FACTOID # 13: New York has America's lowest percentage of residents who are veterans.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Werewolf" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Werewolf
An 18th century engraving, conveying that weapons used against vampires (wooden stakes and rosaries) are useless against werewolves
An 18th century engraving, conveying that weapons used against vampires (wooden stakes and rosaries) are useless against werewolves[1]

Werewolves, also known as lycanthropes or wolfmen, are mythological humans with the ability to shapeshift into wolves or wolf-like creatures, either purposely, being bitten by a another werewolf or after being placed under a curse. The medieval chronicler Gervase of Tilbury associated the transformation with the appearance of the full moon; however, there is evidence that the association existed among the ancient Greeks, appearing in the writings of Petronius. This concept was rarely associated with the werewolf until the idea was picked up by Gervase. Shape-shifters similar to werewolves are common in tales from all over the world, though most of them involve animal forms other than wolves. Werewolf might refer to: A Werewolf, a person who changes into a wolf. ... Further reading Christopher Frayling - Vampyres: Lord Byron to Count Dracula 1992. ... Our Lady of Lourdes appearing at Lourdes with Rosary beads. ... In folklore, lycanthropy is the ability or power of a human being to undergo transformation into a wolf. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Shapeshifting (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wolf (disambiguation), Gray Wolves (disambiguation), or Timber Wolf (comics). ... Look up Curse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Gervase of Tilbury (-c. ... For other uses, see Full Moon. ... This article is about the Roman author Petronius. ... For other uses, see Shapeshifting (disambiguation). ...


Werewolves are a frequent subject of modern fictional books and films, although fictional werewolves have been attributed traits distinct from those of original folklore, most notably the vulnerability to silver bullets.[2] For other uses, see Fiction (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ... Film may refer to: photographic film a motion picture in academics, the study of motion pictures as an art form a thin skin or membrane, or any covering or coating, whether transparent or opaque a thin layer of liquid, either on a solid or liquid surface or free-standing Film... The metaphor of the silver bullet applies to any straightforward solution perceived to have extreme effectiveness. ...

Contents

Origins

Many authors have speculated that werewolf and vampire legends may have been used to explain serial killings in less rational ages. This theory is given credence by the tendency of some modern serial killers to indulge in practices commonly associated with werewolves, such as cannibalism, mutilation, and cyclic attacks. The idea (although not the terminology) is well explored in Sabine Baring-Gould's seminal work The Book of Werewolves. Philip Burne-Jones, The Vampire, 1897 Vampires are mythological or folkloric beings that subsist on human and/or animal lifeforce. ... A portrait of the author The Reverend Sabine Baring-Gould (28 January 1834 – 2 January 1924) was an English hagiographer, antiquarian, novelist and eclectic scholar. ...


Until the 20th century, wolf attacks on humans were an occasional, but widespread feature of life in Europe.[3] Some scholars have suggested that it was inevitable that wolves, being the most feared predators in Europe, were projected into the folklore of evil shapeshifters. This is said to be corroborated by the fact that areas devoid of wolves typically use different kinds of predator to fill the niche; werehyenas in Africa, weretigers in India,[1] as well as werepumas ("runa uturunco")[4][5] and werejaguars ("yaguaraté-abá" or "tigre-capiango")[6][7] of southern South America.


Writer Ian Woodward theorized in his The Werewolf Delusion (1978) that the werewolf legend first developed when the Greeks, Romans, Celts and Germanic tribes were still in good relation with one another;

“When one race began to partition off its particular identity from the other, the superstition became slightly modified- in some cases intensifying its grip on the ancient imagination-according to local needs and cultures. With the growth of culture, too, came the growth of supernaturalism, from the roots of which grew werewolfery.”


—“The Werewolf Delusion”, Ian Woodward, Paddington Press, 1978

In his Man into Wolf (1948), anthropologist Robert Eisler drew attention to the fact that many Indo-European tribal names and some modern European surnames mean "wolf" or "wolf-men". This is argued by Eisler to indicate that the European transition from fruit gatherering to predatory hunting was a conscious process, simultaneously accompanied by an emotional upheaval still remembered in humanity's subconscious, which in turn became reflected in the later medieval superstition of werewolves.[8] Man Into Wolf; An Anthropological Interpretation of Sadism, Masochism and Lycanthropy is a book by Robert Eisler, published posthumously in 1951. ... See Anthropology. ... Robert Eisler (Vienna 1882—Oxted, Surrey 1949) was an Austrian Jewish art historian and Biblical scholar. ...

Werewolf, by Lucas Cranach der Ältere, 1512
Werewolf, by Lucas Cranach der Ältere, 1512

Some modern researchers have tried to explain the reports of werewolf behaviour with recognised medical conditions. Dr Lee Illis of Guy's Hospital in London wrote a paper in 1963 entitled On Porphyria and the Aetiology of Werewolves, in which he argues that historical accounts on werewolves could have in fact been referring to victims of congenital porphyria, stating how the symptoms of photosensitivity, reddish teeth and psychosis could have been grounds for accusing a sufferer of being a werewolf. This is however argued against by Woodward, who points out how mythological werewolves were almost invariably portrayed as resembling true wolves, and that their human forms were rarely physically conspicuous as porphyria victims.[1] Others have pointed out the possibility of historical werewolves having been sufferers of hypertrichosis, a hereditary condition manifesting itself in excessive hair growth. However, Woodward dismissed the possibility, as the rarity of the disease ruled it out from happening on a large scale, as werewolf cases were in medieval Europe.[1] Rabies has been suggested as being a likely originator of werewolf lore, seeing as how the symptoms of rabies bear some similarities to those manifested by werewolves. The Roman poet Ovid described the symptoms of Lycaon, one of the first mythological werewolves; Image File history File links Download high resolution version (747x964, 1540 KB) Description: Werwolf/Werewolf, Holzschnitt/Woodcut, 162 × 126 mm Source: Gotha, Herzogliches Museum (Landesmuseum) Date: um 1512 Author: Lucas Cranach der Ältere Permission: pd art File links The following pages link to this file: Werewolf ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (747x964, 1540 KB) Description: Werwolf/Werewolf, Holzschnitt/Woodcut, 162 × 126 mm Source: Gotha, Herzogliches Museum (Landesmuseum) Date: um 1512 Author: Lucas Cranach der Ältere Permission: pd art File links The following pages link to this file: Werewolf ... Self Portrait by Lucas Cranach at age 77 (1550), at the Uffizi Gallery, Florence Lucas Cranach the Elder (Lucas Cranach der Ältere, 1472 – October 16, 1553) was a German artist, known for his woodcuts and paintings. ... Porphyrias are a group of inherited or acquired disorders of certain enzymes in the heme biosynthetic pathway (also called porphyrin pathway). ... Photosensitivity is the amount to which an object reacts upon receiving photons of light. ... For other uses, see Psychosis (disambiguation). ... Hypertrichosis is a medical term, also known as Wolfitis, referring to a condition of excessive body hair. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation). ... Zeus turning Lycaon into a wolf, engraving by Hendrik Goltzius. ...

