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Encyclopedia > Welsh people

This article is about Welsh people who are considered to be an ethnic group and a nation. For information about residents of Wales see Demography of Wales Demographics of Wales as at the 2001 UK Census: Population: 2,903,085, Male: 1,403,782 Female: 1,499,303 Percentage of the population born in: Wales: 75. ...

Welsh people

Top row, left to right: David Lloyd George, Tom Jones, William Jones (mathematician). Bottom row, left to right: Alfred Russell Wallace, George Everest, Catherine Zeta Jones.

For Notable Welsh people see:
List of Welsh people
Category:Welsh people
100 Welsh Heroes
Total population

About 14 million Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who was Prime Minister throughout the latter half of World War I and the first four years of the subsequent peace. ... For other uses, see Tom Jones (disambiguation). ... Sir William Jones (1675 - 3 July 1749) was a mathematician. ... Alfred Russel Wallace Alfred Russel Wallace (January 8, 1823 — November 7, 1913) was a British naturalist, geographer, anthropologist and biologist. ... Photograph of Everest Colonel Sir George Everest (4 July 1790 – 1 December 1866) was a Welsh surveyor, geographer and Surveyor-General of India from 1830 to 1843. ... Catherine Zeta-Jones as seen in the 2004 film The Terminal Catherine Zeta_Jones (born September 25, 1969) is an Academy Award-winning Welsh actress. ... List of Welsh people is a list of notable Welsh people alphabetically within categories. ... 100 Welsh Heroes was a poll run in Wales as a response to the BBCs 100 Greatest Britons poll of 2002. ...

Regions with significant populations
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom:   est. 3,500,000[1]
Flag of Wales Wales: 3 million[2]
Flag of Scotland Scotland: 16, 623[3]
Flag of England England: 609,711[4]

Flag of the United States United States: 5,753,794 (2000 Census[5] ) Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Wales_2. ... This article is about the country. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... This article is about the country. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...


Flag of Canada Canada:    440,965[6]
Flag of New Zealand New Zealand:    9,966[7]
Flag of Australia Australia: 84,246 (2001 Census[8])
Flag of Argentina Argentina:20,000[9]
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ...

Languages
Welsh, English
Religions
Christianity[10], secular

Welsh people, (Welsh Cymreig, Cymro (Welshman), Cymraes (Welsh women)) are an ethnic group and nation associated with Wales and the Welsh language. Authors Dr. John Davies and Gwyn A. Williams argue the origin of the "Welsh nation" could be traced to the late 4th and early 5th centuries, following the Roman withdrawal from Britain.[11] According to a 2001 Labour Force survey, 87 per cent of respondents born in Wales claimed Welsh ethnicity.[12] Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Professor John Davies is Waless a historian, and a television and radio broadcaster. ... The Roman departure from Britain was completed by 410. ...

Contents

History

See also: History of Wales
Further information: Genetic history of the British Isles

During their time in Britain, the ancient Romans encountered tribes in present-day Wales that they called the Ordovices, the Demetae, the Silures and the Deceangli.[13] Speaking Brythonic, a Celtic language, these tribes are traditionally thought to have arrived in Britain from the mainland parts of Europe over the preceding centuries. However, some archaeologists argue that there is no evidence for large-scale Iron Age migrations into Great Britain.[14] The claim has also been made that Indo-European languages may have been introduced to the British Isles as early as the early Neolithic (or even earlier), with Goidelic and Brythonic languages developing indigenously.[14][15] Current genetic research supports the idea that people living in the British Isles are likely mainly descended from the indigenous European Paleolithic (Old Stone Age hunter gatherers) population (about 80%), with a smaller Neolithic (New Stone Age farmers) input (about 20%).[16] Paleolithic Europeans seem to have been a homogeneous population, possibly due to a population bottleneck (or near-extinction event) on the Iberian peninsula, where a small human population is thought to have survived the glaciation, and expanded into Europe during the Mesolithic. The assumed genetic imprint of Neolithic incomers is seen as a cline, with stronger Neolithic representation in the east of Europe and stronger Paleolithic representation in the west of Europe.[17][16] Most in Wales today regard themselves as Celtic, claiming a heritage back to the Iron Age tribes, which themselves, based on modern genetic analysis, would appear to have had a predominantly Paleolithic and Neolithic indigenous ancestry. When the Roman legions departed Britain around 400, a Romano-British culture remained in the areas the Romans had settled, and the pre-Roman cultures in others.[18] Caerphilly Castle. ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Ordovices were one of the Celtic tribes living in the British Islands, before the Roman invasion of Britain. ... The Demetae were one of the Celtic tribes living in the British Islands, prior to the Roman invasion of Britain. ... The Silures were a powerful and warlike tribe of ancient Britain, occupying approximately the counties of Monmouth, Brecon and Glamorgan. ... The Deceangli or Deceangi were one of the Celtic tribes living in the British Isles, prior to the Roman invasion of Britain. ... The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... In the British Isles, the Iron Age lasted from about the 7th century BC until the Roman conquest and until the 5th century in non-Romanised parts. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... This article explains the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Goidelic is one of two major divisions of modern-day Celtic languages (the other being Brythonic). ... Brythonic is one of two major divisions of Insular Celtic languages (the other being Goidelic). ... // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants, animals and other life forms. ... A population bottleneck (or genetic bottleneck) is an evolutionary event in which a significant percentage of a population or species is killed or otherwise prevented from reproducing, and the population is reduced by 50% or more, often by several orders of magnitude. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... This article concerns those peoples who consider themselves, or have been considered by others, to be Celts in modern times, ie post 1800. ... The Roman departure from Britain was nearly completed by 400. ... Events First invasion of Italy by Alaric (probable date). ... Romano-British is a term used to refer to the Romanized Britons under the Roman Empire (and later the Western Roman Empire) and in the years after the Roman departure exposed to Roman culture and Christian religion. ...


