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Encyclopedia > Welsh language
Welsh
Cymraeg 
Pronunciation: [kəmˈrɑːɨɡ]
Spoken in: Wales, England, Argentina (Chubut), United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand
Total speakers: 750,000+:
— Wales: 611,000[1]
England: 133,000[2]
Chubut, Argentina: 25,000[3]
Canada: 3,160[4]
USA: 2,655[5]
New Zealand: 1,155[6]
Australia: 1,060[7]
Language family: Indo-European
 Celtic
  Insular Celtic
   Brythonic
    Welsh 
Writing system: Latin alphabet (Welsh variant
Official status
Official language in: Wales
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: cy
ISO 639-2: wel (B)  cym (T)
ISO 639-3: cym 
Percentage of Welsh speakers by principal area

Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg, pronounced [kəmˈrɑːɨɡ] and [ə ɡəmˈrɑːɨɡ]), is a member of the Brythonic branch of Celtic spoken natively in Wales (Cymru), in England by some along the Welsh border and in the Welsh immigrant colony in the Chubut Valley in Argentine Patagonia. This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Chubut is a province in the southern part of Argentina, that lies between the 42nd Parallel South (forming the border with the Río Negro Province) and 46th Parallel South (bordering Santa Cruz Province), the Andes range separating Argentina from Chile, and the Atlantic ocean. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Chubut is a province in the southern part of Argentina, that lies between the 42nd Parallel South (forming the border with the Río Negro Province) and 46th Parallel South (bordering Santa Cruz Province), the Andes range separating Argentina from Chile, and the Atlantic ocean. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... The Insular Celtic hypothesis concerns the origin of the Celtic languages. ... The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... The modern Welsh alphabet (Yr Wyddor) contains 28 letters, of which eight are digraphs: a, b, c, ch, d, dd, e, f, ff, g, ng, h, i, l, ll, m, n, o, p, ph, r, rh, s, t, th, u, w, y The acute accent, the grave accent, the circumflex... This article is about the country. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links Siaradwyr_y_Gymraeg_ym_Mhrif_Ardaloedd_Cymru. ... Image File history File links Siaradwyr_y_Gymraeg_ym_Mhrif_Ardaloedd_Cymru. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... IPA may refer to: The International Phonetic Alphabet or India Pale Ale ... Brythonic is one of two major divisions of Insular Celtic languages (the other being Goidelic). ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Welsh Marches (Welsh: Y Mers) is an area along the border of England and Wales in the island of Great Britain. ... The Welsh settlement in Argentina began in the 19th century. ... The Chubut valley in Patagonia, Argentina forms the heart of the Chubut Province, the third largest province of Argentina. ... Patagonia, as most commonly defined (in orange). ...


There are also speakers of Welsh throughout the world, most notably in the rest of Great Britain, the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.


The most recent census figures (2001) presented in "Main Statistics about Welsh"[8] by the Welsh Language Board, indicate 582,400 (20.8% of the population of Wales in households or communal establishments) were able to speak Welsh and 457,946 (16.3%) can speak, read and write it. This compares with 508,100 (18.7%) for 1991. Increasing use of the English language had led to a decline in the numbers of Welsh speakers. Since the introduction of the Welsh Language Act 1993, giving Welsh equal status with English in the public sector in Wales, the Welsh language has enjoyed a revival. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Welsh Language Act 1993 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which put the Welsh language on an equal footing with the English language in Wales with regard to the public sector. ...


The results of the "2004 Welsh Language Use Survey" indicates that there are 611,000 Welsh speakers in Wales (21.7% of the population living in households, a lower figure of 19.7% is given in the same paper), 62% claim to speak Welsh daily, and 88% of those fluent in the language speak it daily.[8]


The 2004 and 2001 figures both suggest that around 14% of the Welsh population claim to speak Welsh daily. It is notable that the figures are from a survey and so fluency was not tested, however fluency in the 2004 survey (versus a 1992 survey) was only greater in the 3-15 years age group (p.9) and that most of this increase came in the South East (p.10), in all other groups numbers of fluent speakers had declined.


See Welsh English, known as "Wenglish", for the English language as spoken in Wales. Officially, the English and Welsh languages have equal status in Wales. Welsh English, Anglo-Welsh, or Wenglish (see below) refers to the dialects of English spoken in Wales by Welsh people. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article is about the country. ...

