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Encyclopedia > Wends
Wends on the shores of Baltic Sea in 9th century Europe
Wends on the shores of Baltic Sea in 9th century Europe

Wends (German: Wenden; Latin: Venedi) is the English name for West Slavs that had settled in the area between the Oder River on the east and the Elbe and Saale rivers on the west by the 5th century CE, in what is now eastern Germany. [1] The historical Wends are also referred to as "Venedes" mostly in other languages. [2] In the present day, it specifically refers to the Sorbs living in modern-day Germany.[3] The name is derived from the German term Wenden, used for various non-Germanic tribes (see also Germanic placenames). Capital Vend (left), lowercase Vend (right) Vend is a letter of Old Norse. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... The Baltic Veneti (alternatively also called the Vistula Veneti) were an ancient Indo-European people living in contemporary Poland, along the rivers of Oder and the Vistula. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Pomeranians (Pomorzanie) are a group of Slavic tribes living in historical region of Pomerania along the shore of Baltic Sea between Oder and Vistula rivers. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1477x1164, 301 KB) Summary Europe 814 From The Public Schools Historical Atlas edited by C. Colbeck, published by Longmans, Green, and Co. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1477x1164, 301 KB) Summary Europe 814 From The Public Schools Historical Atlas edited by C. Colbeck, published by Longmans, Green, and Co. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Countries inhabited by West Slavs (in light green) Distribution of Slavic peoples by language Map showing an approximation location of Polish tribes West Slavs in 9th/10th century The West Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking West Slavic languages. ... The Oder (known in Czech, Slovak and Polish as Odra) is a river in Central Europe. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... Length 413 km Elevation of the source 728  m Average discharge  ?  m³/s Area watershed  ?  km² Origin  Germany Mouth  Elbe Basin countries Germany Saale is the name of two rivers in Germany: the Saxonian Saale (German: Sächsische Saale) and the Franconian Saale (German: Fränkische Saale). ... The Baltic Veneti (alternatively also called the Vistula Veneti) were an ancient Indo-European people living in contemporary Poland, along the rivers of Oder and the Vistula. ... The Sorbs are a Slavic minority indigenous to the region known as Lusatia in the current German states of Saxony and Brandenburg (in former GDR territory). ... Wal/Gal Many region names (and some place names) in Europe derive from the original Germanic word for stranger or foreigner, rendered as wal or gal (and variations). ...

Contents

History

Early sources

In the third book of his Geographia, Ptolemy mentions the Ouenedai or Venedes among other dwellers on the Baltic shore in the middle of the 2nd century CE; some scholars have suggested the Venedes are synonymous with the Wends.[4] The Geographia is Ptolemys main work besides the Almagest. ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... The Baltic Veneti (alternatively also called the Vistula Veneti) were an ancient Indo-European people living in contemporary Poland, along the rivers of Oder and the Vistula. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...


Rise (500-1000 AD)

As a part of the Slavic migrations in the first millennium, splitting the just evolved Slav ethnicity into Southern, Eastern and Western groups, some West Slavs moved into the areas between the Elbe and Oder Rivers from east to west and from south to north. There, they assimilated the remaining Germanic population that had not left the area in the Migration period. Their German neighbors adapted the term they had been using for peoples east of the Elbe River before to the Slavs, calling them Wends as they called the Venedi before and probably the Vandals also. The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Countries inhabited by West Slavs (in light green) Distribution of Slavic peoples by language Map showing an approximation location of Polish tribes West Slavs in 9th/10th century The West Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking West Slavic languages. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ...


While the Wends were arriving in so-called Germanica Slavica as large homogeneous groups, they soon divided into a variety of small tribes, with large strips of woodland separating one tribal settlement area from another. Their tribal names were derived from local place names, sometimes adopting the Germanic tradition (e.g. Heveller from Havel, Rujanes from Rugians). Settlements were secured by round burghs made of wood and clay, where either people could retreat in case of a raid from the neighboring tribe or used as military strongholds or outposts. The Havolane (Slavonic name) or Heveller (German name) were a Slavic tribe who lived around the river Havel in the Brandenburg area in eastern Germany from the 8th century onwards. ... The Rani were a West Slavic tribe based on the island of Rugia in what is today northeast Germany. ... The Rugians (Latin rugii) were an East Germanic tribe whose ultimate origins have been traced to Rogaland in Norway, whose population probably was the Rugii that Jordanes mentioned as a tribe that still remained in Scandza. ...