In two recently published books, Blood of the Isles, by Brian Sykes and The Origins of the British, by Stephen Oppenheimer, both authors state that according to genetic evidence, most Welsh people and most Britons descend from the Iberian Peninsula, as a result of different migrations that took place during the Mesolithic and the Neolithic eras, and which laid the foundations for the present-day populations in the British Isles, indicating an ancient relationship among the populations of Atlantic Europe.[3][4][5] According to Stephen Oppenheimer 96% of lineages in Llangefni in north Wales derive from Iberia. Genetic research on the Y-chromosome has shown that the Welsh, like the Irish are genetically very similar to the Basques of Northern Spain and South Western France although the Welsh do contain more Neolithic input than both the Irish and the Basques. [6][7]Genetic marker R1b averages from 83-89% amongst the Welsh.[8][9] [10] Bryan Sykes is Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Oxford, and a Fellow of Wolfson College, Oxford. ... Stephen Oppenheimer is a well-known expert in the field of synthesizing DNA studies with archaeological, anthropological, linguistic and other field studies. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Atlantic Europe is a geographical and anthropological term for the western portion of Europe which borders the Atlantic Ocean At its widest definition, it comprises Spain, France and the British Isles. ... , Llangefni is the county town of Anglesey in Wales and contains the principal offices of the Isle of Anglesey County Council. ... This article is about the Basque people. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Distribution of R1a (purple) and R1b (red) In human genetics, Haplogroup R1b (M343) (previously called Hg1 and Eu18) is the most frequent Y-chromosome haplogroup in Western Europe. ...


The people in what is now Wales continued to speak Brythonic languages with additions from Latin, as did some other Celts in areas of Great Britain. The surviving poem Y Gododdin is in early Welsh and refers to the Brythonic kingdom of Gododdin with a capital at Din Eidyn (Edinburgh) and extending from the area of Stirling to the Tyne.[19] John Davies places the change from Brythonic to Welsh between 400 and 700.[20] Offa's Dyke was erected in the mid-8th century, forming a barrier between Wales and Mercia.[21] The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Y Gododdin (The Gododdin), attributed to the 7th century poet Aneirin, is a series of 99 elegies to the men of the kingdom of Gododdin in north-eastern Britain who fell in the battle of Catraeth, thought to be Catterick in North Yorkshire, against the Angles, ca. ... Brythonic is one of two major divisions of Insular Celtic languages (the other being Goidelic). ... Gododdin (pronounced god-o-th-in), or Guotodin (Votadini in Latin), refers to both the people and to the region of a Dark Ages Brythonic kingdom south of the Firth of Forth, extending from the Stirling area to the Northumberland kingdom of Brynaich, and including what are now the Lothian... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... Broad Street at the heart of Stirlings Old Town area (called Top of the Town by locals) Stirling Castle (Southwest aspect) The main courtyard inside Stirling Castle. ... Events First invasion of Italy by Alaric (probable date). ... // Events Saint Adamnan convinces 51 kings to adopt Cáin Adomnáin defining the relationship between women and priests. ... Rough cross-section of Offas Dyke, showing how it was designed to protect Mercia against attacks/raids from Powys. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... The Kingdom of Mercia at its greatest extent (7th to 9th centuries) is shown in green, with the original core area (6th century) given a darker tint. ...


The process whereby the indigenous population of 'Wales' came to think of themselves as Welsh is not clear. There is plenty of evidence of the use of the term Brythoniaid (Britons); by contrast, the earliest use of the word Kymry (referring not to the people but to the land—and possibly to northern Britain in addition to modern day territory of Wales) is found in a poem dated to about 633. The name of the region in northern England now known as Cumbria is believed to be derived from the same root.[22] Only gradually did Cymru (the land) and Cymry (the people) come to supplant Brython. Although the Welsh language was certainly used at the time, Gwyn A. Williams argues that even at the time of the erection of Offa's Dyke, the people to its west saw themselves as Roman, citing the number of Latin inscriptions still being made into the 8th century.[23] However, it is unclear whether such inscriptions reveal a general or normative use of Latin as a marker of identity or its selective use by the early Christian Church. Events Oswald of Bernicia becomes Bretwalda. ... Cumbria (IPA: ), is a shire county in the extreme North West of England. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ...


The word Cymry is believed to be derived from the Brythonic combrogi, meaning fellow-countrymen,[24] and thus Cymru carries a sense of "land of fellow-countrymen", "our country"- and, of course, notions of fraternity. The name "Wales", however, comes from a Germanic walha meaning "stranger" or "foreigner". Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Germanic languages form one of the branches of the Indo-European (IE) language family, spoken by the Germanic peoples who settled in northern Europe along the borders of the Roman Empire. ... brass replica of the Tjurkö Bracteate showing the attestation of the name Walha Walha () is an ancient Germanic word, meaning foreigner or stranger (welsh) or roman. It is attested in the Roman Iron Age Tjurkö Bracteate inscription as walhakurne, probably welsh crown for Roman coin, i. ...