Contents

Status

Bilingual road markings in Wales
Bilingual road markings in Wales

The 2004 Welsh Language Use Survey shows 21.7% of the population of Wales are Welsh speakers. This is an increase from 20.5% in the 2001 census, and from 18.5% in 1991. The 2001 census also shows that about 25% of Welsh residents were born outside Wales. The number of Welsh speakers in the rest of Britain is unknown. In 1993, S4C, the Welsh-language TV channel, published the results of a survey into the numbers of people who speak or understand Welsh, and this estimated that there were some 133,000 Welsh-speakers living in England, about 50,000 of them in the Greater London area and border towns and villages in the Welsh Marches such as Oswestry.[9] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 671 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (750 × 670 pixel, file size: 157 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 671 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (750 × 670 pixel, file size: 157 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... UK Census 2001 logo A nationwide census, commonly known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001. ... S4C (Sianel Pedwar Cymru, which is Welsh for Channel Four Wales) is a television channel in Wales. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ... Oswestry is a town in Shropshire, England, very close to the Welsh border. ...


Historically, large numbers of Welsh people spoke only Welsh[citation needed], but monoglot Welsh speakers are now virtually non-existent, at least above school age. Almost without exception, Welsh speakers in Wales also speak English (or Spanish in Chubut Province, Argentina, see Welsh settlement in Argentina). However, a large number of Welsh speakers are more comfortable expressing themselves in Welsh than in English. A speaker's choice of language can vary according to the subject domain and the social context, even within a single discourse (known in linguistics as code-switching). Monoglottism (Greek monos, alone, solitary, + glotta, tongue, language) is the condition of being able to speak only a single language. ... Chubut is a province in the southern part of Argentina, that lies between the 42nd Parallel South (forming the border with the Río Negro Province) and 46th Parallel South (bordering Santa Cruz Province), the Andes range separating Argentina from Chile, and the Atlantic ocean. ... The Welsh settlement in Argentina began in the 19th century. ... Discourse is a term used in semantics as in discourse analysis, but it also refers to a social conception of discourse, often linked with the work of French philosopher Michel Foucault (1926-1984) and Jürgen Habermas The Theory of Communicative Action (1985). ... Code-switching is a term in linguistics referring to alternation between one or more languages, dialects, or language registers in the course of discourse between people who have more than one language in common. ...


Although Welsh is a minority language, support for the language grew during the second half of the 20th century, along with the rise of organisations such as the nationalist political party Plaid Cymru from 1925 and the Welsh Language Society, Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg from 1962. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Welsh nationalism is a popular political and cultural movement that emerged during the nineteenth-century. ... Plaid Cymru (IPA:; English: ; often referred to simply as Plaid) is a political party in Wales. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tafod y Ddraig (the Dragons Tongue), the society logo Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg (the Welsh Language Society, often abbreviated to Cymdeithas or Cymdeithas yr Iaith) is a pressure group in Wales campaigning for the future of the Welsh language. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Welsh as a first language is largely concentrated in the less urban north and west of Wales, principally Gwynedd, Conwy, Denbighshire (Sir Ddinbych), Anglesey (Ynys Môn), Carmarthenshire (Sir Gaerfyrddin), north Pembrokeshire (Sir Benfro), Ceredigion, parts of west Glamorgan (Morgannwg), north-west and extreme south-west Powys, although first-language and other fluent speakers can be found throughout Wales. This article is about the county of Wales. ... Conwy [county borough] is a local government principal area in north Wales. ... Denbighshire (Welsh: Sir Ddinbych) is a county in North Wales. ... Anglesey (historically Anglesea; Welsh: , pronounced (IPA)) is a predominantly Welsh-speaking island off the northwest coast of Wales. ... Carmarthenshire (Welsh: ) is a one of thirteen historic counties and a principal area in Wales. ... Pembrokeshire (Welsh: ) is a county in the southwest of Wales in the United Kingdom. ... For other uses please see Ceredigion (disambiguation) Ceredigion is a county and principal area in mid Wales. ... Glamorgan or Glamorganshire (Welsh: ) is one of thirteen historic counties and former administrative counties of Wales. ... Powys is a local government principal area and a preserved county in Wales. ...

Bilingual road sign in Cardiff.
Bilingual road sign in Cardiff.