“In vain he attempted to speak; from that very instant His jaws were bespluttered with foam, and only he thirsted For blood, as he raged among flocks and panted for slaughter. His vesture was changed into hair, his limbs became crooked; A wolf-he retains yet large trace of his ancient expression, Hoary he is afore, his countenance rabid, His eyes glitter savagely still, the picture of fury”

These symptoms are argued by Woodward as having remarkable similarities to those shown by rabies victims, despite the fact that Ovid was describing what was then considered a werewolf. According to some European traditions, being bitten by a werewolf could result in the victim turning into one. Being bitten by a rabid wolf or person would have spread the condition in the same way. To the medieval mind, a rabid wolf or person would have been seen as a werewolf, especially if a person was attacked by one and subsequently developed rabid symptoms.[1]


Etymology

The earliest authenticated written record containing the word "werewolf" is present in Gervase of Tilburys Otia Imperialia written in 1212.[1] Little more than a century later, the 12th century poem The Romance of William and the Werewolf was translated from old French into English in the 14th century.[1] The name most likely derives from Old English wer (or were) and wulf. The first part, wer, translates as "man" (in the sense of male human, not the race of humanity). It has cognates in several Germanic languages including Gothic wair, Old High German wer, and Old Norse verr, as well as in other Indo-European languages, such as Latin vir, Irish fear, Lithuanian vyras, and Welsh gŵr, which have the same meaning. The second half, wulf, is the ancestor of modern English "wolf"; in some cases it also had the general meaning "beast." An alternative etymology derives the first part from Old English weri (to wear); the full form in this case would be glossed as wearer of wolf skin. Related to this interpretation is Old Norse ulfhednar, which denoted lupine equivalents of the berserker, said to wear a bearskin in battle. Events The first Great Fire of London burns most of the city to the ground Battle of Navas de Tolosa Childrens crusade Crusaders push the Muslims out of northern Spain In Japan, Kamo no Chōmei writes the Hōjōki, one of the great works of classical Japanese... Old English redirects here. ... WERE is an AM radio station in Cleveland, Ohio operating on 1300 kHz with studios in downtown Cleveland. ... Cognates are words that have a common origin. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ... The (Late Old High) German speaking area of the Holy Roman Empire around 950. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Etymologies redirects here. ... Old English redirects here. ... A Gloss–word, phrase, (or syllable), is the dictionary entry for that word. ... Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Berserker. ... Berserkers in the kings hall, illustration by Louis Moe, 1898 Berserkers (or Berserks) were Norse warriors who were commonly understood to have fought in an uncontrollable rage or trance of fury; the berserkergang. ...

Facsimile of the first seven lines of the 14th century English translation of the 12th century French manuscript The Romance of William and the Werewolf
Facsimile of the first seven lines of the 14th century English translation of the 12th century French manuscript The Romance of William and the Werewolf

Yet other sources derive the word from warg-wolf, where warg (or later werg and wero) is cognate with Old Norse vargr, meaning "rogue," "outlaw," or, euphemistically, "wolf".[citation needed] A Vargulf was the kind of wolf that slaughtered many members of a flock or herd but ate little of the kill. This was a serious problem for herders, who had to somehow destroy the rogue wolf before it destroyed the entire flock or herd. Herders would often hang the wolf's hide in the bedroom of a young infant, believing it to give the baby supernatural powers.[citation needed] The term Warg was used in Old English for this kind of wolf (see J. R. R. Tolkien's book The Hobbit) and for what would now be called a serial killer. Possibly related is the fact that, in Norse society, an outlaw (who could be murdered with no legal repercussions and was forbidden to receive aid) was typically called vargr, or "wolf." It is also speculated that werewolves are under the influence of a god who was once a lycanthrope. He visits them in their dreams before transformation and tells them specifically who to feed upon. Some believe it is the spirit of Lycaon, the first werewolf that does this deed. For other uses, see Supernatural (disambiguation). ... Varg redirects here, for the Norwegian black metal musician see Varg Vikernes. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation) and There and Back Again (disambiguation). ... Serial killers are individuals who have a history of multiple slayings of victims who were usually unknown to them beforehand. ...


The Greek term lycanthropy (a compound of which "lyc-" derives from the Proto-Indo-European root *wlkwo-, meaning "wolf") formally denotes the "wolf - man" transformation. Lycanthropy is but one form of therianthropy, the ability to metamorphose into animals in general. The term "therianthrope" literally means "beast-man," from which the words turnskin and turncoat are derived.[citation needed] (Latin: versipellis,[9] Russian : oboroten, O. Norse: hamrammr). The French name for a werewolf, sometimes used in English, is loup-garou, from the Latin noun lupus meaning wolf.[10] The second element is thought to be from Old French garoul meaning "werewolf." This in turn is most likely from Frankish *wer-wulf meaning "man-wolf."[11] In folklore, lycanthropy is the ability or power of a human being to undergo transformation into a wolf. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... Therianthropy (from n. ... For other uses, see Shapeshifting (disambiguation). ... The Latin nouns in this list are given first in the nominative case and then in the genitive (the latter of which yields all of the oblique forms). ... // Wolf (latin). ... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ...


World literature and folklore

Classical Literature

Zeus turning Lycaon into a wolf, engraving by Hendrik Goltzius.
Zeus turning Lycaon into a wolf, engraving by Hendrik Goltzius.

In Greek mythology, the story of Lycaon provides one of the earliest examples of a werewolf legend. According to one version, Lycaon was transformed into a wolf as a result of eating human flesh; one of those who were present at periodical sacrifice on Mount Lycæon was said to suffer a similar fate. Herodotus in his Histories[12] tells us that the Neuri, a tribe he places to the north-east of Scythia, were annually transformed for a few days, and Virgil is familiar with transformation of human beings into wolves.[13] Image File history File links Lycaon_turned_into_wolf-Goltzius-1589. ... Image File history File links Lycaon_turned_into_wolf-Goltzius-1589. ... A self portrait Hendrik Goltzius (1558 - January 1, 1617), Dutch painter and engraver, was born at Millebrecht, in the duchy of Julich. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Zeus turning Lycaon into a wolf, engraving by Hendrik Goltzius. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... The Histories of Herodotus of Halicarnassus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. ... According to Herodotus the Neuri were a tribe of Scythians described by as: Dniepr river Categories: Stub ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ...