There are two words in modern Welsh for the English and this reflects the idea held by some that the modern English derive from various Germanic tribes (although there is little evidence for the extinction of the pre-Germanic inhabitants of England, and the idea ignores both the Scandinavian settlers in England and the Roman and Norman-French influences on English language, culture and identity): Saeson (singular: Sais), meaning originally Saxon; and: Eingl, denoting:-Angles,; meaning Englishmen in modern Welsh. The Welsh word for the English language is Saesneg, while the Welsh word for England is Lloegr. This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ...


There was immigration to Wales after the Norman Conquest, several Normans encouraged immigration to their new lands; the Landsker Line dividing the Pembrokeshire "Englishry" and "Welshry" is still detectable today.[25] The terms Englishry and Welshry are used similarly about Gower.[citation needed] Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... Norman conquests in red. ... The Landsker Line traditionally divides the Welsh speaking part of the Welsh county of Pembrokeshire – essentially the north – from the part annexed by the Normans and settled by Flemings known as Little England beyond Wales. ... Pembrokeshire (Welsh: ) is a county in the southwest of Wales in the United Kingdom. ... Gower redirects here. ...


The population of Wales increased from 587,128 in 1801 to 1,162,139 in 1851 and had reached 2,420,921 by 1911.[26] Part of this increase can be attributed to the demographic transition seen in most industrialising countries during the Industrial Revolution, as death-rates dropped and birth-rates remained steady. However, there was also a large-scale migration of people into Wales during the industrial revolution. The English were the most numerous group, but there were also considerable numbers of Irish and smaller numbers of many other ethnic groups.[27][28] For example, some Italians migrated to South Wales[11]. Wales received other immigration from various parts of the British Commonwealth of Nations in the 20th century, and African-Caribbean and Asian communities add to the ethno-cultural mix, particularly in urban Wales. Recently, parts of Wales have seen an increased number of immigrants from recent EU accession countries such as Poland. Demographic transition occurs in societies that transition from high birth rates and high death rates to low birth rates and low death rates as part of the economic development of a country from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economy. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... See also: British African-Caribbean community, Caribbean British, British Asian,Britsh Mixed Black British is term which has had different meanings and uses as a racial and political label. ... The term British Asian is used to denote a person of Southern Asian ancestry or origin, or sometimes Western Asian origin, who was born in or was an immigrant to the United Kingdom. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ...


21st century identity

2001 Census Controversy

The 2001 census revealed that one-third of the population of Wales described themselves as of British ethnicity, with respondents having to write in whether or not they were Welsh.[29] Controversy surrounding the method of determining ethnicity began as early as 2000, when it was revealed that respondents in Scotland and Northern Ireland would be able to check a box describing themselves as of Scottish or of Irish ethnicity, an option not available for Welsh or English respondents.[30][31] Prior to the Census, Plaid Cymru backed a petition calling for the inclusion of a Welsh tick-box and for the National Assembly to have primary law-making powers and its own National Statistics Office.[30] UK Census 2001 logo A nationwide census, commonly known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the Scottish people as an ethnic group. ...


With an absence of a Welsh tick-box, the only other tick-box available was 'white-British,' 'Irish', or 'other'.[30] The Scottish parliament insisted that a Scottish ethnicity tick-box be included in the census in Scotland, and with this inclusion as many as 88.11% claimed Scottish ethnicity.[32] Critics expected a higher proportion of respondants describing themselves as of Welsh ethnicity, similar to Scottish results, had a Welsh tickbox been made available. Additional criticism was leveled at the timing of the census, which was taken in the middle of the Foot and Mouth crisis of 2001, a fact organizers said did not impact the results.[33] However, the Foot and Mouth crisis did delay UK General Elections, the first time since the Second World War any event postponed an election. Notice telling people to keep off the North York Moors. ... Tony Blair William Hague Charles Kennedy The UK general election, 2001 was held on 7 June 2001 and was dubbed the quiet landslide by the media. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


In the census, as many as 14 per cent of the population took the 'extra step' to write in that they were of Welsh ethnicity.[34] Of these, Gwynedd recorded the highest percentage of those identifying as of Welsh ethnicity (at 27%), followed by Carmarthenshire (23 per cent), Ceredigion (22 per cent) and the Isle of Anglesey (19 per cent).[34] For respondants between 16 and 74 years of age, those claiming Welsh ethnicity were predominatly in professional and managerial occupations.[34]


Surveys

In the 2001 Labour Force survey, 87 per cent of respondents born in Wales claimed Welsh ethnicity.[12] Of those born in Wales, respondents in the local authority areas of Gwynedd, Ceredigion, Carmarthenshire, and Merthyr Tydfil each returned results of between 91 and 93 per cent claiming Welsh ethnicity.[12] Neath Port Talbot, Bridgend, Rhondda Cynon Taff, returned results 88-91 per cent of Wales-born respondents claiming Welsh ethnicity.[12] Powys, Anglesey, Denbighshire, Caerphilly, and the Vale of Glamorgan returned results of 86-88 per cent of respondents born in Wales claiming Welsh ethnicity.[12] Pembrokeshire, Swansea, Cardiff, Newport, Torfaen, Blaenau Gwent, Conwy, Flintshire, and Wrexham returned results of 78-86 per cent of those born in Wales claiming Welsh ethnicity.[12] Out of the total population of Wales, when taking into account those not born in Wales, the number claiming Welsh ethnicity drops to 60 per cent, representing 40% born outside of Wales.[12]


Culture

See also: Culture of Wales

This does not cite any references or sources. ...

Language

Main article: Welsh language

see also History of the Welsh language Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...