Welsh is a living language, used in conversation by thousands and seen throughout Wales. The Welsh Language Act 1993 and the Government of Wales Act 1998 provide that the Welsh and English languages should be treated equally in the public sector, so far as is reasonable and practicable. Public bodies are required to prepare for approval a Welsh Language Scheme, which indicates their commitment to the equality of treatment principle. This is sent out in draft form for public consultation for a 3 month period, whereupon comments on it may be incorporated into a final version. It requires the final approval of the Welsh Language Board Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg. Thereafter, the public body is charged with implementing and fulfilling its obligations under the Welsh Language Scheme.The list of other public bodies which have to prepare Schemes could be added to by initially the Secretary of State for Wales, from 1993-1997, by way of Statutory Instrument. Subsequent to the forming of the National Assembly for Wales in 1997, the Government Minister responsible for the Welsh language can and has passed Statutory Instruments naming public bodies who have to prepare Schemes. Neither 1993 Act nor secondary legislation made under it cover the private sector, although some organisations, notably banks and some railway companies, provide some of their literature through the medium of Welsh. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 563 KB) Bilingual road sign in Callaghan Square, Cardiff, 2005-07. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 563 KB) Bilingual road sign in Callaghan Square, Cardiff, 2005-07. ... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... A living language is a language that is spoken as anyones native language. ... The Welsh Language Act 1993 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which put the Welsh language on an equal footing with the English language in Wales with regard to the public sector. ... The Government of Wales Act, 1998 (1998 c. ... The Welsh Language Board (in Welsh, Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg) is a statutory body set up by the British Government as part of the 1992 Welsh Language Act. ... Established 1999 by the Government of Wales Act 1998 Presiding Officer Lord Elis-Thomas AM (Plaid) Since May 12, 1999 Deputy Presiding Officer Rosemary Butler AM (Lab) Leader of the House Carwyn Jones AM (Lab) Chief Executive and Clerk to the Assembly Claire Clancy Political parties 6 Welsh Labour (26... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... As well as Acts of Parliament, United Kingdom law is also made through Statutory Instruments (SIs) (also referred to as delegated, or secondary legislation). ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


Local councils and the National Assembly for Wales use Welsh as a quasi-official language, issuing their literature and publicity in Welsh versions (e.g. letters to parents from schools, library information, and council information) and most road signs in Wales are in English and Welsh, including the Welsh versions of placenames. However, some references to English destinations are still given in English only. Established 1999 by the Government of Wales Act 1998 Presiding Officer Lord Elis-Thomas AM (Plaid) Since May 12, 1999 Deputy Presiding Officer Rosemary Butler AM (Lab) Leader of the House Carwyn Jones AM (Lab) Chief Executive and Clerk to the Assembly Claire Clancy Political parties 6 Welsh Labour (26...


Since 2000, the teaching of Welsh has been compulsory in all schools in Wales up to age 16, and that has had a major effect in stabilising and to some extent reversing the decline in the language. It means, for example, that even the children of English monoglot migrants to Wales grow up with some knowledge of the language. However, the vast majority of people in the main population centres of South Wales do not use the language in daily life.


Although most road signs throughout Wales are bilingual, the wording on money is in English only (This is apart from the legend on Welsh pound coins dated 1985 and 1990, which are valid currency in all parts of the UK: Pleidiol wyf i'm gwlad, which means, "True am I to my country"), and derives from the Welsh National Anthem. The new British coinage from 2008 will not bear any Welsh language at all, despite being designed by a resident of North Wales and being minted at the Royal Mint in Llantrisant, South Wales. Although many shops employ bilingual signage, Welsh rarely appears on product packaging or instructions. This article is about the year. ... This article is about the year. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... The Royal Mint is the body permitted to manufacture, or mint, coins in the United Kingdom. ...


The UK government has ratified the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in respect of Welsh. // The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe. ...


The language has greatly increased its prominence since the creation of the television channel S4C (and subsequently S4/C, S4/C2) in November 1982, which broadcasts 70% of Channel4's programming along with a majority of Welsh language shows[10] during peak viewing hours. Additionally, there is an all-Welsh language digital station available throughout Europe on satellite called S4/C2, in existence since 1998. The main evening television news provided by the BBC in Welsh is available for download.[11] There is also a Welsh language radio station, BBC Radio Cymru, which was launched in 1977. S4C (Sianel Pedwar Cymru, which is Welsh for Channel Four Wales) is a television channel in Wales. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... BBC Radio Cymru is BBC Wales Welsh language radio station, broadcasting throughout Wales on FM since 1979. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ...


There is, however, no daily newspaper in Welsh, the only national newspaper Y Cymro, being published once a week, although a daily newspaper called Y Byd ("The World") was scheduled to be launched on 3 March 2008 but has been scrapped, owing to insufficient funds being made available from the Welsh Assembly Government. Y Cymro (The Welshman) is a Welsh language newspaper, first published in 1932. ... Y Byd (The World) is scheduled to be the first Welsh language daily newspaper, and will be published five days a week, from Monday to Friday. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Official logo of the Welsh Assembly Government The Welsh Assembly Government (WAG) (Welsh: , LlCC) was firstly an executive body of the National Assembly for Wales, consisting of the First Minister and his Cabinet from 1999 to 2007. ...