In Metamorphoses, the Roman poet Ovid vividly described stories of men who roamed the woods of Arcadia in the form of wolves.[1] // Cover of George Sandyss 1632 edition of Ovids Metamorphosis Englished The Metamorphoses by the Roman poet Ovid is a poem in fifteen books that describes the creation and history of the world in terms according to Greek and Roman points of view. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation). ... This article is about a region of Greece. ...


The Roman scholar Pliny the Elder, relates two tales of lycanthropy. Quoting Euanthes,[14] he mentions a man who hung his clothes on an ash tree and swam across an Arcadian lake, transforming him into a wolf. On the condition that he attacked no human being for nine years, he would be free to swim back across the lake to resume human form. Pliny also quotes Agriopas regarding a tale of a man who was turned into a wolf after tasting the entrails of a human child. Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Species See text European Ash in flower Narrow-leafed Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) shoot with leaves Closeup of European Ash seeds 19th century illustration of Manna Ash (Fraxinus ornus) An ash can be any of four different tree genera from four very distinct families (see end of page for disambiguation), but... This article is about a region of Greece. ...


In the Latin work of prose, the Satyricon, written about 60 C.E. by Gaius Petronius Arbiter, one of the characters, Niceros, tells a story at a banquet about a friend who turned into a wolf (chs. 61-62). He describes the incident as follows, "When I looked for my friend I saw he'd stripped and piled his clothes by the roadside...He urinated in a circle round his clothes and then, just like that, turned into a wolf!...after he turned into a wolf he started howling and then ran off into the woods."[15] Satyricon (or Satyrica) is a Latin novel, believed to have been written by Gaius Petronius, though the manuscript text of the Satyricon calls him Titus Petronius. ... This article is about the Roman author Petronius. ...


European cultures

Many European countries and cultures influenced by them have stories of werewolves, including Albania (oik), Armenia (mardagayl) France (loup-garou), Greece (lycanthropos), Spain (hombre lobo), Mexico (hombre lobo and nahual), Bulgaria (varkolak), Turkey (kurtadam), Czech Republic/Slovakia (vlkodlak), Serbia/Montenegro/Bosnia (vukodlak, вукодлак), Belarus (vaukalak, ваўкалак), Russia (vourdalak, оборотень), Ukraine (vovkulak(a), vurdalak(a), vovkun, перевертень), Croatia (vukodlak), Poland (wilkołak), Romania (vârcolac, priculici), Macedonia (vrkolak), Slovenia (volkodlak), Scotland (werewolf, wulver), England (werewolf), Ireland (faoladh or conriocht), Germany (Werwolf), the Netherlands (weerwolf), Denmark/Sweden/Norway (Varulv), Norway/Iceland (kveld-ulf, varúlfur), Galicia (lobisón), Portugal/ (lobisomem), Lithuania (vilkolakis and vilkatlakis), Latvia (vilkatis and vilkacis), Andorra/Catalonia (home llop), Hungary (Vérfarkas and Farkasember), Estonia (libahunt), Finland (ihmissusi and vironsusi), and Italy (lupo mannaro). In northern Europe, there are also tales about people changing into animals including bears, as well as wolves. Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... This article is about the country in Europe. ... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... This article is about the country. ... The wulver is a kind of werewolf that is exclusively part of the folklore of the Shetland Islands of Scotland. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article is about the Spanish Autonomous Community. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ...

A German woodcut from 1722
A German woodcut from 1722

Werewolves in European tradition were mostly evil men who terrorized people in the form of wolves on command of the Devil, though there were rare narratives of people being transformed involuntarily. In the 10 century, they were given the binomial name of melancholia canina and in the 14th century, daemonium lupum. [1] In Marie de France's poem Bisclavret (c. 1200), the nobleman Bizuneh, for reasons not described in the lai, had to transform into a wolf every week. When his treacherous wife stole his clothing needed to restore his human form, he escaped the king's wolf hunt by imploring the king for mercy and accompanied the king thereafter. His behaviour at court was so much gentler than when his wife and her new husband appeared at court, that his hateful attack on the couple was deemed justly motivated, and the truth was revealed. Other tales of this sort include William and the Werewolf (translated from French into English ca. 1350), and the German fairy tales Märchen, in which several aristocrats temporarily transform into beasts. See Snow White and Rose Red, where the tame bear is really a bewitched prince, and The Golden Bird where the talking fox is also a man. Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This is an overview of the Devil. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is a standard convention used for naming species. ... Marie de France from an illuminated manuscript Marie de France (Mary of France) was a poet evidently born in France and living in England during the late 12th century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A Lai was a song form composed in northern Europe, mainly France and Germany, from the 13th to the late 14th century. ... Guillaume de Palerme (William of Palerne), hero of romance. ... A fairy tale is a story, either told to children or as if told to children, concerning the adventures of mythical characters such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, giants, and others. ... Snow-White and Rose-Red is a fairy tale written by the Brothers Grimm. ... The Golden Bird is a Brothers Grimm fairy tale about the troubled pursuit of a golden bird by a kings three sons. ...


Harald I of Norway is known to have had a body of Úlfhednar (wolf coated), which are mentioned in Vatnsdœla saga, Haraldskvæði, and the Völsunga saga resemble some werewolf legends. The Úlfhednar were fighters similar to the berserkers, though they dressed in wolf hides rather than those of bears and were reputed to channel the spirits of these animals to enhance effectiveness in battle.[1] These warriors were resistant to pain and killed viciously in battle, much like wild animals. Ulfhednar and berserkers are closely associated with the Norse god Odin. Harald Fairhair or Harald Finehair (Old Norse: Haraldr hárfagri, Norwegian: Harald HÃ¥rfagre), (c. ... Berserkers in the kings hall, illustration by Louis Moe, 1898 Berserkers (or Berserks) were Norse warriors who were commonly understood to have fought in an uncontrollable rage or trance of fury; the berserkergang. ... The Ramsund carving in Sweden depicts 1) how Sigurd is sitting naked in front of the fire preparing the dragon heart, from Fafnir, for his foster-father Regin, who is Fafnirs brother. ... Main article: Gray Wolf Wolf hunting is the practice of hunting wolves, especially the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus). ... This is the article about the chief god in North Germanic tradition; for other uses see Odin (disambiguation). ...