Percentage of Welsh speakers by principal area
Percentage of Welsh speakers by principal area

According to the 2001 census the number of Welsh speakers in Wales increased for the first time in 100 years, with 20.5% in a population of over 2.9 million claiming fluency in Welsh, or one in five.[29] The issue of locals being priced out of the local housing market is common to many rural communities throughout Britain, but in Wales the added dimension of language further complicated the issue, as many new residents did not learn the Welsh language.[35] Image File history File links Siaradwyr_y_Gymraeg_ym_Mhrif_Ardaloedd_Cymru. ... Image File history File links Siaradwyr_y_Gymraeg_ym_Mhrif_Ardaloedd_Cymru. ... For local government purposes, Wales is divided into 22 unitary authorities. ...


A Plaid Cymru taskforce headed by David Wigley recommended land should be allocated for affordable local housing, and called for grants for locals to buy houses, and recommended council tax on holiday homes should double.[36]


However, the same census shows that 25 percent of residents were born outside Wales. The number of Welsh speakers in other places in Britain is uncertain, but numbers are high in the main cities and there are speakers along the Welsh-English border.


Even among the Welsh speakers, very few people speak only Welsh, with nearly all being bilingual in English. However, a large number of Welsh speakers are more comfortable expressing themselves in Welsh than in English and vice versa, usually depending on the area spoken. Many prefer to speak English in South Wales or the urbanised areas and Welsh in the North or in rural areas. A speaker's choice of language can vary according to the subject domain (known in linguistics as code-switching). The term bilingualism (from bi meaning two and lingua meaning language) can refer to rather different phenomena. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Code-switching is a term in linguistics referring to alternation between one or more languages, dialects, or language registers in the course of discourse between people who have more than one language in common. ...


Thanks to the work of the Mudiad Ysgolion Meithrin (Welsh Nursery School Movement), recent census data reveals a reversal in decades of linguistic decline: there are now more Welsh speakers under five years of age than over 60. For many young people in Wales, the acquisition of Welsh is a gateway to better careers and increased cultural opportunity: Wales's third greatest revenue earner is media products and Cardiff boasts a world-class animation industry. Child picking up book. ...


Although Welsh is a minority language, and thus threatened by the dominance of English, support for the language grew during the second half of the 20th century, along with the rise of Welsh nationalism in the form of groups such as the political party Plaid Cymru and Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg (Welsh Language Society). The language is used in the bilingual Welsh Assembly and entered on its records, with English translation. Technically it is not supposed to be used in the British Parliament as it is referred to as a "foreign language" and is effectively banned as disruptive behaviour, but several Speakers (most notably George Thomas, 1st Viscount Tonypandy, himself born in Wales, close by Tonypandy) spoke Welsh in longer English-language speeches. A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a country. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Welsh nationalism is a popular political and cultural movement that emerged during the nineteenth-century. ... A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... Plaid Cymru (IPA:; English: ; often referred to simply as Plaid) is a political party in Wales. ... Tafod y Ddraig (the Dragons Tongue), the society logo Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg (the Welsh Language Society, often abbreviated to Cymdeithas or Cymdeithas yr Iaith) is a pressure group in Wales campaigning for the future of the Welsh language. ... The National Assembly for Wales (or NAW) (Welsh: Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) was established in 1998, following a 1997 referendum in which a small majority of voters (but not the electorate) voted in favour of the Labour Governments plans for devolution. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... It has been suggested that Speakers of the House be merged into this article or section. ... The Right Honourable Thomas George Thomas, 1st Viscount Tonypandy (29 January 1909 - 22 September 1997) was a British Labour politician. ... Tonypandy is a town in the county borough of Rhondda Cynon Taff, traditional county of Glamorgan, south Wales, lying in the Rhondda Fawr Valley. ...


Welsh as a first language is largely concentrated in the less urban north and west of Wales, principally Gwynedd, inland Denbighshire, northern and south-western Powys, Ynys Môn, Carmarthenshire, North Pembrokeshire, Ceredigion, and parts of western Glamorgan, although first-language and other fluent speakers can be found throughout Wales. However, Cardiff is now home to an urban Welsh speaking population (both from other parts of Wales and from the growing Welsh medium schools of Cardiff itself) due to the centralisation and concentration of national resources and organisations in the capital. “Native Language” redirects here. ... This article is about the county of Wales. ... Denbighshire (Welsh: Sir Ddinbych) is a county in North Wales. ... Powys is a local government principal area and a preserved county in Wales. ... Anglesey (historically Anglesea; Welsh: , pronounced (IPA)) is a predominantly Welsh-speaking island off the northwest coast of Wales. ... Carmarthenshire (Welsh: ) is a one of thirteen historic counties and a principal area in Wales. ... Pembrokeshire (Welsh: ) is a county in the southwest of Wales in the United Kingdom. ... For other uses please see Ceredigion (disambiguation) Ceredigion is a county and principal area in mid Wales. ... Glamorgan or Glamorganshire (Welsh: ) is one of thirteen historic counties and former administrative counties of Wales. ...


The Welsh language is an important part of Welsh identity, but not an essential part. Welsh people actively distinguish between 'Cymry Cymraeg' (Welsh-speaking Welsh), Cymry di-Gymraeg (non Welsh speaking Welsh) and Saeson (English). Parts of the culture are however strongly connected to the language - notably the Eisteddfodic tradition, poetry and aspects of folk music and dance. However, Wales has a strong tradition of poetry in the English language.