Since December 2001 the British Government has planned to ensure that all immigrants know English. It remains to be seen if Welsh will be considered a separate case. At present, a knowledge of either Welsh, English or Scottish Gaelic is sufficient for naturalisation purposes and it is believed that this policy will be continued in any proposed changes to the law. This article is about the year. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... -1...


History

Main article: History of the Welsh language

Welsh as a distinct language emerged in the 6th century from Brythonic, the common ancestor of Welsh, Cumbric (extinct), Breton, and Cornish. The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ... Cumbric was the Brythonic Celtic language spoken in England in Cumbria, Lancashire, some parts of Northumbria and Yorkshire and in southern Lowland Scotland, i. ... Breton can refer to: Brittany, as an adjective for this historical province of France The Breton language, a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany and Loire-Atlantique A Breton person, part of a Brythonic ethnic group inhabiting the region of Brittany André Breton (1896-1966), French... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ...


Like most languages, there are identifiable periods within the history of Welsh, although the boundaries between these are often indistinct.


Vocabulary

Welsh vocabulary draws mainly from original Brythonic words (ŵy, carreg), and loans from Latin (ffenest, gwin) and English (sicr, fideo).


Orthography

Main article: Welsh alphabet

Welsh is written in a version of the Latin alphabet traditionally consisting of 28 letters, of which eight are digraphs treated as single letters for collation: The modern Welsh alphabet (Yr Wyddor) contains 28 letters, of which eight are digraphs: a, b, c, ch, d, dd, e, f, ff, g, ng, h, i, l, ll, m, n, o, p, ph, r, rh, s, t, th, u, w, y The acute accent, the grave accent, the circumflex... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Alphabetical redirects here. ...

a, b, c, ch, d, dd, e, f, ff, g, ng, h, i, (j), l, ll, m, n, o, p, ph, r, rh, s, t, th, u, w, y

The letter "j" is now often included in the alphabet, between "i" and "l", due to its use in several loanwords from English (especially the common surname Jones). The letters "k", "v", "x" and "z" are used in some technical terms, like kilogram, volt, xeroser and zero, but in all cases can be, and often are, replaced by Welsh letters: cilogram, folt, seroser and sero.[12] The letter "k" was in common use until the sixteenth century, but was dropped at the time of the publication of the New Testament in Welsh, William Salesbury responding to critics: "C for K, because the printers have not so many as the Welsh requireth". This change was not popular at the time[13] Look up Xerosere in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... William Salesbury also Salisbury (c. ...


The most common diacritic is the circumflex, which is used in some cases to mark a long vowel. Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritic or diacritical mark, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... The circumflex ( ˆ ) (often called a caret, a hat or an uppen) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Dutch, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, Afrikaans and other languages, and formerly in Turkish [citation needed]. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus (bent... In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ...


Grammar

Phonology

Main article: Welsh phonology

The phonology of Welsh is characterised by a number of sounds that do not occur in English and are typologically rare in European languages, such as the voiceless lateral fricative [ɬ] and voiceless nasal consonants. Stress usually falls on the penultimate syllable in polysyllabic words, while the word-final unstressed syllable receives a higher pitch than the stressed syllable. Phonology (Greek phonÄ“ = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... Linguistic typology is the typology that classifies languages by their features. ... The voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Pitch is the perceived fundamental frequency of a sound. ...


Morphology

Main article: Welsh morphology

Welsh morphology has much in common with that of the other modern Insular Celtic languages, such as the use of initial consonant mutations, and the use of so-called "conjugated prepositions" (prepositions that fuse with the personal pronouns that are their object). Welsh nouns belong to one of two grammatical genders, masculine and feminine, but are not inflected for case. Welsh has a variety of different endings to indicate the plural, and two endings to indicate the singular of some nouns. In spoken Welsh, verb inflection is indicated primarily by the use of auxiliary verbs, rather than by the inflection of the main verb. In literary Welsh, on the other hand, inflection of the main verb is usual. The morphology of the Welsh language shows many characteristics perhaps unfamiliar to speakers of English or continental European languages like French or German, but has much in common with the other modern Insular Celtic languages, Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Manx, Cornish, and Breton. ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... The Insular Celtic hypothesis concerns the origin of the Celtic languages. ... Consonant mutation is the phenomenon in which a consonant in a word is changed according to its morphological and/or syntactic environment. ... In some languages, an inflected preposition, or conjugated preposition, is a word formed from the contraction of a preposition with a personal pronoun. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with adposition. ... Personal pronouns are pronouns often used as substitutes for proper or common nouns. ... An object in grammar is a sentence element and part of the sentence predicate. ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun indicates its grammatical function in a greater phrase or clause; such as the role of subject, of direct object, or of possessor. ... Look up plural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses of number, see number (disambiguation). ... In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (regular alteration according to rules of grammar). ... In linguistics, an auxiliary (also called helping verb, auxiliary verb, or verbal auxiliary) is a verb functioning to give further semantic or syntactic information about the main or full verb following it. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ...


