of Lake Urmia about 1,300 metres above sea level. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Image:Bokan. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Shahindej شاهینـدژ (in Kurdish: Sayin Qela صائین قلاء) is a city in northwestern Iran with more than 100,000 inhabitants, southeast of Lake Urmia about 1,300 metres above sea level. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... The Azeri, also referred to as Azerbaijanian Turks, are a Turkic-Muslim people. ... Qareh Zia od Din also Qarahziyaeddin (Persian:قره ضيا الدي or قره ضياءالدين) and Ghareh Ziya, is a city in the north of West Azarbaijan province of Iran, on the Aq River, a tributary of the Araxes. ... The Azeri, also referred to as Azerbaijanian Turks, are a Turkic-Muslim people. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Takab (or Tekab, Farsi: تکاب) is one of the cities and townships in the West Azarbaijan province in Iran . ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... The Azeri, also referred to as Azerbaijanian Turks, are a Turkic-Muslim people. ... Kakh Muzeh Maku, near Maku, built by one of the commanders of Mozzafar-al-Din Shah, is a popular attraction. ... The Azeri, also referred to as Azerbaijanian Turks, are a Turkic-Muslim people. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Sardasht (in Kurdish: Serdeşt, also Zerdeşt) is a city in northwestern Iran with more than 50,000 inhabitants, [1] southwest of Lake Urmia about 1,300 metres above sea level. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Chaldran is a city in the north of West Azarbaijan province of Iran. ... The Azeri, also referred to as Azerbaijanian Turks, are a Turkic-Muslim people. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts...

Religion

Qara Kelissa, Chaldoran. Believed by some to have been first built in AD 66 by Saint Jude. Local Armenians believe that he and Simon were both buried here. In 1329, the church was reconstructed in its present form after an earthquake destroyed the structure in 1319 .
Qara Kelissa, Chaldoran. Believed by some to have been first built in AD 66 by Saint Jude. Local Armenians believe that he and Simon were both buried here. In 1329, the church was reconstructed in its present form after an earthquake destroyed the structure in 1319 .

In this province, Islam (Sunni and Shiite) is the majority religion. However, there is also a large Christian minority, comprised of Assyrians who have historically lived on the west shore of Lake Urmia, as well as Armenians who are scattered throughout the province. Notably, the city of Maku in northern West Azarbaijan was the only city in Iran (before World War II) where Christians comprised the majority. Before World War I, Christian Armenians and Assyrians compromised the majority in Urmia, but that was changed after the Armenian and Assyrian genocide during WWI. Image File history File links Qareh_kelissa. ... Image File history File links Qareh_kelissa. ... Qara Kelissa is a famous historical church of Armenian Orthodox Iranians. ... Chaldran is a city in the north of West Azarbaijan province of Iran. ... This article is about the year 66. ... For other uses, see Saint Jude (disambiguation). ... Simon is a common name, from Hebrew שִׁמְעוֹן (Shimon), meaning hearkening or listening.[1]. Simon can refer to: // Simeon II of Bulgaria Simon of Bet-Titta, a Christian martyr Simon of Bet-Parsaje, a martyr of Iran with Mana of Bet-Parsaje Simon of Sudbury Simon, Metropolitan of Moscow Simon... Events Antipope Nicholas V is excommunicated by Pope John XXII. Aimone of Savoy becomes Count of Savoy. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Lake Urmia (Persian: دریاچه ارومیه) is a salt lake in northwestern Iran between the provinces of East Azarbaijan and West Azarbaijan, west of the southern portion of the similarly shaped Caspian Sea. ... Region of the old Armenia c. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ... Bodies of Christians who perished during the Assyrian Genocide 40 Christians dying a day say Assyrian refugees - The Syracuse Herald, 1915. ...


St. Thaddeus Cathedral is located on the outskirts of Chaldoran, near the village of Qara-Kelissa. Besides being a religious site with a particular significance among Iranian Christians, particularly Armenians, this large church (monastery) is also a rare and valuable monument in architectural and artistic terms. Qara Kelissa is a famous historical church of Armenian Orthodox Iranians. ... [1] Nobody can know what his/her future is, if we learn and try to care today for each other, tomorrow we may face less problems. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... This article is about the built environment. ... The Mona Lisa Although today the word art usually refers to the visual arts, the concept of what art is has continuously changed over centuries. ...


St. Thaddeus, also known as Jude Thaddeus or Jude Labbeus, was one of the apostles of Jesus Christ who traveled to Armenia, where he was later killed and upon whose grave the locals erected a small chapel in AD 301. The cathedral is known as Qara-kelissa ('Black church' in Turkish) to the locals, owing to the appearance of its western section. For other uses, see Saint Jude (disambiguation). ...


