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Encyclopedia > West Africa
     Western Africa (UN subregion)      Maghreb
     Western Africa (UN subregion)      Maghreb[1]

West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. Geopolitically, the UN definition of Western Africa includes the following 16 countries distributed over an area of around 5 million square km:[2] Image File history File links LocationWesternAfrica. ... Image File history File links LocationWesternAfrica. ... The definition of continental subregions in use by the United Nations. ... The Arab Maghreb Union This article is about the region. ... A compass rose with west highlighted This article refers to the cardinal direction; for other uses see West (disambiguation). ... Look up Region in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The definition of continental subregions in use by the United Nations. ...

All of these countries, with the exception of Mauritania, are members of the Economic Community of West African States. The UN region also includes the island of Saint Helena, a British overseas territory in the South Atlantic Ocean. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) is a regional group of fifteen countries, founded on May 28, 1975 when fifteen West African countries signed the Treaty of Lagos. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (almost exclusively Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... The Atlantic Ocean, not including Arctic and Antarctic regions. ...

Contents

Background

West Africa is an area with a great span of geography, bioregions, and cultures. It is oriented west of an imagined north-south axis lying close to 10° east longitude. The Atlantic Ocean forms the western and southern borders of the region. The northern border is the Sahara Desert, with the Niger Bend generally considered the northernmost part of the region. The eastern border is less precise, with some placing it at the Benue Trough, and others on a line running from Mount Cameroon to Lake Chad.


Colonial boundaries are reflected in the modern boundaries between contemporary West African nations, cutting across ethnic and cultural lines, often dividing single ethnic groups between two or more countries.


Geography and climate

West Africa occupies an area in excess of 6,140,000 km², or approximately one-fifth of Africa. The vast majority of this land is plains lying less than 300 meters above sea level, though isolated high points exist in numerous countries along the southern shore of the region. Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ...


The northern section of West Africa is composed of semi-arid terrain known as Sahel, a transitional zone between the Sahara desert and the savannahs of the western Sudan forests form a third belt between the savannahs and the southern coast, ranging from 160 km to 240 km in width. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Savannah redirects here. ... Typical landscape of the Sudan region For the country in north-east Africa see Sudan The Sudan, from the Arabic bilâd as-sûdân land of the Blacks, is a geographic region in West and Eastern Africa. ... This article is about a community of trees. ... Belt can refer to the following objects: Look up belt in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Savanna is a grassland dotted with trees, and occurs in several types of biomes. ...


Culture and religion

Despite the wide variety of cultures in West Africa, from Nigeria through to Senegal, there are apparent similarities in dress, cuisine, musical genres and wealth. Islam is the predominant religion of the West African interior and the far west coast of the continent; Christianity is the predominant religion in coastal regions of Nigeria, Ghana, and Cote d'Ivoire; and elements of indigenous religions are practised throughout. Before the decline of the Mali and Songhai Empires there was a sizable group of Jewish communities in areas like Mali, Senegal, Mauritania, and Nigeria. Today there are Jewish populations in Ghana, Nigeria and Mali. Along with historic migrations, these religions have culturally linked the peoples of West Africa more than those in other parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...


The game Oware is quite popular in many parts of West Africa. Football is also a pastime enjoyed by many, either spectating or playing. The national teams of some West African nations, especially Nigeria, Ghana and the Ivory Coast, regularly qualify for the World Cup. Owari game from Cameroon. ... “Soccer” redirects here. ... The FIFA World Cup Trophy, which has been awarded to the world champions since 1974. ...


Mbalax, Highlife, Fuji and Afrobeat are all modern musical genres which enjoin listeners in this region. Traditionally, musical and oral history as conveyed over generations by Griots are typical of West African culture. Mbalax is a genre of popular music developed in Senegal and Gambia. ... Highlife is a musical genre that originated in Ghana, Sierra Leone and Nigeria in the 1920s and spread to other West African countries. ... Fuji is a style of popular Nigerian music, It evolved from the muslim were ramadan night dance in Isale-Eko part of Lagos. ... Afrobeat is a combination of Yoruba music, jazz, Highlife, and funk rhythms, fused with African percussion and vocal styles, popularized in Africa in the 1970s. ... Griots, pronounced greeohs, are wordsmiths of West Africa who use poetry, proverbs, and rhythm to teach villagers about their history. ...