Religion

Most Welsh people of faith are affiliated with the Church in Wales or other Christian denominations such as the Presbyterian Church of Wales or Catholicism, although there is even a Russian Orthodox chapel in the semi-rural town of Blaenau Ffestiniog. In particular, Wales has a long tradition of nonconformism and Methodism. Other religions Welsh people may be affiliated with include Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Islam, and Sikhism, with most non-Christian people in Wales found in Cardiff. Flag of the Church in Wales The Church in Wales (Welsh: Yr Eglwys Yng Nghymru) is a member Church of the Anglican Communion, consisting of six dioceses in Wales. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A denomination... The Presbyterian church of Wales (Welsh: Eglwys Bresbyteraidd Cymru), also known as The Calvinistic Methodist Church (Welsh: Yr Eglwys Fethodistaidd Galfinaidd), is a denomination of Protestant Christianity. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic—from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1]—is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... The Russian Orthodox Church (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Blaenau Ffestiniog, seen from Moelwyn Bach, showing the large waste heaps that dominate the town. ... A nonconformist is an English or Welsh Protestant of any non-Anglican denomination, chiefly advocating religious liberty. ... For other uses, see Methodism (disambiguation). ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ...


The 2001 Census showed that slightly less than 10% of the Welsh population are regular church- or chapel-goers (a slightly smaller proportion than in England or Scotland), although about 70% of the population see themselves as some form of Christian. Judaism has quite a long history in Wales, with a community recorded in Swansea from around 1730. In August 1911, during a period of public order and industrial disputes, Jewish shops across the South Wales coalfield were damaged by mobs. Since that time the Jewish population of that area, which reached a peak of 4000 - 5000 in 1913, has declined with only Cardiff retaining a sizeable Jewish population, of about 2000 in the 2001 Census. The largest non-Christian faith in Wales is Islam, with about 22,000 members in 2001 served by about 40 mosques, following the first mosque established in Cardiff in 1860. A college for training clerics has been established at Llanybydder in west Wales. Islam arrived in Wales in the mid-nineteenth century, and it is thought that Cardiff's Yemeni community is Britain's oldest Muslim community, established when the city was one of the world's largest coal-exporting ports. Hinduism and Buddhism each have about 5000 adherents in Wales, with the rural county of Ceredigion being the centre of Welsh Buddhism. Govinda's temple & restaurant, ran by the Hare Krishna's in Swansea is a focal point for many Welsh Hindus. There are about 2000 Sikhs in Wales, with the first purpose-built gurdwara opened in the Riverside area of Cardiff in 1989. In 2001 some 7000 people classified themselves as following "other religions" including a reconstructed form of Druidism, which was the pre-Christian religion of Wales (not to be confused with the Druids of the Gorsedd at the National Eisteddfod of Wales). Approximately one sixth of the population, some 500,000 people, profess no religious faith whatsoever. Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... For other uses please see Ceredigion (disambiguation) Ceredigion is a county and principal area in mid Wales. ... Krsnas name is Govinda. ... Hare Krishna Mantra in Devanagari The Hare Krishna mantra, also referred to reverentially as the Maha Mantra (Great Mantra), is a sixteen-word Vaishnava mantra made well known outside of India by the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (commonly known as the Hare Krishnas).[1] It is believed by practitioners... For other places with the same name, see Swansea (disambiguation). ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... The Harimandir Sahib. ... Druidry or Druidism was the religion of the ancient druids, the priestly class in ancient Celtic and Gallic societies through much of Western Europe north of the Alps and in the British Isles. ... A gorsedd (SAMPA /gO:rsED/), occasionally spelled gorseth, plural gorseddau, is a community of bards. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The sabbatarian temperance movement was also historically strong among the Welsh, the sale of alcohol being prohibited on Sundays in Wales by the Sunday Closing Act of 1881 - the first legislation specifically issued for Wales since the Middle Ages. From the early 1960s, local council areas were permitted to hold referendums every seven years to determine whether they should be "wet" or "dry" on Sundays: most of the industrialised areas in the east and south went "wet" immediately, and by the 1980s the last district, Dwyfor in the northwest, went wet, since then there have been no more Sunday-closing referendums. A cartoon from Australia ca. ...


Symbols

The Welsh flag depicting y Ddraig Goch
The Welsh flag depicting y Ddraig Goch

The Welsh flag depicts the Welsh dragon (called Y Ddraig Goch, "the red dragon"), one of the most widely recognized Welsh national symbols and the national animal of Wales. It appears in the early legends of Merlin, and from them is taken to be the battle standard under which the Pendragons, Uther and Arthur rallied their troops. This symbol is said to derive from a tale of the Red Dragon of Wales defeating the White Dragon of England. Image File history File links Flag_of_Wales_2. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Wales_2. ... Y Ddraig Goch on the Flag of Wales Y Ddraig Goch (IPA: ) (Welsh for the red dragon) appears on the national Flag of Wales (the flag itself is also called Y Ddraig Goch), and is the most famous dragon in Britain. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The Welsh Dragon on the tailfin of an Air Wales ATR 42 aircraft. ... The flag of Wales is The Red Dragon (Welsh: Y Ddraig Goch). ... Y Ddraig Goch on the Flag of Wales Y Ddraig Goch (IPA: ) (Welsh for the red dragon) appears on the national Flag of Wales (the flag itself is also called Y Ddraig Goch), and is the most famous dragon in Britain. ... This is a list of national animals: See also list of national birds Categories: | ... Merlin Ambrosius (Welsh: Myrddin Emrys (Merlin the Wise); also known as Myrddin Wyllt (Merlin the Wild), Merlin Caledonensis (Scottish Merlin), Merlinus, and Merlyn) is the personage best known as the mighty wizard featured in Arthurian legends, starting with Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniae. ... Pendragon or Pen Draig, meaning head dragon or chief dragon (referring to a battle standard), is the name of several traditional Kings of the Britons: Aurelius Ambrosius, the son of Constantine II of Britain, is called Pendragon in the Vulgate Cycle. ... Uther Pendragon (French: Uter Pendragon; Welsh: Wthyr Bendragon, Uthr Bendragon, Uthyr Pendraeg) is a legendary king of sub-Roman Britain and the father of King Arthur. ... For other uses, see King Arthur (disambiguation). ...