Churches in West Azarbaijan

In all, thirty-one churches are registered by the Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran in the province. Many of these are historical landmarks and unusually rich in heritage. Some of the more famous ones are listed as follows:[23] Iran Cultural Heritage, Handcrafts and Tourism Organization (سازمان میراث فرهنگي، صنايع دستي و گردشگري) is an educational and research institution overseeing numerous associated museum complexes throughout Iran. ...

Qara Kelissa is a famous historical church of Armenian Orthodox Iranians. ... Chaldran is a city in the north of West Azarbaijan province of Iran. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Urmia, officially Orumiyeh (Persian: ارومیه, Azeri: Urmu, Urumiyə,Urmiye, Wurmê, Syriac: ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; previously called رضائیه, Rezaiyeh), is a district and a city located in northwestern Iran. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Urmia, officially Orumiyeh (Persian: ارومیه, Azeri: Urmu, Urumiyə,Urmiye, Wurmê, Syriac: ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; previously called رضائیه, Rezaiyeh), is a district and a city located in northwestern Iran. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Khoy (Persian: , Azerbaijani: , Kurdish: ), also spelt Khoi or Khvoy, is a city in West Azarbaijan Province, Iran. ... This Sassanid relief is located near Salmas, and is believed to depict either Ardashir I or Shapur I. Salmas or Salamas (Persian: سلماس) is a district in West Azarbaijan Province of Iran. ... Urmia, officially Orumiyeh (Persian: ارومیه, Azeri: Urmu, Urumiyə,Urmiye, Wurmê, Syriac: ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; previously called رضائیه, Rezaiyeh), is a district and a city located in northwestern Iran. ... Look up Thomas in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Urmia, officially Orumiyeh (Persian: ارومیه, Azeri: Urmu, Urumiyə,Urmiye, Wurmê, Syriac: ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; previously called رضائیه, Rezaiyeh), is a district and a city located in northwestern Iran. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... St. ... Look up Peter, peter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Urmia, officially Orumiyeh (Persian: ارومیه, Azeri: Urmu, Urumiyə,Urmiye, Wurmê, Syriac: ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; previously called رضائیه, Rezaiyeh), is a district and a city located in northwestern Iran. ... Bakhtshooa Gondishapoori (also spelled Bukhtishu in many a literature) were a family of Nestorian Christian Persian physicians from the 7th, 8th, and 9th centuries. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Urmia, officially Orumiyeh (Persian: ارومیه, Azeri: Urmu, Urumiyə,Urmiye, Wurmê, Syriac: ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; previously called رضائیه, Rezaiyeh), is a district and a city located in northwestern Iran. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This Sassanid relief is located near Salmas, and is believed to depict either Ardashir I or Shapur I. Salmas or Salamas (Persian: سلماس) is a district in West Azarbaijan Province of Iran. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Khosrau II (sometimes called Parvez, the ever Victorious), King of Persia, son of Hormizd IV of Persia (579–590), grandson of Khosrau I of Persia (531–579). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Chaldran is a city in the north of West Azarbaijan province of Iran. ...

West Azarbaijan today

Kakh Muzeh Maku, near Maku, built by one of the commanders of Mozzafar-al-Din Shah, is a popular attraction.
Kakh Muzeh Maku, near Maku, built by one of the commanders of Mozzafar-al-Din Shah, is a popular attraction.

In the city of Urumieh, some residents have a high standard of living in comparison with the other cities of the province. There are plenty of parks, coffee shops, cinemas, and internet cafes throughout the city. There are hundreds of small villages in the province as well, most of which have running water and electricity as well as television, satellite, and telephone lines. Southern cities which economically are considered poor areas have always been the venue of Kurdish demonstrators against the Islamic regime. [4] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (316x640, 122 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (316x640, 122 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Kakh Muzeh Maku, near Maku, built by one of the commanders of Mozzafar-al-Din Shah, is a popular attraction. ... Mozaffareddin Shah Mozzafar-al-Din Shah (also Mozaffareddin Shah) (1853 – 1907) was the Shah of Persia between 1896 and 1907. ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Cities in Iran ... It has been suggested that PC bang be merged into this article or section. ...


West Azarbaijan province is one of the most important provinces for Iran’s agriculture.


Iran's current Minister of Energy, Parviz Fattah is from Urmia. Parviz Fattah is an Iranian-Azeri politician, former member of Revolutionary Guard and Irans Minister of Energy in Mahmoud Ahmadinejads cabinet. ... Urmia, officially Orumiyeh (Persian: ارومیه, Azeri: Urmu, Urumiyə,Urmiye, Wurmê, Syriac: ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; previously called رضائیه, Rezaiyeh), is a district and a city located in northwestern Iran. ...