A typical formal attire worn in this region is the flowing Boubou (also known as Agbada and Babariga), which has its origins in the clothing of nobility of various West African Empires in the 12th Century. Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo wearing a Boubou, known in the Yoruba language as an Agbada. ...


The Djembe drum, whose origins lie with the Mandinka peoples, is now a popularly played drum among many West African ethnic groups. The Djembe, along with the highly intricate woven Kente cloth of the Akan peoples of Ghana and the distinct Sudano-Sahelian architectural style seen in the many mosques of the region (see Djenné), are the primary symbolic icons of West African culture. A basic student djembe A djembe (pronounced jem bay) also known as djimbe, jenbe, jembe, yembe or sanbanyi in Susu; is a skin covered hand drum, shaped like a large goblet, and meant to be played with bare hands. ... The Mandinka (also known as Mandingo) are a Mande people of West Africa, all descend physically or culturally from the ancient Mali Empire. ... Kente cloth, known locally as nwentoma, is a type of fabric made of interwoven woven cloth strips and is native to the country of Ghana, where it was first developed in the 12th century. ... Akan may be: Akan people, an ethnic group from western Africa Akan States, any of several states organized in the 16th or 17th century by the Akan people Akan languages, a stock of dialects spoken by the Akan people Akan District, Hokkaido Akan, Hokkaido, a town in Akan District, Hokkaido... The Sudano-Sahelian is an architectural style common in the Sahel. ... Djenné (also Dienné or Jenne) is a historically and commercially important small city in the Niger Inland Delta of central Mali. ...


Family is an important aspect as well. Look up Family in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


History

The history of West Africa can be divided into five major periods: first, its prehistory, in which the first human settlers arrived, agriculture developed, and contact made with the Mediterranean civilizations to the north; the second, the Iron Age empires that consolidated trade and developed centralized states; third, the slave-trading kingdoms, jihads, and colonial invaders of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; fourth, the colonial period, in which France and Great Britain controlled nearly the whole of the region; fifth, the post-independence era, in which the current nations were formed. The history of West Africa can be divided into five major periods: Its prehistory, in which the first human settlers arrived, agriculture developed, and contact made with the Mediterranean civilizations to the north. ...


Prehistory

Early human settlers, probably related to the Pygmies, arrived in West Africa around 12,000 BC. Sedentary farming began around the fifth millennium BC, as well as the domestication of cattle. By 400 BC, ironworking technology allowed an expansion of agricultural productivity, and the first city-states formed. The domestication of the camel allowed the development of a cross-Saharan trade with Mediterranean cultures, including Carthage and the Berbers; major exports included gold, cotton cloth, metal ornaments and leather goods, which were then exchanged for salt, horses, and textiles. This article is about modern humans. ... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about common table salt. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ...