Wales also has use of another flag, the flag of Saint David. Although unofficially a national flag it is flown across the country every year to mark Saint David's Day and in 2002 was incorporated into Cardiff City Football Club's logo. The Flag of St David The Flag of St David is normally a gold cross on a black field, although it appears in many forms including a black cross on a gold field, or with an engrailed cross. ... Saint Davids Day (Welsh: Dydd Gŵyl Dewi Sant) is the feast day of Saint David, the patron saint of Wales, and falls on March 1 each year. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Current season Cardiff City Football Club (Welsh: Clwb Pêl-droed Dinas Caerdydd) is a football team based in Cardiff. ...

The flag of St David
The flag of St David

The leek is another national symbol and is worn every year on Saint David's Day. According to legend, St. David (the patron saint of Wales) ordered his troops to identify themselves by wearing the plant on their helmets during a battle against the Saxons. The daffodil is the national flower, symbolizing chivalry and respect in the language of flowers. The Narcissus obvallaris species only grows in the Tenby area of Wales. Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_David. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_David. ... Binomial name Allium ampeloprasum (Linnaeus) J. Gay The Leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. ... Saint Davids Day (Welsh: Dydd Gŵyl Dewi Sant) is the feast day of Saint David, the patron saint of Wales, and falls on March 1 each year. ... Saint David (c. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... A person wearing a helmet. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Species ????? Daffodils are a group of large flowered members of the genus Narcissus. ... A national emblem is a symbol that represents a nation. ... For other uses, see Chivalry (disambiguation). ... Respect It also could be applied to taking care of oneself, others or the environment. ... For the indie pop band, see Language of Flowers (band). ... Harbour of Tenby in Nov, 2001 Tenby (Welsh: Dinbych-y-Pysgod, little town of the fishes) is a walled seaside town in Pembrokeshire, West Wales, lying on Carmarthen Bay. ...


Welsh emigration

Migration from Wales to the rest of Britain has been occurring throughout its history. Particularly during the Industrial Revolution hundreds of thousands of Welsh people migrated internally to the big cities of England and Scotland or to work in the coal mines of the north of England. As a result, much of the British population today have ancestry from Wales. The same can be said for the English, Scottish and Irish workers who migrated to Welsh cities such as Merthyr Tydfil or ports such as Pembroke in the Industrial Revolution. As a result, some English, Irish and Scottish have Welsh surnames ("Evans", "Jenkins" "Owen" etc.) and some Welsh have English, Scottish and Irish surnames - as a result, it is relatively rare in South Wales or English-speaking areas to find a person with exclusively Welsh ancestry. A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Merthyr Tydfil (Welsh: ) is a town and county borough in Wales, with a population of about 55,000. ... , Pembroke (Welsh: Penfro) is the traditional county town of Pembrokeshire in west Wales. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ...


Some thousands of Welsh settlers moved to other parts of Europe, but the number was sparse and concentrated to certain areas. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a small wave of contract miners from Wales arrived into Northern France, and the centre of Welsh-French populations are in coal mining towns of the French department Pas-de-Calais. Welsh settlers from Wales (and later Patagonian Welsh) arrived in Newfoundland, Canada in the early 1900s, many had founded towns in the province's Labrador coast region. Pas-de-Calais is a département in northern France named after the strait which it borders. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Labrador (also Coast of Labrador) is a region of Atlantic Canada. ...


Internationally Welsh people have emigrated, in relatively small numbers (in proportion to population Irish emigration to the United States of America (USA) may have been 26 times greater than Welsh emigration),[37] to many countries, including the USA (in particular, Pennsylvania), Canada and Patagonia.[38][39][40] Malad City in Idaho, which began as a Welsh Mormon Settlement, lays claim to having more people of Welsh descent per capita than anywhere outside of Wales itself.[41] Malad's local High School is known as the "Malad Dragons" and flies the Welsh Flag as its school colours.[42] Welsh people have also settled as far as New Zealand and Australia.[43][37] This article is about the U.S. State. ... Patagonia, as most commonly defined (in orange). ... Malad City (also commonly known as Malad) is the county seat and largest city of Oneida County, IdahoGR6. ... For other uses, see Idaho (disambiguation). ... This article is about the history and use of the word Mormon. For information about the religious beliefs and culture of Mormons, see Mormonism. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The national flag of Wales is The Red Dragon (Welsh: Y Ddraig Goch). ...


Around 1.75 million Americans report themselves to have Welsh ancestry, as did a further 28,000 in Canada's 2001 census.[5][6] This compares with 2.9 million people living in Wales (as of the 2001 census).[2] The Canada 2001 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. ... UK Census 2001 logo A nationwide census, commonly known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001. ...


There is no known evidence which would objectively support the legend that the Mandan, a Native American tribe of the central United States, are Welsh emigrants who reached North America under Prince Madog in 1170.[44] This article is about the Native American tribe. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... This article is about the legendary Welsh prince. ...