Culture

West Azarbaijan hails from a rich culture from Kurdish and Azari traditions. Many local traditions, such as music and dances continue to survive among the various peoples of the province. As a longstanding province of Persia, it is mentioned favorably on many occasions in Persian literature by Iran's greatest authors and poets: Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ... A Meeting of Some Iranian Poets: (L to R) Morteza Keyvan, Ahmad Shamlou, Nima Yooshij, Siavash Kasraie, and Hushang Ebtehaj. ...


گزیده هر چه در ایران بزرگان
زآذربایگان و ری و گرگان


All the nobles and greats of Iran,
Choose from Azarbaijan, Ray, and Gorgan.
--Vis o Ramin Ray, is one of the oldest cities of Iran. ... Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Gorgan Gorgan (Persian: گرگان, Land of the Wolf) is the capital city of the Iranian province of Golestan. ... Vis O Ramin is an ancient love story in Persian Literature. ...


از آنجا بتدبیر آزادگان
بیامد سوی آذرآبادگان


From there the wise and the free,
set off to Azarbaijan
--Nizami External links The Legend of Leyli and Majnun Nizami, Jamal al-Din Ilyas. ...


بیک ماه در آذرآبادگان
ببودند شاهان و آزادگان


For a month's time, The Kings and The Free,
Would choose in Azarbaijan to be
--Firdowsi فردوسی Ferdowsi Ferdowsi Ferdowsi Tousi (فردوسی طوسی in Persian) (more commonly transliterated Firdausi) (935–1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. ...


Colleges and universities

Urmia University was first built by an American Presbyterian missionary in 1878. A medical faculty was also established there headed by Joseph Cochran and a team of American medical associates. Joseph Cochran and his colleagues were buried in an old cemetery in the vicinity of Urmia. Urmia University website says this about them: Urmia University is a major university in the city of Urmia in West Azarbaijan province of Iran. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Department of a University where medicine is taught. ... Joseph Plumb Cochran (Jan 14, 1855 - August 18, 1905) was an American Presbyterian missionary. ... Urmia, officially Orumiyeh (Persian: ارومیه, Azeri: Urmu, Urumiyə,Urmiye, Wurmê, Syriac: ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; previously called رضائیه, Rezaiyeh), is a district and a city located in northwestern Iran. ... Urmia University is a major university in the city of Urmia in West Azarbaijan province of Iran. ...

There they lie in peace away from their homeland, and the testimonial epitaphs on their tombs signify their endeavor and devotion to humanity.

The province today has the following major institutes of higher education: The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ...

Urmia University of Medical Sciences, is a medical school in West Azarbaijan of Iran. ... Urmia University is a major university in the city of Urmia in West Azarbaijan province of Iran. ...

References

  1. ^ Minorsky, V.; Minorsky, V. "Ādharbaydjān ( Azarbāydjān ) ." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P.Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2007. Brill Online. <http://www.encislam.brill.nl/subscriber/entry?entry=islam_COM-0016
  2. ^ Encyclopedia Iranica, "Azerbaijan: Pre-Islamic History", K. Shippmann
  3. ^ Historical Dictionary of Azerbaijan by Tadeusz Swietochowski and Brian C. Collins. The Scarecrow Press, Inc., Lanham, Maryland (1999), ISBN 0-8108-3550-9 (retrieved 7 June 2006)
  4. ^ Frawardin Yasht ("Hymn to the Guardian Angels") -- translated by James Darmesteter (From Sacred Books of the East, American Edition, 1898)
  5. ^ Encyclopedia Iranica, p.206
  6. ^ ibid p.206
  7. ^ ibid p.206
  8. ^ "World's Oldest Known Wine Jar" University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
  9. ^ Voigt, Mary M. and Meadow, Richard H. (1983) Hajji Firuz Tepe, Iran: the neolithic settlement University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ISBN 0-934718-49-0
  10. ^ Balādâorī and Ebn Kordādâbeh
  11. ^ "As a matter of fact, only untrustworthy and late traditions place Zoroaster's birthplace at Urmia." Tarbiyat, Muḥammad Ali (1935) Dānishmandān-i Āzarbayjān Tehran, p. 162, reissued in 1999, ISBN 964-422-138-9
  12. ^ Encyclopedia Iranica, p.206
  13. ^ The Kurdish Question, By W. G. Elphinston, Journal of International Affairs, Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1946, p.94
  14. ^ The Kurdish Question, By W. G. Elphinston, Journal of International Affairs, Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1946, p.97
  15. ^ Decree of the CC CPSU Politburo to Mir Bagirov, CC Secretary of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan, on "measures to Organize a Separatist Movement in Southern Azerbaijan and Other Provinces of Northern Iran". Translation provided by The Cold War International History Project at The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.
  16. ^ Encyclopedia Iranica p.207
  17. ^ 'ibid, p.234
  18. ^ For example, see: P. Oberling, The Turkic Peoples of Iranian Azerbaijan, 1964a, American Council of Learned Scientists
  19. ^ See:
    • H. Anzali, Urumiyah dar guzar-i zaman ("Urmia in the course of time"). ISBN 964-6614-07-8 p49, (2000)
    • A. Kaviyanpur, Tarikh-i iyah ("The History of Urmia"), ISBN 964-91860-6-9 p421, (1999)
  20. ^ a b World Gazetteer
  21. ^ a b c No source has been provided for the estimated population of Chaldoran; however, the estimate of 14,000 is consistent with the extent of urbanization shown in the satellite image of the town.
  22. ^ Telecommunication Company Of Iran
  23. ^ Azarbaijan Gharbi, Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran pulications, ISBN 964-7483-80-5