Empires

The development of the region's economy allowed more centralized states to form, beginning with the Ghana Empire in the 8th century AD which streched to the Mali empire. Based around the city of Kumbi Saleh in modern-day Mauritania, the empire came to dominate much of the region until its defeat by Almoravid invaders in 1052. The Sosso Empire sought to fill the void, but was defeated (c. 1240) by the Mandinka forces of Sundiata Keita, founder of the new Mali Empire. The Mali Empire continued to flourish for several centuries (most particularly under Sundiata's grandnephew), Kankan Musa I before a succession of weak rulers led to its collapse under Mossi, Tuareg and Songhai invaders. In the fifteenth century, the Songhai would form a new dominant state based around Gao, in the Songhai Empire, under the leadership of Sonni Ali and Askia Mohammed. Further south, Osei Tutu and Okomfo anokye have started to build the Empire of Ashanti Meanwhile, south of the Sudan, strong city states arose in Ife, Bono, and Benin around the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Further east, Oyo arose as the dominant Yoruba state and the Aro Confederacy as a dominant Igbo state in modern-day Nigeria. Not to be confused with the modern country Ghana. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Extent of the Mali Empire (ca. ... Koumbi Saleh was the capital of the Ghana Empire. ... Almoravides (From Arabic المرابطون sing. ... Sosso was a twelfth- and thirteenth-century Takrur kingdom. ... The Mandinka (also known as Mandingo) are a Mande people of West Africa, all descend physically or culturally from the ancient Mali Empire. ... Sundiata Keita or Sundjata Keyita or Mari Djata I (c. ... Extent of the Mali Empire (ca. ... Extent of the Mali Empire (ca. ... Mansa Musa depicted holding a gold nugget from a 1375 map of Africa and Europe Mansa Musa[1] was a 14th century king (or Mansa) who ruled the Mali Empire between 1312 and 1337. ... Mossi is the name of a people living in central Burkina Faso. ... For other senses of this name, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ... For the empire, see Songhai Empire. ... For other uses, see Gao (disambiguation). ... The Songhai Empire, (ca. ... Sonni Ali was the first great king (1464-1492) of the Songhai Empire, and the 15th ruler of the Sonni dynasty. ... Askia Muhammad I was a king of the Songhai Empire in the late 1400s. ... Osei Kofi Tutu I was the founder of the Ashanti Confederacy, a loosely knit group of city states. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Ashanti. ... Ifè (or Ilé-Ifẹ̀, as it is properly known) is an ancient Yoruba city in south-western Nigeria. ... Bono Manso (sometimes Bono Mansu) was an ancient trading town in what is now the Nkoranza district of the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana. ... Oyo (OÌ£yoÌ£ in Yoruba orthography, pronounced ) is the name for a Yoruba city in modern-day Nigeria and also the loose empire which that city controlled in the 17th and 18th centuries. ... The Yoruba (Yorùbá in Yoruba orthography) are a large ethno-linguistic group or ethnic nation in Africa; the majority of them speak the Yoruba language (èdèe Yorùbá; èdè = language). ... National motto: Official language Igbo, Ibibio, Ijaw, Delta Ibo, Urhobo, Isoko, Itsekiri, and etc. ... The Igbo, sometimes (especially formerly) referred to as the Ibo/Ebo, are an ethnic group in West Africa numbering in the tens of millions. ...


Slavery and European contact

Two slightly differing Okpoho manillas as used by Europeans to purchase slaves.
Two slightly differing Okpoho manillas as used by Europeans to purchase slaves.

Following the 1591 destruction of the Songhai capital by Moroccan invaders, a number of smaller states arose across West Africa, including the Bambara Empire of Ségou, the Bambara kingdom of Kaarta, the Peul/Malinké kingdom of Khasso, and the Kénédougou Empire of Sikasso. Portuguese traders began establishing settlements along the coast in 1445, followed by the French and English; the African slave trade began not long after, which over the following centuries would debilitate the region's economy and population. The slave trade also encouraged the formation of states such as the Bambara Empire and Dahomey, whose economies largely depended on exchanging slaves for European firearms, which were then used to capture more slaves. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1712 × 2288 pixel, file size: 998 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Two very similar Okhapo variety of Manillas from Nigeria. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1712 × 2288 pixel, file size: 998 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Two very similar Okhapo variety of Manillas from Nigeria. ... The Bambara Empire (also Bamana Empire or Ségou Empire) was a large kingdom based at Ségou, now in Mali. ... Ségou or Segu is a city in Mali, lying northeast of Bamako on the River Niger, in the region of Ségou. ... Bambara Mother figure, 15th-20th century The Bambara (Bamana in their own language, or sometimes Banmana) are a Mande people living in west Africa, primarily in Mali but also in Guinea, Burkina Faso and Senegal. ... Kaarta was a short-lived Bambara kingdom in what is today the western half of Mali. ... The Fulbhe (singular Pullo) or Fulani is an ethnic group of people spread over many countries in West Africa,Central Africa and as far as East Africa. ... The Malinké are an African Mandé ethnic group. ... Khasso was a West African kingdom of the nineteenth century, occupying territory in what is today Senegal and the Kayes Region of Mali. ... The Kénédougou Empire was a short-lived West African empire centered on Sikasso in present-day Mali. ... Sikasso is a city in the south of Mali and the capital of the Sikasso Region. ... It has been suggested that Impact of Slave Trade on Africa be merged into this article or section. ... Dahomey was a kingdom in Africa, situated in what is now the nation of Benin. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Firearms redirects here. ...