Other features of Welsh grammar

Possessives as object pronouns

The Welsh for "I like Rhodri" is Rydw i'n hoffi Rhodri ("I am liking [of] Rhodri"), but "I like him" is Rydw i'n ei hoffi — literally, "I am his liking him" —; "I like you" is Rydw i'n dy hoffi di ("I am your liking you"), etc.


Significant use of auxiliary verbs

While English can either use verbs directly (e.g. "I go") or with the aid of an auxiliary verb ("I am going", here using "to be" as the auxiliary), non-literary Welsh inclines very strongly towards the latter use. In the present tense, all verbs are used with the auxiliary bod (to be), so dw i'n mynd is literally "I am going", but also means simply "I go". In the past and future tenses, there are inflected forms of all verbs (which are invariably used in the written language), but it is more common nowadays in speech to use the verbal noun (berfenw, loosely equal to the infinitive in English) together with the inflected form of gwneud (to do), so "I went" can be mi es i or mi wnes i fynd and "I will go" can be mi a' i or mi wna i fynd. There is also a future form using the auxiliary bod, giving fydda i'n mynd (perhaps best translated as "I will be going") and an imperfect tense (a continuous/habitual past tense) also using bod, with roeddwn i'n mynd meaning "I used to go/I was going". In linguistics, an auxiliary (also called helping verb, auxiliary verb, or verbal auxiliary) is a verb functioning to give further semantic or syntactic information about the main or full verb following it. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... The past tense is a verb tense expressing action, activity, state or being in the past. ... It has been suggested that Future perfect tense be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about inflection in linguistics. ... A verbal noun is a noun formed directly as an inflexion of a verb or a verb stem, sharing at least in part its constructions. ... In grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages. ... The imperfect tense, in the classical grammar of several Indo-European languages, denotes a past tense with an imperfective aspect. ...


Affirmative markers

Mi or fe is often placed before inflected verbs to show that they are declarative. In the present and imperfect of the verb bod (to be), yr is used instead. Mi is mainly restricted to colloquial Northern Welsh, with fe predominating in the South and in the formal or literary register. Such marking of the declarative is, in any case, rather less common in higher registers.


Counting system

Main article: Welsh numerals

The traditional counting system used by the Welsh language is vigesimal, which is to say it is based on twenties, as in standard French numbers 70 (soixante-dix, literally "sixty-ten") through 99 (quatre-vingt-dix-neuf, literally "four twenties nineteen"). Welsh numbers from 11 through 14 are "x on ten", 16 through 19 are "x on fifteen" (though 18 is more usually "two nines"); numbers from 21 through 39 are "1–19 on twenty", 40 is "two twenties", 60 is "three twenties", etc. The vigesimal or base-20 numeral system is based on twenty (in the same way in which the ordinary decimal numeral system is based on ten). ...


There is also a decimal counting system, which appears to be commonly used in Patagonian Welsh, where numbers are "x ten y", e.g. thirty-five in decimal is tri deg pump (three ten five) while in vigesimal it is pymtheg ar hugain (fifteen – itself "five-ten" – on twenty).


While there is only one word for "one" (un), it triggers the soft mutation (treiglad meddal) of feminine nouns, other than those beginning with "ll" and "rh". There are separate masculine and feminine forms of the numbers "two" (dau and dwy), "three" (tri and tair) and "four" (pedwar and pedair), which must agree with the grammatical gender of the objects being counted. The morphology of the Welsh language shows many characteristics perhaps unfamiliar to speakers of English or continental European languages like French or German, but has much in common with the other modern Insular Celtic languages, Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Manx, Cornish, and Breton. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ...


Dialects

Dialectal differences are very pronounced in the spoken and, to a lesser extent, the written language. A convenient, if slightly simplistic, classification is into North Walian and South Walian forms (or Gog and Hwntw based on the word for North, gogledd, and the South Walian word for "them over there"). The differences between dialects encompass vocabulary, pronunciation and grammar, although particularly in the last regard they are in fact fairly minor. For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ...