is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project of Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian Studies to create a comprehensive and authoritiative English language encyclopedia about the history and culture of Iran and Persia. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project of Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian Studies to create a comprehensive and authoritiative English language encyclopedia about the history and culture of Iran and Persia. ... The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (or Wilson Center) was established as part of the Smithsonian Institution by act of Congress in 1968. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project of Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian Studies to create a comprehensive and authoritiative English language encyclopedia about the history and culture of Iran and Persia. ... Iran Cultural Heritage, Handcrafts and Tourism Organization (سازمان میراث فرهنگي، صنايع دستي Ùˆ گردشگري) is an educational and research institution overseeing numerous associated museum complexes throughout Iran. ...

External links

  • Piranshahr Handicrafts
  • Official website of West Azarbaijan Governor’s Office
  • West Azarbaijan’s Government Portal
  • West Azarbaijan Provincial Management Organization
  • West Azarbaijan Cultural Heritage Organization
  • Mahabad municipality official website
  • Recent photos from Azarbaijan
  • Lake Urmia UNESCO Biosphere Reserve
  • Chro
  • About Urmia
Iran consists of 30 provinces: Provinces are governed from a local center, mostly the largest local city. ... Sheikh Safis Tomb Ardabīl (Persian: اردبیل; also known as: Ardebil; ancient name: Artavil) is one of 28 provinces of Iran. ... Bushehr (Persian:استان بوشهر) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Chahar Mahaal and Bakhtiari (Persian: چهارمحال و بختیاری) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... East Azarbaijan or East Azerbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان شرقی, Āzarbāijān-e Sharqi; Azeri: Şərqi Azərbaycan) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Eşfahān province (Persian: استان اصفهان (Ostan-e Esfahan); also transliterated as Isfahan, Esfahan, Espahan, Sepahan or Isphahan) is one of the 28 provinces of Iran. ... Fārs (Persian: فارس) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Gīlān (Persian: گیلان, ) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, known during ancient times as part of Hyrcania. ... Golestān (Persian: گلستان) is one of the 28 provinces of Iran. ... Hamadān or Hamedan is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Hormozgān is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Īlām, also Elam (ایلام), is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Kermān is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Kermanshah (Persian: كرمانشاه; Kurdish: Kirmaşan) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... Kohgiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad (Persian: کهگیلویه و بویراحمد) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Map showing Iranian province of Kurdistan. ... Lorestān (Persian and Luri لرستان; also Luristan) comprises a province and a historic territory of western Iran amidst the Zagros Mountains. ... The Congregation Mosque of Narāgh. ... Mazandaran (See other names[3]) is a Caspian province in the north of Iran, Located on the Southern coast of Caspian Sea, it is bordered clockwise by Golestan, Semnan and Tehran provinces (All forming Greater Mazandaran, Each separated from Mazandaran respectively in 1997, 1976 and 1960 [4]). Province also lies... North Khorasan (in Persian: خراسان شمالی) is a province located in northeastern Iran. ... Qazvīn is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... The Grand Timcheh of Qoms Bazaar. ... Khorasan (in Persian: خراسان) is a province located in northeastern Iran. ... Semnān is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Sistān o Balūchestān is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... South Khorasan (Persian: خراسان جنوبی) is a province located in eastern Iran. ... Tehran province has been the seat of Irans capital, Tehran, since 1778. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Zanjan (زنجان in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Image File history File links Iran_tricolour. ...

 
 

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