The expanding Atlantic slave trade produced significant populations of West Africans living in the New World, recently colonized by Europeans. The oldest known remains of African slaves in the Americas were found in Mexico in early 2006; they are thought to date from the late 16th century and the mid-17th century.[4] European and American governments passed legislation prohibiting the Atlantic slave trade in the 19th century, though slavery in the Americas persisted in some capacity through the century in the Americas; the last country to abolish the institution was Brazil in 1888. Descendants of West Africans make up large and important segments of the population in Brazil, the Caribbean, Latin America, and the United States. The Atlantic slave trade, also known as the Transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African persons supplied to the colonies of the New World that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... West Indies redirects here. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


Colonialism

In the early nineteenth century, a series of Fulani reformist jihads swept across the Western Sudan. The most notable include Usman dan Fodio's Fulani Empire, which replaced the Hausa city-states, Seku Amadu's Massina Empire, which defeated the Bambara, and El Hadj Umar Tall's Toucouleur Empire, which briefly conquered much of modern-day Mali. However, the French and British continued to advance in the Scramble for Africa, subjugating kingdom after kingdom. With the fall of Samory Ture's new-founded Wassoulou Empire in 1898 and the Ashanti queen Yaa Asantewaa in 1902, West African military resistance to colonial rule came to an effective end. For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Shaihu Usman dan Fodio (Arabic: عثمان بن فودي ، عثمان دان فوديو‎) (also referred to as Shaikh Usman Ibn Fodio , Shehu Uthman Dan Fuduye, or Shehu Usman dan Fodio, 1754 - 1817) was a writer and Islamic reformer. ... The Fulani Empire was one of the most powerful states in sub-Saharan Africa in the years prior to European colonization. ... The Hausa are a Sahelian people chiefly located in the West African regions of northern Nigeria and southeastern Niger. ... Seku Amadu (1773–1845) was the founder of the Peul Massina Empire in what is now the Mopti Region of Mali. ... The Massina Empire was a nineteenth-century Peul empire centered in the Mopti Region of present-day Mali. ... El Hadj Umar Tall, also Umar Tal,Umar Taal Umar Futi, al-Hajj Umar ibn Said Tal, or el-Hadj Omar ibn Said Tal, (ca. ... The Toucouleur Empire was founded in the nineteenth century by El Hadj Umar Tall of the Toucouleur people, in part of present-day Mali. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... Samori Ture Samori Ture (also Samory Touré or Samori ibn Lafiya Ture, c. ... The Wassoulou Empire was a short-lived (1878 - 1898) empire of West Africa built from the conquests of Dyula ruler Samori Ture and destroyed by the French colonial army. ... Flag of the Ashanti people The Ashanti (also Asante) are a major ethnic group from Africa who speak a dialect of Akan. ... image:Asantewaa. ...


Britain controlled The Gambia, Sierra Leone, Ghana, and Nigeria throughout the colonial era, while France unified Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Burkina Faso, Benin, Côte d'Ivoire and Niger into French West Africa. Portugal founded the colony of Guinea-Bissau, while Germany claimed Togoland, but was forced to divide it between France and Britain following First World War. Only Liberia retained its independence, at the price of major territorial concessions. Location of French West Africa French West Africa (French: ) was a federation of eight French territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea (now Guinea), Côte dIvoire, Niger, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) and Dahomey (now Benin). ... Togoland was a German protectorate in West Africa. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


Postcolonial era

Following Second World War, nationalist movements arose across West Africa. In 1957, Ghana, under Kwame Nkrumah, became the first sub-Saharan colony to achieve its independence, followed the next year by France's colonies; by 1974, West Africa's nations were entirely autonomous. Since independence, many West African nations have been plagued by corruption and instability, with notable civil wars in Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Côte d'Ivoire, and a succession of military coups in Ghana and Burkina Faso. Many states have failed to develop their economies despite enviable natural resources (see: Petroleum in Nigeria), and political instability is often accompanied by undemocratic government. AIDS is also a growing problem for the region, particularly in Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, and Nigeria. Famine has been a problem in parts of northern Mali and Niger, the latter of which is currently undergoing a food crisis. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Kwame Nkrumah (September 21, 1909 - April 27, 1972)[1], one of the most influential Pan-Africanists of the 20th century, served as the founder, and first President of Ghana. ... The extraction and drilling of petroleum in Nigeria is the largest industry and main generator of GDP in the West African nation which is also the continents most populous. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Niger vegetation maps. ...