In Latvian folklore, a vilkacis was someone who transformed into a wolf-like monster, which could be benevolent at times.[citation needed] Another collection of stories concern the skin-walkers. The vilkacis and skin-walkers probably have a common origin in Proto-Indo-European society, where a class of young unwed warriors were apparently associated with wolves[citation needed]. “Meza Virs” redirects here. ... Vilkacis is the alter ego of an 18 year old Raver/Gamer. ... In Native American and Norse legend, a skin-walker is a person with the supernatural ability to turn into any animal he or she desires. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE) were a patrilineal society of the Bronze Age (roughly 5th to 4th millennium BC), probably semi-nomadic, relying on animal husbandry. ... For other uses, see Warrior (disambiguation). ...


According to the first dictionary of modern Serbian language (published by Vuk Stefanović-Karadžić in 1818) vukodlak / вукодлак (werewolf) and vampir / вампир (vampire) are synonyms, meaning a man who returns from his grave for purposes of fornicating with his widow. The dictionary states this to be a common folk tale. Vuk Stefanović Karadžić (Serbian Cyrillic: Вук Стефановић Караџић) (November 7, 1787 - February 7, 1864) was a Serbian linguist and major reformer of the Serbian language. ... Philip Burne-Jones, The Vampire, 1897 Vampires are mythological or folkloric beings that subsist on human and/or animal lifeforce. ...


Common amongst the Kashubs of what is now northern Poland, and the Serbs and Slovenes, was the belief that if a child was born with hair, a birthmark or a caul on their head, they were supposed to possess shape-shifting abilities. Though capable of turning into any animal they wished, it was commonly believed that such people preferred to turn into a wolf[16]. Kashubians (also Kassubians, or Cassubians, in Kashubian: Kaszëbi) are a Slavic ethnic group living in modern-day northwestern Poland. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


According to Armenian lore, there are women who, in consequence of deadly sins, are condemned to spend seven years in wolf form.[17] In a typical account, a condemned woman is visited by a wolfskin-toting spirit, who orders her to wear the skin, which causes her to acquire frightful cravings for human flesh soon after. With her better nature overcome, the she-wolf devours each of her own children, then her relatives' children in order of relationship, and finally the children of strangers. She wanders only at night, with doors and locks springing open at her approach. When morning arrives, she reverts to human form and removes her wolfskin. The transformation is generally said to be involuntary, but there are alternate versions involving voluntary metamorphosis, where the women can transform at will.


The 11th Century Belarusian Prince Usiaslau of Polatsk was considered to have been a Werewolf, capable of moving at supehuman speeds, as recounted in The Tale of Igor's Campaign: "Vseslav the prince judged men; as prince, he ruled towns; but at night he prowled in the guise of a wolf. From Kiev, prowling, he reached, before the cocks crew, Tmutorokan. The path of Great Sun, as a wolf, prowling, he crossed. For him in Polotsk they rang for matins early at St. Sophia the bells; but he heard the ringing in Kiev." Usiaslau Bryachislavich (also Vseslav also Usiaslau the sorcerer, ca. ... The Tale of Igors Campaign (Old East Slavic: Слово о плъку Игоревѣ, Slovo o pălku Igorevě; Modern Russian: Слово о полку Игореве, Slovo o polku Igoreve) is an anonymous masterpiece of East Slavic literature written in Old East Slavic language and tentatively dated by the end of 12th century. ...


There were numerous reports of werewolf attacks – and consequent court trials – in sixteenth century France. In some of the cases there was clear evidence against the accused of murder and cannibalism, but none of association with wolves; in other cases people have been terrified by such creatures, such as that of Gilles Garnier in Dole in 1573, there was clear evidence against some wolf but none against the accused[citation needed]. The loup-garou eventually ceased to be regarded as a dangerous heretic and reverted to the pre-Christian notion of a "man-wolf-fiend." The lubins or lupins were usually female and shy in contrast to the aggressive loup-garous.[citation needed] (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Cannibal redirects here. ... Giles Garnier (died January 18, 1573) Was a French hermit and cannibalistic, serial murderer convicted of being a werewolf. ...


Some French werewolf lore is based on documented events caused by the full moon. The Beast of Gévaudan terrorized the general area of the former province of Gévaudan, now called Lozère, in south-central France. From the years 1764 to 1767, an unknown entity killed upwards of 80 men, women, and children.[citation needed] The creature was described as a giant wolf by the sole survivor of the attacks, which ceased after several wolves were killed in the area. The Beast of Gévaudan (French: La bête du Gévaudan) was a legendary wolf-like creature that terrorised the former province of Gévaudan (modern day Lozère département), in the Margeride Mountains in south-central France from about 1764 to 1767. ... The Kingdom of France was organised into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département system superseded provinces. ... Gévaudan is a city in France, in Lozère department. ... Lozère (in Occitan Losera), is a department in southeast France near the Massif Central. ...


At the beginning of the seventeenth century witchcraft was prosecuted by James I of England, who regarded "warwoolfes" as victims of delusion induced by "a natural superabundance of melancholic."[18] (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Witch redirects here. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary...


American cultures

Main article: Skin-walker

During the Norse colonization of the Americas, it is thought by Woodward that the Vikings brought with them their beliefs in werewolves, which would manifest themselves in the folklore of some Native American tribes.[1] For other uses, see Skin-walker (disambiguation). ... The Vikings, or Norsemen, explored and settled areas of the North Atlantic, including the northeast fringes of North America, beginning in the 10th century. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, Amerindians, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ...

“Although the traditions, legends and supersitions of North America were then not properly formed, we can be certain that among the earliest notions to strike a common chord was a belief in, and a fear of, the wolf-demon. The wolf was common and pretty well evenly distributed throughout the North American continent, although it was known only in its natural shape and condition, for the inhabitants were not yet in the habit of supposing that, as in Europe and other countries, the fiercest wolves were men, transformed by magic into that shape for the purpose of devouring their fellows, or at least, their flocks and herds. The marauding Vikings and, later, the European settlers changed all that: first the Indian tribes were influenced by the proposition that a man could be transformed into the animal he feared most, the wolf; and then the white man, hearing about the strange stories of wolf-men among the Indians and relating it to those he had heard from European superstition, slowly formulated his own werewolf "tradition".”


—“The Werewolf Delusion”, Ian Woodward, Paddington Press, 1978

The Naskapi's believed that the caribou afterlife is guarded by giant wolves which kill careless hunters venturing too near. The Navajo people feared witches in wolf's clothing called "Mai-cob".[19] In Haiti, there is a superstition that werewolf spirits known locally as Jé-rouge (red eyes) can possess the bodies of unwitting persons and nightly transform them into cannibalistic lupine creatures.[1] Binomial name Rangifer tarandus The reindeer, known as caribou in North America, is an Arctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ... The Navajo people (or Diné) of the Southwestern United States are the largest Native American tribe in North America, with 298,197 people claiming to be full or partial Navajo in the 2000 U.S. census. ...