See also

Wales Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... List of Welsh people is a list of notable Welsh people alphabetically within categories. ... 100 Welsh Heroes was a poll run in Wales as a response to the BBCs 100 Greatest Britons poll of 2002. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The term Welsh literature may be used to refer to any literature originating from Wales or by Welsh writers. ... Welsh poetry may refer to poetry in the Welsh language, Anglo-Welsh poetry, or other poetry written in Wales or by Welsh poets. ... Wales is a part of the United Kingdom, but is a culturally and politically separate Celtic country. ... The United Kingdom has had a long history of immigration, from the Beaker people of the 3rd millennium BC, to the waves of invasions by the Roman Empire, the Anglo-Saxons and Normans, to the settlement of people arriving from the Colonies in the 19th and 20th centuries and finally... The Welsh settlement in Argentina began in the 19th century. ... The Chubut valley in Patagonia, Argentina forms the heart of the Chubut Province, the third largest province of Argentina. ... Map showing the population density of Americans who declared Welsh ancestry in the census. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Welsh Australians are citizens of the Australia whose ancestry originates in the northwest European nation of Wales (which is part of the United Kingdom). ... This article concerns those peoples who consider themselves, or have been considered by others, to be Celts in modern times, ie post 1800. ... Established 1999 by the Government of Wales Act 1998 Presiding Officer Lord Elis-Thomas AM (Plaid) Since May 12, 1999 Deputy Presiding Officer Rosemary Butler AM (Lab) Leader of the House Carwyn Jones AM (Lab) Chief Executive and Clerk to the Assembly Claire Clancy Political parties 6 Welsh Labour (26...

External links

References

  1. ^ Not Available UK Census 2001 collected data on country of birth but not on self-selected ancestry or ethnic origin as with the US, Australian and Canadian censuses.
  2. ^ a b Estimated from population of Wales from 2001 census (2,903,085 Census 2001 Wales) with 89% of the population identifying as Welsh in 2001 (Devolution, Public Attitudes and National Identity)
  3. ^ City of Aberdeen: Census Stats and Facts.
  4. ^ Welsh people in England.
  5. ^ a b U.S. Census Bureau 2000 Census Fact Sheet.
  6. ^ a b [1] In the Canadian census of 2006, 27,115 people identified themselves as belonging only to the Welsh ethnic group, while an additional 413,855 included Welsh as one of multiple ethnic groups they claimed to belong to.
  7. ^ The 2001 New Zealand census reports 3,342 people stating they belong to the Welsh ethnic group. The 1996 census, which used a slightly different question[2], reported 9,966 people belonging to the Welsh ethnic group.
  8. ^ Government of Australia- ausstats.abs.gov.au.
  9. ^ BBC: Y Wladfa - The Welsh in Patagonia
  10. ^ Sacred Destinations Travel Guide.
  11. ^ John Davies (historian)Davies, John, A History of Wales, Penguin, 1994, Welshorigions pg 54, ISBN 0-14-01-4581-8]]
  12. ^ a b c d e f g UK ONS Welsh National Identity published 8 January 2004, extracted 7 April 2008
  13. ^ Cunliffe, B. Iron Age communities in Britainpp. 115-118
  14. ^ a b Iron Age Britain by Barry Cunliffe. Batsford. ISBN 0-7134-8839-5.
  15. ^ Britain BC: Life in Britain and Ireland Before the Romans by Francis Pryor, pp. 121-122. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-00-712693-X.
  16. ^ a b Estimating the Impact of Prehistoric Admixture on the Genome of Europeans by Isabelle Dupanloup, Giorgio Bertorelle, Lounès Chikhi and Guido Barbujani (2004). Molecular Biology and Evolution: 21(7):1361-1372. Retrieved 10 July 2006.
  17. ^ del Giorgio, J.F. 2006. The Oldest Europeans. A.J. Place, ISBN 980-6898-00-1
  18. ^ What happened after the fall of the Roman Empire?: BBC Wales-History. Retrieved 3 October 2006.
  19. ^ Jarman, A.O.H. 1988. Y Gododdin: Britain's earliest heroic poem p. xviii
  20. ^ Davies, John, A History of Wales, published 1990 by Penguin, ISBN 0-14-014581-8
  21. ^ Davies, J. A history of Wales pp. 65-6
  22. ^ Williams, Ifor. 1972. The beginnings of Welsh poetry University of Wales Press. p. 71
  23. ^ Williams, Gwyn A., The Welsh in their History, published 1982 by Croom Helm, ISBN 0-7099-3651-6
  24. ^ Davies, John, A History of Wales, published 1990 by Penguin, ISBN 0-14-014581-8
  25. ^ The Flemish colonists in Wales: BBC website. Retrieved 17 August 2006.
  26. ^ 200 years of the Census in...WALES Office for National Statistics
  27. ^ Industrial Revolution BBC The Story of the Welsh
  28. ^ Population therhondda.co.uk. Retrieved 9 May 2006
  29. ^ a b Census shows Welsh language rise Friday, 14 February, 2003 extracted 12-04-07
  30. ^ a b c Census equality backed by Plaid 23 September, 2000 extracted 12-04-07
  31. ^ Census results 'defy tick-box row' 30 September, 2002 extracted 12-04-07
  32. ^ Scottish Parliament's Review of Census Ethnicity Classifications Consultation: June 2005 extrated April 7, 2008
  33. ^ Census shows Welsh language rise Friday, 14 February, 2003 extracted 12-04-07
  34. ^ a b c NSO Artical: 'Welsh' on Census form published 8 January 2004, extracted 7 April 2008
  35. ^ UK: Wales Plaid calls for second home controls, BBC Wales, November 17, 1999
  36. ^ Plaid plan 'protects' rural areas, BBC Wales, 19 June, 2001
  37. ^ a b Nineteenth Century Arrivals in Australia: University of Wales, Lampeter website. Retrieved 3 August 2006.
  38. ^ Welsh in Pennsylvania by Matthew S. Magda (1986), Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. From Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. Retrieved 3 August 2006.
  39. ^ WELSH: Multicultural Canada. Retrieved 3 August 2006.
  40. ^ South America - Patagonia: BBC - Wales History. Retrieved 3 August 2006.
  41. ^ Tiny US town's big Welsh heritage: BBC News, 20 July 2005. Retrieved 3 August 2006.
  42. ^ WELSH HISTORY, The Welsh in North America, Utah: Welsh Society of Central Ohio. Retrieved 3 August 2006.
  43. ^ Welsh immigration from [Te Ara, The Encyclopedia of New Zealand]. Retrieved 3 August 2003.
  44. ^ Adams, Cecil (2006). Straight Dope: Was there an Indian tribe descended from Welsh explorers to America?.