An example of the difference between North and South Walian usage would be the question "Do you want a cup (of tea)?" In the north this would typically be Dach chi isio panad? while in the south the question Dych chi moyn dishgled? would be more likely. An example of a pronunciation difference between Northern and Southern Welsh is the tendency in southern dialects to "lisp" the letter "s", e.g. mis (month), would tend to be pronounced [miːs] in the north, and [miːʃ] in the south. This normally occurs next to a high front vowel like /i/, although exceptions include the pronunciation of sut "how" as [ʃʊd] in the south (compared with northern [sɨt]). This is most likely the result of a change in the vowel quality. Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Much more fine-grained classifications exist beyond north and south: the book Cymraeg, Cymrâg, Cymrêg: cyflwyno'r tafodieithoedd,[14] about Welsh dialects was accompanied by a cassette containing recordings of fourteen different speakers demonstrating aspects of different dialects. The book refers to the earlier Linguistic Geography of Wales[15] as describing six different regions which could be identified as having words specific to those regions. Another dialect is Patagonian Welsh, which has developed since the start of the Welsh settlement in Argentina in 1865; it includes Spanish loanwords and terms for local features, but a survey in the 1970s showed that the language in Patagonia is consistent throughout the lower Chubut valley and in the Andes and is basically the northern Welsh dialect[citation needed] (which is a little surprising as the majority of settlers came from the south[citation needed], but the northern pronunciation seems to have been preferred — one settler recounted in his memoirs how he was marked down at the eisteddfod as a child for using southern diction). The Welsh settlement in Argentina began in the 19th century. ... The Welsh settlement in Argentina began in the 19th century. ...


Registers

Modern Welsh can be written in two styles — Colloquial Welsh (Cymraeg llafar) or Literary Welsh (Cymraeg llenyddol). The grammar described on this page is that of Colloquial Welsh, which is used for speech and informal writing. Literary Welsh is closer to the form of Welsh used in the 1588 translation of the Bible and is found in official documents and other formal registers, including much literature. As a standardised form, literary Welsh shows little if any of the dialectal variation found in colloquial Welsh. Some differences include: In linguistics, a register is a subset of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting. ...

Literary Welsh Colloquial Welsh
Can omit subject pronouns (pro-drop) Subject pronouns rarely omitted
Extensive use of simple verb forms Extensive use of periphrastic verb forms
No distinction between simple present and future
(e.g. gwelaf "I see"/"I shall see")
Simple form expresses only future
(e.g. gwela i "I'll see")
Subjunctive verb forms Subjunctive in fixed idioms
3rd.pl ending –nt 3rd.pl ending –n

Amongst the characteristics of the literary, as against the spoken, language are a higher dependence on inflected verb forms, a shift in the usage of some of the tenses, a reduction in the explicit use of pronouns (since the information is usually conveyed in the verb/preposition inflections) and a greatly reduced tendency to substitute English loanwords for native Welsh words. In addition, more archaic pronouns and forms of mutation may be observed in Literary Welsh. A pro-drop language (from pronoun-dropping) is a language where pronouns can be deleted when they are in some sense pragmatically inferable (the precise conditions vary from language to language, and can be quite intricate). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Examples of sentences in literary and colloquial Welsh

English Literary Welsh Colloquial Welsh
I get up early every day. Codaf yn gynnar bob dydd. Dwi'n codi'n gynnar bob dydd.
I'll get up early tomorrow. Codaf yn gynnar yfory. Coda i'n gynnar fory/Na'i godi'n gynnar fory
He had not stood there long. Ni safasai yno'n hir.[16] Doedd o ddim wedi sefyll yno'n hir.
They'll sleep only when there's a need. Ni chysgant ond pan fo angen. Byddan nhw ddim ond yn cysgu pan fydd angen.

In fact, the differences between dialects of modern spoken Welsh pale into insignificance compared to the difference between the spoken and literary languages. The latter is considerably more conservative and is the language used in Welsh translations of the Bible, amongst other things (although the Beibl Cymraeg Newydd — New Welsh Bible — is significantly less formal than the traditional 1588 Bible). Gareth King, author of a Welsh grammar, observes that "The difference between these two is much greater than between the virtually identical colloquial and literary forms of English" and goes so far as to state "that there are good grounds for regarding them as separate languages". He comments that whilst colloquial Welsh is a mother tongue requiring no special learning to acquire, literary Welsh is the mother tongue of no-one, and must be taught to people.[17] Although the question "Do you want a cup of tea?" is not likely to occur in literary Welsh usage, if it did it would be along the lines of A oes arnoch eisiau cwpanaid o de? A complete grammar of Literary Welsh can be found in A Grammar of Welsh (1980) by Stephen J. Williams. The first Welsh language translation of the Bible was produced by William Morgan in 1588. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ...


Most Welsh writing, especially that found on the Internet or in magazines, is closer to the colloquial form. This is also becoming more common in artistic literature.