Some tribes unified to larger, duchy-like units. E.g., the Obotrites evolved from the unification of the Holstein and Western Mecklenburg tribes led by mighty dukes known for their raids into German Saxony. The Pomeranians, the only Wends east of the Oder River (in contrast, the Poles south of the Warthe River are not called Wends), emerged from the tribes north of the Warthe River and around the mouth of the Oder River, and were led by a duke, too. The Liutizians were an alliance of tribes living between Obotrites and Pomeranians. They did not unify under a duke, but remained independent and had their leaders meet and decide in the temple of Rethra. The Obotrites (German: ; Polish: ), also commonly known as the Obodrites, Abotrites, or Abodrites, were a confederation of medieval West Slavic tribes within the territory of modern Mecklenburg and Holstein in northern Germany (see Polabian Slavs). ... Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe and Eider. ... The name Mecklenburg derives from a castle named Mikilenburg (Old German: big castle), located between the cities of Schwerin and Wismar. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... Pomeranians (Pomorzanie) are a group of Slavic tribes living in historical region of Pomerania along the shore of Baltic Sea between Oder and Vistula rivers. ... “Warta” redirects here. ... The Veleti (German: ; Polish: ), also known as the Liutizians (also Liutizi, Lyutitzi, or Liutitians; German: Liutizen or Lutizen) or Wilzi(ans) (also Wiltzes; German: Wilzen), were a group of medieval West Slavic tribes within the territory of modern northeastern Germany (see Polabian Slavs). ... Rethra (or Riedegost) was the holy centre of the wends. ...


The Wends of Pomerania are named by Saxo Grammaticus as having taken part in the Battle of Bråvalla on the side of the Danes.[5] Pomeranians (Pomorzanie) are a group of Slavic tribes living in historical region of Pomerania along the shore of Baltic Sea between Oder and Vistula rivers. ... Saxo, etching by the Danish-Norwegian illustrator Louis Moe (1857 – 1945) Saxo Grammaticus (estimated. ... The Battle of Brávellir or the Battle of BrÃ¥valla was a legendary battle that took place on the Brávellir between Sigurd Ring, king of Sweden and the Geats of West Götaland, and Harald Hildetand, king of Denmark and the Geats of East Götaland. ...


In 983, many Wend tribes participated in a great uprising against the Holy Roman Empire, which before had established Christian missions, German colonies and German administrative institutions (Marken such as Nordmark and Billungermark) in pagan Wendish territories. The uprising was successful and the Wends delayed Germanisation for about two centuries.


Decline (1000-1200 AD)

Main article: Wendish Crusade

After that victory, Wends were under increasing pressure from Germans, Danes and Poles. The Polish invaded Pomerania several times. The Danish often raided the Baltic shores (and, in turn, were often raided by the Wends). The Holy Roman Empire and its margraves tried to restore their Marken. The Northern Crusades, or Baltic Crusades, were undertaken by Western Europeans against the still heathen people of North Eastern Europe around the Baltic Sea. ... Margrave (Latin: marchio) is the English and French form (recorded since 1551) of the German title Markgraf (from Mark march and Graf count) and certain equivalent nobiliary (princely) titles in other languages. ...


In 1068/69, a German expedition took and destroyed Rethra, one of the major pagan Wend temples. The Wendish religious centre shifted to Arkona thereafter. In 1124 and 1128, the Pomeranians and some Liutizians were baptised. In 1147, the Wend crusade took place. Cape Arkona is a cape on the island of Rügen in Germany. ...


In 1168 during the Northern Crusades, Denmark mounted a crusade lead by Bishop Absalon and King Valdemar the Great against the Wends of Rugia in order to convert them to Christianity. They captured and destroyed Arkona, the Wendish temple fortress, and tore down the statue of the Wendish god, Svantevit. With the capitulation of the Rugian Wends, the last independent pagan Wendish were defeated by the surrounding Christian feudal powers. The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ... Statue of Absalon in Copenhagen Absalon (c. ... Valdemar I the Great (1131-1182) was King of Denmark from 1157 until 1182. ... The Rani were a West Slavic tribe based on the island of Rugia in what is today northeast Germany. ... View on Cape Arkona Cape Arkona is a cape on the island of Rügen in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. ... The Zbruch idol, on display in the National Museum in Kraków, Poland Modern Svetovid statue in Głogów, Poland Modern Svetovid statue in Otrebusy, Poland Sventevith, Svetovid, Suvid, Svantevit, Svantovit, Svantovít, Swantovít, Sventovit, Zvantevith, Świętowit, Sutvid, Vid. ...


