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Encyclopedia > Wen Tianxiang
Statue of Wen Tianxiang in his temple in Beijing.
Statue of Wen Tianxiang in his temple in Beijing.

Wen Tianxiang (Wade-Giles: Wen T'ien-hsiang) (文天祥, June 6, 1236January 9, 1283), "The Song Dynasty's Top Ranking Scholar and Prime Minister, the West River's Filial Son and Loyal Subject." Image File history File linksMetadata Wentianxiang_touxiang. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Wentianxiang_touxiang. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Wen Tianxiang (Wade-Giles: Wen Tien-hsiang) (文天祥, June 6, 1236–January 9, 1283), titled Duke of Xinguo, the last resisting Prime Minister of the Southern Song Dynasty, was captured by Kublai Khan, and was brought back to Beijing under house arrest, in the company of musicians and female entertainers. ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... // Events May 6 - Roger of Wendover, Benedictine monk and chronicler of St Albanss Abbey dies. ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ...


Wen Tianxiang was born in Luling (Ji-an), Jiangxi Province. In 1256 he was the top scholar in the imperial examinations. Wen Tianxiang is considered one of the most famous symbols of loyalty and patriotism in China. His writings are still taught in schools today.


In 1278, Wen Tianxiang was captured by the invading Yuan armies of Kublai Khan and taken to Beijing. Wen was offered a post in the Yuan and ordered to convince the remaining Song forces to surrender to the Yuan armies. Wen refused both and suffered for 4 years in a military prison before his execution. During this time he wrote many famous historical poems such as the "Song of Righteousness" (Zhengqige), and "Passing Lingdingyang". Kublai Khan or Khubilai Khan or the last of the great Khans (1215–1294), Mongol military leader, was Khan (1260–1294) of the Mongol Empire and founder and first Emperor (1279–1294) of the Chinese Yuan Dynasty. ... (help· info), a city in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...


Ancestry and Descendants

Wen Tianxiang adopted the three sons of his younger brother,when his own two sons died young. Some researchers claim Wen Tianxian as of Hakka (客家)descent, but there is no solid historical proof of this assertion.


Legend has the Wen family name existing during the western Zhou Dynasty, as far back as 3,000 years ago. Historical lineages can be documented to 1,500 years ago to Sichuan province. Alternative meaning: Zhou Dynasty (690 CE - 705 CE) The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... Sichuan (Chinese: 四川; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ssu-ch`uan; Postal Pinyin: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ...


There are now at least five branches of the Wen family in the provinces of Jiangxi, Hunan, Guangdong, and Fujian, and the Hong Kong SAR. Local dialect pronunciations would be "Man" (Cantonese) and "Boon" (Fujianese). Jiangxi (Chinese: 江西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsi) is a southern province of the Peoples Republic of China, spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south. ... Hunan (Chinese: 湖南; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a province of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting (hence the name Hunan, meaning south of the lake). Hunan is sometimes called 湘 (pinyin: Xiāng) for short, after the Xiang River which runs through the province. ... Guangdong (Simplified Chinese: 广东; Traditional Chinese: 廣東; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kuang-tung; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangtung or Canton Province, Jyutping: gwong2 dung1), is a province on the south coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Fujian (Chinese: 福建; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal System Pinyin: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of China. ...


Some descendants from the Chiu-Chow coastal section of the Wen family branch immigrated to Indochina, and these had their family name changed from "Wen" into "Van", in line with the Vietnamese pronunciation of the Chinese character "Wen". This article is about the Chinese town; for the Zen monk Chao-chou, see Zhaozhou. ... Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. ... 漢字 hànzì, hanja, kanji… in Traditional Chinese and other languages. ...


The well-known Ming dynasty painter and calligrapher Wen Zhengming belonged to the Wen family. The mother of Mao Zedong was supposedly a descendant as well. The preponderance of Wen Tianxiang's descendants still live in mainland China. Wen Zhengming (Wade Giles: Wen Cheng-ming)(文徵明, 1470–1559), leading Ming dynasty painter, calligrapher, and scholar. ... (help· info) (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976; Mao Tse-tung in Wade-Giles) was the chairman of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China from 1943 and the chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China from 1945 until his death in 1976. ...