Professor John Davies is Waless a historian, and a television and radio broadcaster. ... Barrington Windsor Cunliffe CBE (born December 10, 1939), known as Barry Cunliffe, has been Professor of European Archaeology at the University of Oxford since 1972. ... Francis Pryor (right) discusses the excavation during the filming of a 2007 dig for Time Team with series editor Michael Douglas (left). ... Professor John Davies is Waless a historian, and a television and radio broadcaster. ... Professor John Davies is Waless a historian, and a television and radio broadcaster. ... Office for National Statistics logo The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the United Kingdom government executive agency charged with the collection and publication of statistics related to the economy, population and society of the United Kingdom at national and local levels. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...

Further reading

  • John Davies, A History of Wales, published 1990 by Penguin, ISBN 0-14-014581-8
  • Norman Davies, The Isles, published 1991 by Papermac, ISBN 0-333-69283-7
  • Gwyn A Williams, The Welsh in their History, published 1982 by Croom Helm, ISBN 0-7099-3651-6
  • J.F. del Giorgio, The Oldest Europeans, published 2005 by A.J. Place, ISBN 980-6898-00-1
  • Adrian Hastings, The Construction of Nationhood: Ethnicity, Religion, and Nationalism, published in 1997 by Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521625440
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Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... This article is about the Irish kingdom existing from 1541 to 1800. ... This article is about the historical state known as the Principality of Wales (1267-1542). ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... 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The term British Asian is used to denote a person of Southern Asian ancestry or origin, or sometimes Western Asian origin, who was born in or was an immigrant to the United Kingdom. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This article is about the Asian regions. ... Languages British English, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Malay, Tagalog, Thai, Vietnamese, and many others Religions Buddhism, Roman Catholicism, Anglican, Protestant, Islam, Shinto, Non-religious, others Related ethnic groups Asians British Orientals are people described as Chinese or other in the British census, and primarily originate from countries in East and Southeast... West Indies redirects here. ... The Leicester Caribbean Carnival The British African-Caribbean (Afro-Caribbean) community are residents of the United Kingdom who are of West Indian background, and whose ancestors were indigenous to Africa. ... Jamaican British is a term that is used in the UK to refer people who were born in Jamaica or who are of Jamaican descent. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... North American redirects here. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... The term Ethnoreligious refers to a group or groups of people unified by a common religious culture but who display the distinct characteristics of an ethnic group. ... British Jews (often referred to collectively, but imprecisely, as Anglo Jewry) are British subjects of Jewish descent or religion who maintain a connection to the Jewish community, either through actively practising Judaism or through cultural and historical affiliation. ... // New ONS United Kingdom Census 2001 - Ethnic categories. ... The term British Asian is used to denote a person of Southern Asian ancestry or origin, or sometimes Western Asian origin, who was born in or was an immigrant to the United Kingdom. ... See also: British African-Caribbean community, Caribbean British, British Asian,Britsh Mixed Black British is term which has had different meanings and uses as a racial and political label. ... White British is an ethnic classification used in the United Kingdom Census 2001, 92. ... Mixed Race was included as an ethnic classification on the UK Census from 2001. ... The 2001 UK Census ethnic groups include White British, White Other, Mixed Race, Asian British, Black British and Chinese or other ethnic group. ...

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Welsh language: Information from Answers.com (4591 words)
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg, pronounced [kəmˈrɑːɨɡ], [ə ɡəmˈrɑːɨɡ]), is a member of the Brythonic branch of Celtic spoken natively in Wales (Cymru), in England by some along the Welsh border, and in the Chubut Valley, a Welsh immigrant colony in the Patagonia region of Argentina.
Although Welsh is a minority language, support for the language grew during the second half of the 20th century, along with the rise of organisations such as the nationalist political party Plaid Cymru and the Welsh Language Society, Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg.
Welsh morphology has much in common with that of the other modern Insular Celtic languages, such as the use of initial consonant mutations, and the use of so-called "conjugated prepositions" (prepositions that fuse with the personal pronouns that are their object).
No. 02SC340. People v. Welsh. - December 8, 2003 - Colorado Supreme Court Opinions (9738 words)
Yet the People’s own expert witnesses were unable to reach any sort of consensus that her silence was probative of her sanity, or, more importantly, that her purported dissociation and subsequent memory failure had any bearing on her legal culpability.
Additionally, we reject the People’s argument that evidence of the defendant’s silence was properly admitted, not as substantive rebuttal evidence of the defendant’s sanity, but solely for the purpose of impeaching her later statements to mental health experts that she could not recall the shooting.
We reject the People’s argument that the evidence of the defendant’s silence was properly admitted for impeachment purposes.
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