From 12th to 14th century, German colonists were called in the Wend lands and settled there in large numbers, changing the area from Slav to German. The settlers were called in by local dukes and monasteries to repopulate land devastated in the wars, to cultivate the large woodlands and heavy soils that have not been settled before, and to found cities Ostsiedlung. The German population assimilated most of the Wends, making them disappear as an ethnic minority except for parts of the Kashubs and Sorbs. Yet, lots of place names and some family names in eastern Germany still are of Wendish origin today. Also, the dukes of Mecklenburg, of Rügen and of Pomerania had Wendish ancestors. Evolution of German linguistic area from 700 to 1950 Settlement in the East (German: ), also known as German eastward expansion, refers to the eastward migration and settlement of Germans into regions inhabited since the Great Migrations by the Balts, Romanians, Hungarians and, since about the 8th century, the Slavs. ... Kashubians (also Kassubians, or Cassubians, in Kashubian: Kaszëbi) are a Slavic ethnic group living in modern-day northwestern Poland. ... The Sorbs are a Slavic minority indigenous to the region known as Lusatia in the current German states of Saxony and Brandenburg (in former GDR territory). ...


Between 1540 and 1973, the kings of Sweden were officially called king of the Swedes, the Geats and the Wends (Sw. Sveriges, Götes och Wendes Konung). The current monarch, Carl XVI Gustaf would be able to use the same title,[citation needed] but chose his royal title to be simply King of Sweden (Sveriges Konung), thereby changing an age-old tradition. Geats (Gautar Old Norse or Götar in Swedish) is the Old English spelling of the name of a Scandinavian people living in Götaland, land of the Geats, currently within the borders of modern Sweden. ... His Majesty King Carl XVI Gustaf (Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus), styled HM The King (born April 30, 1946), King of Sweden, is the son of Prince Gustaf Adolf (1906-1947) and Sibylla of Saxe_Coburg_Gotha (1908-1972), and the grandson of King Gustav VI Adolf. ...


Since the Middle Age, the kings of Denmark and Denmark–Norway carried the titles King of the Wends and Goths. The use of both titles was discontinued in 1972. Denmark–Norway is the historiographical name for a former political entity, union, consisting of the kingdoms of Denmark and Norway, including the Norwegian dependencies of Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. ... The title of King of the Goths was for many centuries borne by both the Kings of Sweden and the Kings of Denmark, denoting sovereignty or claimed sovereignty over the antique people of the Goths, which is sort of poetic explanation. ...


Other uses

The term Wends was also used in history in the following meanings:

  1. The Franks referred to most Slavs living between the Oder and Elbe rivers as either Wends or Sorbs, while in Slavic literature these people are called Polabian Slavs.
  2. In general, a German name for West Slavic people formerly inhabiting territories of pre-World War II Pomerania and historical eastern Germany. The term Wends was used in connection to all Slavs west of Poland and north of BohemiaPolabians, Pomeranians and Sorbs. It was also used to denote the Slovaks in German texts before ca. 1400.
  3. German and English name for Sorbs (White Serbs), a Slavic people who moved into Central Europe during the great migration, most likely in response to pressure by the westward movement of warlike peoples such as the Huns and Avars. Some of their descendants, also called Wends or Lusatian Sorbs (Łužyski Serby), still live in Lusatia today, where the Sorbian language is maintained in schools. Many Wends were driven out of the Kingdom of Prussia during the Revolutions of 1848. Many Lusatian Wends immigrated to countries that welcomed them as a source of cheap labor, including the United States and Australia. In the United States, the majority of Wends settled in Texas, where they became some of the earliest members of the Missouri Synod of the Lutheran church. A notable settlement of Wends in Texas is the town of Serbin, in Lee County, where a church, St. Paul's Lutheran Church, stands as a typical example of Wendish architecture. In St. Paul's, the pulpit is located in the balcony of the church.
  4. A Finnish historian, Matti Klinge, has speculated that the words Wends or Vandals used in Scandinavian sources occasionally meant all peoples of the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea from Pomerania to Finland, including some Finnic peoples. The existence of these supposed Finnic Wends is far from clear. In the 13th century there was indeed a people called Wends or Vends living as far as northern Latvia around the city of Wenden and it is not known if they were indeed Slavs as their name suggests. Some researchers think they were related to Finnic-speaking Votians.