One of the oldest continuous branches of the Wen family established itself in the Hengyang/Hengshan area of present-day Hunan shortly after AD 1000. A branch of this Wen family settled in the United States in the mid-1940s and is related through marriage to the prominent Sun family of Shouxian, Anhui (Sun Jianai; Fou Foong Flour Company 福豐麵粉廠) and the Li family of Hefei, Anhui (Li Hongzhang 李鴻章). The four major cities of Hunan Province, including Hengyang Hengyang (Simplified Chinese: 衡阳; Traditional Chinese: 衡陽; pinyin: ) is the second largest city of Chinas Hunan Province. ... Hunan (Chinese: 湖南; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a province of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting (hence the name Hunan, meaning south of the lake). Hunan is sometimes called 湘 (pinyin: Xiāng) for short, after the Xiang River which runs through the province. ... Anhui (Chinese: 安徽; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: An-hui; Postal System Pinyin: Ngan-hui, Anhwei or An-hwei) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Hefei (Chinese: 合肥; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hofei) is a prefecture-level city and the provincial capital of Anhui province, China. ... Li Hongzhang (February 15, 1823 – November 7, 1901) was a Chinese general who ended several major rebellions, and a leading statesman of the late Qing Empire. ...

Statue of Wen Tianxiang in San Tin Hong Kong.
Statue of Wen Tianxiang in San Tin Hong Kong.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (800x1067, 120 KB) Summary I shot this photo in San Tin Hong Kong in 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (800x1067, 120 KB) Summary I shot this photo in San Tin Hong Kong in 2005. ...

Wen Tianxiang Monuments

Jiangxi


Wen Tianxiang's hometown in Ji-an Jiangxi honors the famous national hero with a Mausoleum. Exhibitions of paintings, calligraphy, and even army uniforms supposedly left by Wen Tianxiang are displayed in the Wen Family Ancestral Temple in Futian. The Wen Tianxiang Mausoleum is located in Wohushan.



Beijing


The Memorial to Prime Minister Wen Tianxiang was built in 1376 during the reign of the Ming Emperor Hongwu. The location of Wen's execution is thought to be near the entrance to Fuxue Alley in the East City District of Beijing and a memorial has been established on the northern side of the entrance to South Fuxue Alley near Beixinqiao.


"The Song Dynasty's Top Ranking Scholar and Prime Minister, the West River's Filial Son and Loyal Subject," is carved into the columns of the memorial's main hall.



Hong Kong

Wen Tianxiang Memorial Park San Tin HK.
Wen Tianxiang Memorial Park San Tin HK.

The San Tin village in the New Territories of Hong Kong, have many surnamed "Wen" ("Man" in Cantonese). The "Wen" villagers trace their ancestry to Wen Tianxiang via Wen Tianshui (Man Tin-Sui), also a famous Song Dynasty general and the cousin of Wen Tianxiang. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x756, 197 KB) Summary Wen Tianxiang Memorial Park San Tin HK Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x756, 197 KB) Summary Wen Tianxiang Memorial Park San Tin HK Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... A major road, Kwong Fuk Road in Tai Po, a town in the New Territories. ...


A Wen Tianxiang Memorial Park and "Wen" ancestral hall and residences (Tai Fu Tai) in San Tin is a popular historical attraction in Hong Kong.


Published Works on Wen Tianxiang's Life and Poetry

Writing Poetry as Diary: Wen Tianxiang's Poem Series Yuan-fang Tung, The Chinese University of Hong Kong


"Writ in Blood": Wen Tianxiang's Lyric Songs Yang Ye, University of California, Riverside


Intellectual and Aesthetic Contexts for Wen Tianxiang's Poetry Michael A. Fuller, University of California, Irvine


 
 

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