Characteristics

Traits and habits

European folklore often shows how werewolves in their human forms can be recognised. The meeting of both eyebrows at the bridge of the nose was one accepted trait of werewolves. Other indicators were curved fingernails, low set ears and a swinging stride. One method of identifying a werewolf in its human form was to cut the flesh of the accused, under the pretence that fur would be seen within the wound. One Russian superstition in a similair vein tells of how a werewolf can be recognised by bristles under the tongue.[1] The appearance of a werewolf in its animal form varies from culture to culture, though they are most commonly portrayed as being indistinguishable from ordinary wolves save for the fact that they have no tail (a trait thought characteristic of witches in animal form), and that they retain human eyes and voice. After returning to their human forms, werewolves are usually documented as becoming weak, debilitated and undergoing painful nervous depression.[1] Many historical werewolves were written to have suffered severe melancholia and manic depression, being bitterly conscious of their crimes.[1] One universally reviled trait in medieval Europe, was the werewolf's habit of devouring recently buried corpses, a trait which is documented extensively, particularly in the Annales Medico-psychologiques in the 19th century.[1] Fennoscandian werewolves were usually old women who possessed poison coated claws and had the ability to paralyse cattle and children with their gaze.[1] Serbian vulkodlaks traditionally had the habit of congregating annually in the winter months, where they would strip off their wolf skins and hang them from trees. They would then get a hold of another vulkodlaks skin and burn it, releasing the vulkodlak from whom the skin came from from its curse.[1] The Haitian jé-rouges typically try to trick mothers into giving away their children voluntarily by waking them at night and asking their permission to take their child, to which the disoriented mother may either reply yes or no.[1] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Becoming a werewolf

The majority of werewolf legends indicate that the transformation is usually preceded by extreme restlessness and anxiety. As the transformation takes place, the victim is struck by convulsions and contractions before finally retreating to the nearest wood in the form of a lupine animal.[1] This article is about the medical condition. ... Look up Contraction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Historical legends describe a wide variety of methods for becoming a werewolf, one of the simplest being the removal of clothing and putting on a belt made of wolfskin, probably as a substitute for the assumption of an entire animal skin (which also is frequently described).[20] In other cases, the body is rubbed with a magic salve.[20] To drink water out of the footprint of the animal in question or to drink from certain enchanted streams were also considered effectual modes of accomplishing metamorphosis.[21] Olaus Magnus says that the Livonian werewolves were initiated by draining a cup of specially prepared beer and repeating a set formula. Ralston in his Songs of the Russian People gives the form of incantation still familiar in Russia. According to Russian lore, a child born on December 24 shall be a werewolf. Folklore and literature also depict that a werewolf can be spawned from two werewolf parents. Look up salve in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In Italy, France and Germany, it was said that a man could turn into a werewolf if he, on a certain Wednesday or Friday, slept outside on a summer night with the full moon shining directly on his face.[1]


In Galician, Portuguese, and Brazilian folklore, it is the seventh of the sons (but sometimes the seventh child, a boy, after a line of six daughters) who becomes a werewolf (Lobisomem).[22] In Portugal, the seventh daughter is supposed to become a witch and the seventh son a werewolf; the seventh son often gets the Christian name "Bento" (Portuguese form of "Benedict", meaning "blessed") as this is believed to prevent him from becoming a werewolf later in life. In Brazil, the seventh daughter becomes a headless (replaced with fire) horse called "Mula-sem-cabeça" (Headless Mule). The belief in the curse of the seventh son was so widespread in Northern Argentina (where the werewolf is called the lobizón), that seventh sons were frequently abandoned, ceded in adoption, or killed. A 1920 law decreed that the President of Argentina is the official godfather of every seventh son. Thus, the State gives a seventh son one gold medal in his baptism and a scholarship until his twenty first year. This effectively ended the abandonments, but there still persists a tradition in which the President godfathers seventh sons. There are two well-known places called Galicia: Galicia, one of Spains autonomous communities. ... 7 (seven) is the natural number following 6 and preceding 8. ... Look up Appendix:Most popular given names by country in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The President of Argentina (full title: President of the Argentine Nation, Spanish: Presidente de la Nación Argentina) is the head of state of Argentina. ... A godparent, in many denominations of Christianity, is someone who sponsors a childs baptism. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ...


In other cases, the transformation was supposedly accomplished by Satanic allegiance for the most loathsome ends, often for the sake of sating a craving for human flesh. "The werewolves", writes Richard Verstegan (Restitution of Decayed Intelligence, 1628), Peter H. Gilmore, High Priest of the Church of Satan. ... Richard Rowlands (before 1560- after 1620), Anglo-Dutch antiquary, whose real name was Verstegen, was the son of a cooper whose father, Theodore Roland Verstegen, a Dutch emigrant, came from the Seventeen Provinces to the Kingdom of England c. ...

are certayne sorcerers, who having annoynted their bodies with an ointment which they make by the instinct of the devil, and putting on a certayne inchaunted girdle, does not only unto the view of others seem as wolves, but to their own thinking have both the shape and nature of wolves, so long as they wear the said girdle. And they do dispose themselves as very wolves, in worrying and killing, and most of humane creatures.

Such were the views about lycanthropy current throughout the continent of Europe when Verstegan wrote.


The curse of werewolfery was also considered by some scholars as being a divine punishment. Werewolf literature shows many examples of God or saints allegedly cursing those who invoked their wrath with werewolfism. Those who were excommunicated by the Roman Catholic Church were also said to become werewolves.[1] This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Excommunication is religious censure which is used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ...


The power of transforming others into wild beasts was attributed not only to malignant sorcerers, but to Christian saints as well. Omnes angeli, boni et Mali, ex virtute naturali habent potestatem transmutandi corpora nostra ("All angels, good and bad have the power of transmutating our bodies") was the dictum of St. Thomas Aquinas. St. Patrick was said to have transformed the Welsh king Vereticus into a wolf; St. Natalis supposedly cursed an illustrious Irish family whose members were each doomed to be a wolf for seven years. In other tales the divine agency is even more direct, while in Russia, again, men supposedly became werewolves when incurring the wrath of the Devil. This article is about Christian saints. ... This article is about the entities from Christian mythology. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 - March 7, 1274) was a Catholic philosopher and theologian in the scholastic tradition, who gave birth to the Thomistic school of philosophy, which was long the primary philosophical approach of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Statue of Saint Patrick Saint Patrick (died March 17, 462, 492, or 493), is the patron saint of Ireland. ... This article is about the country. ...