Welsh in education

Main article: Welsh medium education

The decade around 1840 was a period of great social upheaval in Wales, manifested in the Chartist movement, which culminated in 20,000 people marching on Newport in 1839 resulting in a riot when 20 people were killed by soldiers defending the Westgate Hotel, and the Rebecca Riots when tollbooths on turnpikes were systematically destroyed. This unrest brought the state of education in Wales to the attention of the English establishment, as social reformers of the time considered education as a means of dealing with social ills. The Times newspaper was prominent among those who considered that the lack of education of the Welsh people was the root cause of most of the problems, although the population was generally literate in Welsh because of the activities of Sunday Schools and the need to read the Bible. In July 1846, three commissioners, R. R. W. Lingen, Jellynger C. Symons and H. R. Vaughan Johnson, were appointed to inquire into the state of education in Wales; the Commissioners were all Anglicans, and hence unsympathetic to the Non-conformist majority in Wales, and were monoglot English-speakers. Education delivered through the medium of Welsh language is known as Welsh medium education. ... Chartism was a movement for political and social reform in the United Kingdom during the mid-19th century between 1838 and 1848. ... This article is about the city of Newport in Wales. ... Teamsters, armed with pipes, riot in a clash with riot police in the Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934. ... The Rebecca Riots happened between 1839 and 1842 in South Wales. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A toll road, turnpike or tollpike is a road on which a toll authority collects a fee for use. ... For other uses, see Times. ... Sunday school, Indians and whites. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ...


The Commissioners presented their report to the Government on 1 July 1847 in three large blue-bound volumes. This report quickly became known as Brad y Llyfrau Gleision (The Treachery of the Blue Books) as, apart from documenting the state of education in Wales, the Commissioners were also free with their comments disparaging the language, Non-conformity, and the morals of the Welsh people in general. An immediate effect of the report was for a belief to take root in the minds of ordinary people that the only way for Welsh people to get on in the world was through the medium of English, and an inferiority complex developed about the Welsh language whose effects have not yet been completely eradicated. The historian Professor Kenneth O. Morgan referred to the significance of the report and its consequences as "the Glencoe and the Amritsar of Welsh history". is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Treachery of the Blue Books or Treason of the Blue Books (Welsh Brad y Llyfrau Gleision) was the name given in Wales to the Reports of the commissioners of enquiry into the state of education in Wales published in 1847. ... Kenneth O. Morgan (fl. ... Glencoe The Massacre of Glencoe occurred in Glen Coe, Scotland, in the early morning of 13 February 1692, during the era of the Glorious Revolution and Jacobitism. ... The Amritsar massacre The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, also known as the Amritsar massacre, was named after the Jallianwala Bagh (Garden) in Amritsar, where, on April 13, 1919, British Indian Army soldiers opened fire on an unarmed gathering of men, women and children. ...


In the later 19th century virtually all teaching in the schools of Wales was in English, even in areas where the pupils barely understood English. Some schools used the Welsh Not, a piece of wood, often bearing the letters "WN", which was hung around the neck of any pupil caught speaking Welsh. The pupil could pass it on to any schoolmate heard speaking Welsh, with the pupil wearing it at the end of the day being given a beating. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Welsh Not was a piece of wood, inscribed with the letters WN, that was hung round the necks of boys who spoke Welsh in some schools in the 19th century. ...


Many of the Welsh tried in vain to have the rules changed.


One of the most famous Welsh born pioneers of higher education in Wales was Sir Hugh Owen. He made great progress in the cause of education, and more especially the University College of Wales (Aberystwyth), of which he was chief founder. He was responsible for The Welsh Intermediate Education Act of 1889 after which several new Welsh Schools were built, the first of these being Ysgol Syr Hugh Owen in 1894.


Towards the beginning of the 20th century this policy slowly began to change, partly owing to the efforts of Owen Morgan Edwards when he became chief inspector of schools for Wales in 1907. Owen Morgan Edwards (1858 - 15 May 1920) was a Welsh educationalist and writer. ...


The Aberystwyth Welsh School (Ysgol Gymraeg Aberystwyth) was founded in 1939 by Sir Ifan ap Owen Edwards, the son of O.M. Edwards as the first Welsh Primary School. The headteacher was Norah Isaac. Ysgol Gymraeg is still a very successful school and now there are Welsh language primary schools all over the country. Ysgol Glan Clwyd was established in Rhyl in 1955 as the first Welsh language school to teach to a secondary level. , Aberystwyth (IPA: , South Welsh: ) (in English: Mouth of the Ystwyth) is a historic market town, administrative centre and holiday resort within Ceredigion, Wales. ... Ysgol Glan Clwyd (or Ysgol Uwchradd Glan Clwyd) is a Welsh medium secondary school, and was the first of its kind. ... , Rhyl (IPA: Welsh: Y Rhyl) is a seaside town located on the Irish Sea, with a population of roughly 35,000 including the suburbs of Kinmel Bay and Rhuddlan, in the county of Denbighshire (formerly Flintshire), northeast Wales, at the mouth of the River Clwyd (Welsh: Afon Clwyd). ...