This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... The Oder (known in Czech, Slovak and Polish as Odra) is a river in Central Europe. ... The Elbe River (Czech Labe, Sorbian/Lusatian Łobjo, Polish Łaba, German Elbe) is one of the major waterways of central Europe. ... The Sorbs are a Slavic minority indigenous to the region known as Lusatia in the current German states of Saxony and Brandenburg (in former GDR territory). ... Polabian Slavs is a collective term applied to a number of Slavic tribes living along the Elbe, between the Baltic Sea to the north, Solau to the west and Sudetes to the south. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Pommern redirects here. ... Historical Eastern Germany or Former German Eastern Territories are terms which can be used to describe collectively those provinces or regions east of the Oder–Neisse line which were parts of Germany after its unification in 1871 and were internationally recognised as such at the time. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Polabians are a Slavic people historically dwelling in the basin of the Elbe and on the Baltic coast of Germany. ... Pomeranians (Pomorzanie) are a group of Slavic tribes living in historical region of Pomerania along the shore of Baltic Sea between Oder and Vistula rivers. ... The Sorbs are a Slavic minority indigenous to the region known as Lusatia in the current German states of Saxony and Brandenburg (in former GDR territory). ... The Sorbs are a Slavic minority indigenous to the region known as Lusatia in the current German states of Saxony and Brandenburg (in former GDR territory). ... White Serbs were a Slavic tribe, which lived in the region around river Elbe (today in eastern Germany and western Poland) in the early medieval ages. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green). ... The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... Sorbian national flag The Sorbs (also Lusatians or Lusatia Serbs) are a relatively small west Slavic people, living as a minority in the region known as Lusatia in the German states of Saxony and Brandenburg (in former GDR territory). ... Lusatia (German Lausitz, Upper Sorbian Łužica, Lower Sorbian Łužyca, Polish Łużyce, Czech Lužice) is a historical region between the Bóbr and Kwisa rivers and the Elbe river in the eastern German states of Saxony and Brandenburg, south-western Poland (Lower Silesian Voivodeship) and the northern... This article or section should be merged with List of Sorbian languages The Sorbian languages are members of the West Slavic branch of languages spoken in eastern Germany. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Germany at the time of the Revolutions of 1848 was a collection of 38 states including parts of Austria and Prussia loosely bound together in the German Confederation after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... LCMS redirects here. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Serbin is a community in southwestern Lee County, Texas, originally established by Wends in the mid 1850s. ... Location in the state of Texas Formed Seat Giddings Area  - Total  - Water 1,642 km² (634 mi²) 14 km² (6 mi²) 0. ... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe which includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Finnic peoples (Fennic, sometimes Baltic-Finnic) refers to a group of related ethnic groups and nations speaking Finnic languages (also known as Balto-Finnic languages). ... The Vends were a small tribe who in the 12th-16th century lived in the area around the town of Wenden (now CÄ“sis) in what is now north-central Latvia. ... CÄ“sis (German: Wenden) is a town in Latvia located in the northern part of the Vidzeme Central upland. ... For the process of ballot-casting, see Vote. ...

References

  1. ^ Wend at Encyclopædia Britannica
  2. ^ Venedes at google books
  3. ^ Wends at Columbia Encyclopedia
  4. ^ A History of Pagan Europe By Prudence Jones, Nigel Pennick; p.195; ISBN 0415091365
  5. ^ Pre- and Proto-historic Finns by John Abercromby p.141

The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and sold by the Gale Group. ...

See also

Pommern redirects here. ... Kashubians, Kassubians, or Cassubians (Kashubian: Kaszëbi) are a Slavic ethnic group living in modern-day northwestern Poland. ... Throughout history, there has been different usage of the term (ON.) Wendland, Vendland, Ventheland or (Lat. ... The Baltic Veneti (alternatively also called the Vistula Veneti) were an ancient Indo-European people living in contemporary Poland, along the rivers of Oder and the Vistula. ... The Milceni or Milzeni (Czech: ; German: ; Polish: ) were a West Slavic tribe in Upper Lusatia. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Wends - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (497 words)
The term Wends was used in connection to all Slavs inhabiting west of Poland and north of Bohemia — Polabians, Pomeranians and Sorbs.
A notable settlement of Wends in Texas is the town of Serbin, in Lee County, where a church, St. Paul's Lutheran Church, stands as a typical example of Wendish architecture.
In 13th century there was indeed a people called Wends or Vends living as far as in Northern Latvia around the city of Wenden and it is not known if they were indeed Slavs as their name suggests.
Wends - Wikipedia (321 words)
Wends are a sub-group of the Sorbs, a Slavic people who moved into Central Europe during the Völkerwanderung, most likely in response to pressure by the westward movement of peoples like Huns, and Avars.
Reportedly, some of their descendants, also called Wends or Lusation Sorbs, are still living in Lusatia today, where the language is maintained in the schools.
Moreover, the Wends who wished to continue living in the Empire were compelled to worship the form of Lutheranism preferred by the Germans.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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