Exception

A notable exception to the association of Lycanthropy and the Devil, comes from a rare and lesser known account of a man named Thiess. In 1692, in Jurgenburg, Livonia, Thiess testified under oath that he and other werewolves were the Hounds of God.[23] He claimed they were warriors who went down into hell to do battle with witches and demons. Their efforts ensured that the Devil and his minions did not carry off the abundance of the earth down to hell. Thiess was steadfast in his assertions, claiming that werewolves in Germany and Russia also did battle with the devil's minions in their own versions of hell, and insisted that when werewolves died, their souls were welcomed into heaven as reward for their service. Thiess was ultimately sentenced to ten lashes for Idolatry and superstitious belief. Baltic Tribes, ca 1200 CE This article is about the region in Europe. ... For other uses, see Superstition (disambiguation). ...


A distinction is often made between voluntary and involuntary werewolves. The former are generally thought to have made a pact, usually with the Devil, and morph into werewolves at night to indulge in mischievous acts. Involuntary werewolves, on the other hand, are werewolves by an accident of birth or health. In some cultures, individuals born during a new moon or suffering from epilepsy were considered likely to be werewolves. Accident of birth is a phrase pointing out that no one has any control of, or responsibility for, the circumstances of their birth or parentage. ... The lunar phase depends on the Moons position in orbit around Earth. ...


Becoming a werewolf simply by being bitten by another werewolf as a form of contagion is common in modern horror fiction, but this kind of transmission is rare in legend, unlike the case in vampirism.[1] This article is about the medical term. ... “Horror story” redirects here. ... Vampirism is a term used differently in popular culture and in zoology. ...


Vulnerabilities

Werewolves have several described weaknesses, the most common being an aversion to wolfsbane (a plant that supposedly sprouted from weeds watered by the drool of Cerberus while he was brought out of Hades by Heracles). Unlike vampires, werewolves are not harmed by religious artifacts such as crucifixes and holy water. This article is about the herb sometimes known as wolfsbane. ... This article is about the mythical three-headed dog. ... For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... Alcides redirects here. ... Philip Burne-Jones, The Vampire, 1897 Vampires are mythological or folkloric beings that subsist on human and/or animal lifeforce. ... For other uses, see Crucifix (disambiguation). ... This article is about water that has been blessed. ...


Various methods have existed for removing the werewolf form. The simplest method was the act of the enchanter (operating either on oneself or on a victim), and another was the removal of the animal belt or skin. To kneel in one spot for a hundred years, to be reproached with being a werewolf, to be struck three blows on the forehead with a knife, or to have at least three drops of blood drawn have also been mentioned as possible cures. Many European folk tales include throwing an iron object over or at the werewolf, to make it reveal its human form, naked in cases from 1859.


Another vulnerability is to use a weapon of silver (bullet, knife etc). To stab a werewolf with a silver dagger, or to shoot it with a silver bullet is said to not only kill a werewolf, but to also cause it agony in the time before it dies, rather resembling being slowly burned from the inside. This article is about the chemical element. ...


In many countries, rye and mistletoe were considered effective safeguards against werewolf attacks. Mountain ash is also considered effective, with one Belgian superstition stating that no house was safe unless under the shade of a mountain ash.[1] Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Families Santalaceae (Viscaceae) Loranthaceae Misodendraceae Mistletoe is the common name for a group of hemi-parasitic plants in the order Santalales that grow attached to and within the branches of a tree or shrub. ... Mountain Ash is a name used for several unrelated trees. ...


Remedies

In antiquity, the Ancient Greeks and Romans believed in the power of exhaustion in curing people of lycanthropy. The victim would be subjected to long periods of physical activity in the hope of being purged of the malady. This practise stemmed from the fact that many alleged werewolves would be left feeling weak and debilitated after committing depredations.[1]


In medieval Europe, traditionally, there are three methods one can use to cure a victim of werewolfism; medicinally, surgically or by exorcism. However, many of the cures advocated by medioeval medical practitioners proved fatal to the patients.[1] A Sicillian belief of Arabic origin holds that a werewolf can be cured of its ailment by striking it on the forehead or scalp with a knife. Another belief from the same culture involves the piercing of the werewolf's hands with nails.[1] Sometimes, less extreme methods were used. In the German lowland of Schleswig-Holstein, a werewolf could be cured if one were to simply address it three times by its Christian name, while one Danish belief holds that simply scolding a werewolf will cure it.[1] Saint Francis exorcised demons in Arezzo, fresco of Giotto Exorcism (from Late Latin exorcismus, from Greek exorkizein - to adjure) is the practice of evicting demons or other evil spiritual entities from a person or place which they are believed to have possessed (taken control of). ...


Vampiric connections

Main article: Vampire

Philip Burne-Jones, The Vampire, 1897 Vampires are mythological or folkloric beings that subsist on human and/or animal lifeforce. ...

Folkloric overlap

In Medieval Europe, the corpses of some people executed as werewolves were cremated rather than buried in order to prevent them from being resurrected as vampires.[1] Before the end of the 19th century, the Greeks believed that the corpses of werewolves, if not destroyed, would return to life as vampires in the form of wolves or hyenas which prowled battlefields, drinking the blood of dying soldiers. In the same vein, in some rural areas of Germany, Poland and Northern France, it was once believed that people who died in mortal sin came back to life as blood-drinking wolves. This differs from conventional werewolfery, where the creature is a living being rather than an undead apparition. These vampiric werewolves would return to their human corpse form at daylight. They were dealt with by decapitation with a spade and exorcism by the parish priest. The head would then be thrown into a stream, where the weight of its sins were thought to weigh it down. Sometimes, the same methods used to dispose of ordinary vampires would be used.[1] The vampire was also linked to the werewolf in East European countries, particularly Bulgaria, Serbia and Slovakia. In Serbia, the werewolf and vampire are known collectively as one creature; Vulkodlak.[1] In Hungarian and Balkan mythology, many werewolves were said to be vampiric witches who became wolves in order to suck the blood of men born under the full moon in order to preserve their health. In their human form, these werewolves were said to have pale, sunken faces, hollow eyes, swollen lips and flabby arms.[1] The Haitian jé-rouges differ from traditional European werewolves by their habit of actively trying to spread their lycanthropic condition to others, much like vampires.[1] Philip Burne-Jones, The Vampire, 1897 Vampires are mythological or folkloric beings that subsist on human and/or animal lifeforce. ... This article or section should be merged with Hellenes Greeks in Ancient History In Latin literature, Græci (or Greeks, in English) is the name by which Hellenes are known. ... This article is about the species of animal. ...