Regional organizations

The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), founded by the 1975 Treaty of Lagos, is an organization of West African states which aims to promote the region's economy. The West African Monetary Union (or UEMOA from its name in French, Union économique et monétaire ouest-africaine) is limited to the eight, mostly Francophone countries that employ the CFA franc as their common currency. The Liptako-Gourma Authority of Mali, Niger, and Burkina Faso seeks to jointly develop the contiguous areas of the three countries. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) is a regional group of fifteen countries, founded on May 28, 1975 when fifteen West African countries signed the Treaty of Lagos. ... The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) was created by the Treaty of Lagos on May 28, 1975 in Lagos, Nigeria. ... Staates of UEMOA The West African Monetary Union (or UEMOA from its name in French, Union économique et monétaire ouest-africaine) is an organization of states of West Africa established to promote economic integration among countries that share a common currency, the CFA Franc. ... now. ... The Liptako-Gourma Authority is an regional organization seeking to develop the contiguous areas of Mali, Burkina Faso, and Niger. ...


See also

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Ashanti. ... Flag of the Ashanti people The Ashanti (also Asante) are a major ethnic group from Africa who speak a dialect of Akan. ... The Fulbhe (singular Pullo) or Fulani is an ethnic group of people spread over many countries in West Africa,Central Africa and as far as East Africa. ... Not to be confused with the modern country Ghana. ... The Hausa are a Sahelian people chiefly located in the West African regions of northern Nigeria and southeastern Niger. ... The Igbo, sometimes (especially formerly) referred to as the Ibo/Ebo, are an ethnic group in West Africa numbering in the tens of millions. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Jews of the Bilad el-Sudan יהודים הבילד אל-סודן (Hebrew) describes West African Jewish communities who either had their connection with known Jewish communities from the Middle East, North Africa, Spain, and Portugal. ... Extent of the Mali Empire (ca. ... Mandé is an ethnic group of West Africa. ... The Songhai are an ethnic group living in western Africa. ... The Yoruba (Yorùbá in Yoruba orthography) are a large ethno-linguistic group or ethnic nation in Africa; the majority of them speak the Yoruba language (èdèe Yorùbá; èdè = language). ... Manillas are penannular (almost ring-like) armlets, mostly in bronze or copper, very rarely gold, which served as a form of Primitive Money or barter coinage and to a degree, ornamentation, amongst certain West African tribes (Guinea Coast, Gold Coast, Nigeria, etc. ... // AFRC : Armed Forces Revolutionary Council CDR : Committee for the Defence of the Revolution CHRAJ : Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice CPP : Convention People’s Party CVC : Citizens Vetting Committee DFID : Department for International Development GACC : Ghana Anti-Corruption Coalition GII : Ghana Integrity Initiative IMF : International Monetary Fund NDC : National...

Further reading

  • Davidson, Basil. Africa in History. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.

References

  1. ^ The Maghreb, an Arabic word meaning "western", is a region in northwestern Africa comprised of Morocco (including Western Sahara), Algeria, Tunisia, and (sometimes) Libya (see North Africa).
  2. ^ The UN office for West Africa
  3. ^ Cape Verde is sometimes included due to its membership in ECOWAS.
  4. ^ "Skeletons Discovered: First African Slaves in New World". January 31, 2006. LiveScience.com. Retrieved on 2006-09-27.

The Arab Maghreb Union This article is about the region. ... Arabic redirects here. ... A map showing Northwest Africa Northwest Africa is the northwestern part of Africa. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
West Africa - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1440 words)
West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent.
West Africa occupies an area in excess of 6,140,000 km², or approximately one-fifth of Africa.
The northern section of West Africa is composed of semi-arid terrain known as Sahel, a transitional zone between the Sahara desert and the savannahs of the western Sudan to the south.
West Africa - definition of West Africa - Labor Law Talk Dictionary (899 words)
It is oriented west of an imagined north-south axis, principally on what is known as the Bulge of Africa.
Prosperous and culturally active states thrived in West Africa for many centuries, although a variety of forces including the slave trade and climactic change in West Africa led to these states' gradual decline.
In the fifth millennium, as the ancestors of modern West Africans began entering the area, the development of sedentary farming began to take place in West Africa, with evidences of domesticated cattle having been found for this period, along with limited cereal crops.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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