Scholastic comparisons

In areas allegedly affected sympatrically by werewolves and vampires, the latter were almost invariably the most feared, as evidenced by the fact that while there are unnumerable accounts of individuals becoming werewolves by their own choosing, there are no testimonies indicating that people voluntarily became vampires.[1] Werewolves were typically unaffected by items or rituals used to cast away or kill vampires.[1]


Writers such as Woodward have compared werewolves and vampires as two differing personifications of sexual deviancy.

“There is it is true, a certain sexual element associated with the werewolf, although it does not approach the sado-erotic subtlety of the vampire. The werewolf is a crude and aggressive rapist; the vampire is a Don Juan among demons.” Flogging demonstration at Folsom Street Fair 2004. ... For other uses, see Don Juan (disambiguation). ...


—“The Werewolf Delusion”, Ian Woodward, Paddington Press, 1978

In fiction

Main article: Werewolf fiction

The process transmogrification is often portrayed as painful in film and literature. The resulting wolf is typically cunning but merciless and prone to killing and eating people without compunction, regardless of the moral character of its human counterpart. The form a werewolf assumes is not always that of an ordinary wolf but often anthropomorphic or otherwise larger and more powerful than an ordinary wolf. Many modern werewolves are supposedly immune to damage caused by ordinary weapons, being vulnerable only to silver objects (usually a bullet or blade). This negative reaction to silver is sometimes so strong that the mere touch of the metal on a werewolf's skin will cause burns. Current-day werewolf fiction almost exclusively involves lycanthropy being either a hereditary condition or being transmitted like an infectious disease by the bite of another werewolf. In some fiction, the power of the werewolf extends to human form, such as invulnerability, super-human speed and strength and falling on their feet from high falls. Also aggressiveness and animalistic urges may be harder to control (hunger, sexual arousal). Usually in these cases the abilities are diminished in human form. In other fictions it can even be cured by medicine men or even antidotes. // Werewolf fiction denotes the portrayal of werewolves in the media of literature, drama, film, games, and music. ... For other uses, see Shapeshifting (disambiguation). ... This article is about motion pictures. ... This article is about (usually written) works. ... Moral character or character is an evaluation of an individuals moral qualities. ... 7th millennium BC anthropomorphized rocks, with slits for eyes, found in modern-day Israel. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... The metaphor of the silver bullet applies to any straightforward solution perceived to have extreme effectiveness. ... In folklore, lycanthropy is the ability or power of a human being to undergo transformation into a wolf. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ...


The first feature film to use an anthropomorphic werewolf was Werewolf of London in 1935 (not to be confused with the 1981 film of a similar title) establishing the canon that the werewolf always kills whom he loves most. The main werewolf of this film is a dapper London scientist who retains some of his style and most of his human features after his transformation.[24] Werewolf of London was the first Hollywood werewolf movie, filmed in 1935 by Universal Pictures and featuring Henry Hull as Wilfred Glendon, a scientist bitten by a werewolf (played by Warner Oland) in Tibet. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ...


However, he lacks warmth, and it is left to the tragic character Talbot played by Lon Chaney Jr. in 1941's The Wolf Man to capture the public imagination. This catapulted the werewolf into public consciousness.[24] Sympathetic portrayals are few but notable, An American Werewolf In London and those in the Harry Potter literature being more recent examples. Other werewolves are decidedly more willful and malevolent, such as those in the Howling series. Lon Chaney, Jr. ... An American Werewolf in London is a comedy/horror film released in 1981, written and directed by John Landis. ... This article is about the Harry Potter series of novels. ... The Howling is a 1981 horror film directed by Joe Dante. ...


Some recent fiction also discards the idea that the werewolf dominates the mind when one transforms, and instead postulates that the wolf form can be used at will, with the lycanthrope retaining its human thought processes and intelligence.


Other uses of the term

In World War 2, the German SS formed an irregular network of Partisan-like units known as Operation Werwolf to resist the occupation of allied forces. These units were under the leadership of the SS and were comprised of members of that group, along with members of the Heer and Hitler Youth. Their campaign of resistance was, however, an almost complete fiasco, especially following their disownment by Hitler's successor, Grand Admiral Karl Doenitz.[citation needed] German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... Look up partisan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Werwolf (German for werewolf, the spelling Wehrwolf is incorrect) was a Nazi plan at the end of World War II for a clandestine force which would carry out guerrilla attacks against the Allies in the Allied-occupied regions of Germany. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... The German Army (German: [1], [IPA: heɐ]  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         For the SS division with the nickname Hitlerjugend see; 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend The Hitler Youth (German:   , abbreviated HJ) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party. ... Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz Karl Dönitz (September 16, 1891—December 24, 1980) was a naval leader in Nazi Germany during World War II. Despite never joining the Nazi Party, Dönitz attained the high rank of Grand Admiral (Großadmiral) and served as Commander in Chief of Submarines (Oberbefehlshaber der Unterseeboote), and...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Werewolf

Similair creatures Clinical lycanthropy is a psychiatric syndrome that involves a delusional belief that the affected person is, or has, transformed into an animal. ...

Modern fiction The Beast of Bray Road (or the Bray Road Beast) is an unknown creature first reported in the 1980s on a rural road outside of Elkhorn, Wisconsin. ... The Beast of Gévaudan (French: La bête du Gévaudan) was a legendary wolf-like creature that terrorised the former province of Gévaudan (modern day Lozère département), in the Margeride Mountains in south-central France from about 1764 to 1767. ... The Rougarou (alternately spelled as Roux-Ga-Roux, Rugaroo, or Rugaru), is a legendary creature in Laurentian French communities linked to European notions of the werewolf. ... A soul eater is a folklore figure in the traditional belief systems of some African peoples, notably the Hausa people of Nigeria and Niger. ... Therianthropy (from n. ... Philip Burne-Jones, The Vampire, 1897 Vampires are mythological or folkloric beings that subsist on human and/or animal lifeforce. ... American Werewolf in London captioned as a vârcolac in Romanian A vârcolac in Romanian folklore may refer to several different figures. ... Barbara Minerva as the form-changing supervillain Cheetah, by Justiniano Werecats (also written in a hyphenated form as were-cats) are creatures of folklore, fantasy fiction, horror fiction and occultism that are generally described as shapeshifters who are similar to werewolves, except that they turn into creatures that are based... The Werewolf Priest is one of a number of urban legends that has persisted throughout most of recorded history. ... Werwolf (German for werewolf, the spelling Wehrwolf is incorrect) was a Nazi plan at the end of World War II for a clandestine force which would carry out guerrilla attacks against the Allies in the Allied-occupied regions of Germany. ...

This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... A Werewolf is a human who tranforms into a wolf-like figure on nights of the full moon in the fictional Buffyverse established by Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Angel. ... A werewolf in the Harry Potter series is a human who, at the full moon, transforms into a wolf. ... Werewolf: the Forsaken is a role-playing game set in the new World of Darkness created by White Wolf Game Studio. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai Woodward, Ian (1979). The Werewolf Delusion, pp.256. ISBN 0448231700. 
  2. ^ They originated in Germany, and there were similar creatures in IndiaSummers, Montague. The Werewolf in Lore and Legend. Dover. ISBN 0-486-43090-1. 
  3. ^ Is the fear of wolves justified? A Fennoscandian perspective.. Acta Zoologica Lituanica, 2003, Volumen 13, Numerus 1. Retrieved on 2008-05-09.
  4. ^ Facundo Quiroga, "The Tiger of the Argentine Praries" and the Legend of the "runa uturuncu" (in Spanish).
  5. ^ The Legend of the runa uturuncu in the Mythology of the Latin-American guerilla (in Spanish).
  6. ^ The Guaraní Myth about the Origin of Human Language and the tiger-men (in Spanish).
  7. ^ J.B. Ambrosetti (1976). Fantasmas de la selva misionera ("Ghosts of the Misiones Jungle"). Editorial Convergencia: Buenos Aires.
  8. ^ Eisler, Robert (1948). Man Into Wolf - An Anthropological Interpretation Of Sadism, Masochism, And Lycanthropy. ASIN B000V6D4PG. 
  9. ^ Versipellis. Perseus Digital Library. Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  10. ^ (2000) "loup-garou", The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4. 
  11. ^ (2000) "Appendix I: Indo-European Roots: w-ro-", The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4. 
  12. ^ Herodotus. "iv", Histories, 105. 
  13. ^ Virgil. "viii", Eclogues, 98. 
  14. ^ Pliny the Elder. "viii", Historia Naturalis, 81.  22/34
  15. ^ Petronius (1996). Satyrica. Berkeley: University of California, 56. ISBN 0-520-20599-5. 
  16. ^ Willis, Roy & Davidson, Hilda Ellis (1997), World Mythology: The Illustrated Guide, Piaktus, ISBN 0-7499-1739-3 
  17. ^ The Fables of Mkhitar Gosh (New York, 1987), translated with an introduction by R. Bedrosian, edited by Elise Antreassian and illustrated by Anahid Janjigian
  18. ^ "iii", Demonologie. 
  19. ^ Lopez, Barry (1978). Of wolves and men, pp.320. ISBN 0743249364. 
  20. ^ a b Bennett, Aaron. “So, You Want to be a Werewolf?” Fate. Vol. 55, no. 6, Issue 627. July 2002.
  21. ^ O'Donnell, Elliot. Werwolves. Methuen. London. 1912. pp.65-67
  22. ^ Bennett, Aaron. “Lobo-Hombres of Latin America.” Fang, Claw, & Steel. Issue #13. Winter 2002.
  23. ^ Gershenson, Daniel. Apollo the Wolf-God. (Journal of Indo- European Studies, Monograph, 8.) McLean, Virginia: Institute for the Study of Man, 1991, ISBN 0941694380 pp.136-7
  24. ^ a b Searles B (1988). Films of Science Fiction and Fantasy. New York: Harry N. Abrams, p. 165-67. ISBN 0-8109-0922-7. 

Augustus Montague Summers (10 April 1880 - 10 August 1948) was an eccentric British author and clergyman. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... An eclogue is a poem in a classical style on a pastoral subject. ... This article is about the Roman author Petronius. ... This section does not cite its references or sources. ...

References

  • Baring-Gould, Sabine. The Book of Were-Wolves: Being an Account of a Terrible Superstition. London: Smith, Elder, 1865. ISBN 0-7661-8307-6
  • Douglas, Adam. The Beast Within: A History of the Werewolf. London: Chapmans, 1992. ISBN 0-380-72264-X
  • Lecouteux, Claude. Witches, Werewolves, and Fairies. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions International, 2003. ISBN 089281096-3
  • Prieur, Claude. Dialogue de la Lycanthropie: Ou transformation d'hommes en loups, vulgairement dits loups-garous, et si telle se peut faire. Louvain: J. Maes & P. Zangre, 1596. (By a Franciscan monk, in French)
  • Rev. Montague Summers, The Werewolf London: K. Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1933. (1st edition, reissued 1934 New York: E.P. Dutton, 1966 New Hyde Park, N.Y: University Books, 1973 Secaucus, N.J.: Citadel Press, 2003 Mineola, N.Y.: Dover, with new title The Werewolf in Lore and Legend). ISBN 0-7661-3210-2
  • Wolfeshusius, Johannes Fridericus. De Lycanthropia: An vere illi, ut fama est, luporum & aliarum bestiarum formis induantur. Problema philosophicum pro sententia Joan. Bodini ... adversus dissentaneas aliquorum opiniones noviter assertum... Leipzig: Typis Abrahami Lambergi, 1591. (In Latin; microfilm held by the United States National Library of Medicine)

A portrait of the author The Reverend Sabine Baring-Gould (28 January 1834 – 2 January 1924) was an English hagiographer, antiquarian, novelist and eclectic scholar. ... Augustus Montague Summers (10 April 1880 - 10 August 1948) was an eccentric British author and clergyman. ... The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the worlds largest medical library. ...

External links

  • Arby Stones, "Hellhounds, Werewolves and the Germanic Underworld"
  • The Book of Were-Wolves, by Sabine Baring-Gould, 1865
  • Therianthropy History Timeline
  • Cryptozoology - Werewolf - Skeptic World
  • Allen Varney, "The New Improved Beast"

Stephenie Meyer's Twilight, New Moon, and Eclipse share some characters who are werewolves...NS


  Results from FactBites:
 
Werewolf (0 words)
Werewolf is a simple game for a large group of people (seven or more.) It requires no equipment besides some bits of paper; you can play it just sitting in a circle.
Everyone closes their eyes, the werewolves (or werewolf) secretly select someone to kill, the seer (if alive) secretly learns another player's status; then the sun rises, one player is found dead, and the remaining players begin to discuss another lynching.
When the seer secretly points to a player at night, the moderator says out loud "Yes, that's a werewolf" or "No, that's not a werewolf." (Avoid "he" and "she"!) The other players still don't know who was pointing or who was pointed at, but they do know what the answer was.
Werewolf Legends from Germany (8092 words)
However, a werewolf could not be brought down with a rifle bullet, nor would it ever fall into a wolf pit.
A woman had taken on the form of a werewolf and had attacked the herd of a shepherd, whom she hated, causing great damage.
This werewolf spent the nights stealing sheep from their enclosures, for in those days the sheep were kept at night in enclosures in the open fields.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m