Welsh is now widely used in education. All Welsh universities teach some courses in Welsh (most notably Bangor University and Aberystwyth University), but are primarily English language. Under the National Curriculum, schoolchildren in Wales must study Welsh up to the age of 16 and many chose to continue with it in their A levels and college years. All Local Education Authorities in Wales have schools providing bilingual or Welsh-medium education.[18] The remainder study Welsh as a second language in English-medium schools. Specialist teachers of Welsh called Athrawon Bro support the teaching of Welsh in the National Curriculum. Welsh is also taught in adult education classes. The ability to speak Welsh or to have Welsh as a qualification is essential or desirable for certain career choices in Wales, such as teaching or customer service. The University of Wales, Bangor (UWB) is a constituent institution of the University of Wales based in the small city of Bangor in the county of Gwynedd in North Wales, United Kingdom. ... The University of Wales, Aberystwyth, a Member Institution of the federal University of Wales, was the first university institution to be established in Wales. ... The National Curriculum was introduced into England, Wales and Northern Ireland, as a nationwide curriculum for primary and secondary state schools following the Education Reform Act 1988. ... Education in Wales differs in certain respects from the system used elsewhere in the United Kingdom. ... A Local Education Authority (LEA) is the part of a council in England or Wales that is responsible for education within that councils jurisdiction. ...


Welsh in information technology

Welsh has a substantial presence on the Internet, ranging from formal lists of terminology in a variety of fields[19] to Welsh language interfaces for parts of Microsoft Windows XP, a variety of Linux distributions, and some online services to blogs kept in Welsh.[20] A typical Windows XP desktop. ... A Linux distribution (also called GNU/Linux distribution) is a member of the Linux family of Unix-like software distributions. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


There is a campaign for a new .cym TLD for Welsh-language websites, and websites that are of Welsh interest. A petition has been set up to gather support for the domain.[21] .cym (dotCYM) is a proposed top-level domain for sites written in the Welsh language. ... “TLD” redirects here. ...


Welsh in warfare

Secure communications are often difficult to achieve in wartime. Cryptography can be used to protect messages, but codes can be broken. Therefore, little-known languages are sometimes encoded, so that even if the code is broken, the message is still in a language few people know. For example, Navajo code talkers were used by the United States military during World War II. Similarly, the Royal Welch Fusiliers, a Welsh regiment serving in Bosnia, used Welsh for emergency communications that needed to be secure.[22] The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write or λεγειν legein to speak) is the study of message secrecy. ... Reading Adahooniigii — The Navajo Language Monthly Navajo or Navaho (native name: Diné bizaad) is an Athabaskan language (of Na-Dené stock) spoken in the southwest United States by the Navajo people (Diné). It is geographically and linguistically one of the Southern Athabaskan languages (the majority of Athabaskan languages are spoken... Codetalkers redirects here. ... The United States Armed Forces are the overall unified military forces of the United States. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Royal Welch Fusiliers was a regiment of the British Army, part of the Prince of Wales Division. ... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


Welsh in popular culture

  • In Henry IV, part 1, Shakespeare has Owen Glendower (Welsh: Owain Glyndŵr), the Lady Mortimer and some Welsh women all speaking Welsh on stage. The play was written in the sixteenth century and set around 1400.
  • The television programme called Bandit and a radio show called C2 are dedicated to playing Welsh language popular music, as are independent internet radio station Radio Amgen and Radio Curiad.
  • A number of rock and electronic groups have recorded extensively in Welsh, including Datblygu, Gorky's Zygotic Mynci, and Super Furry Animals, whose all-Welsh album Mwng reached no. 11 in the British charts. Welsh-language albums have been released more recently as solo projects by Gruff Rhys and Euros Childs (members of Super Furry Animals and Gorky's Zygotic Mynci respectively).
  • A popular Welsh film viewed by many outside the country is "Hedd Wyn'"

Title page of the first quarto (1598) Henry IV, Part 1 is a history play by William Shakespeare. ... Seal of Owain Glyndŵr The Arms of Powys and Deheubarth quartered, adopted by Owain Glyndŵr: Or and Gules, four Lions counterchanged Owain Glyndŵr (Pronounced IPA: ), or Owain Glyn Dŵr, anglicised by Shakespeare into Owen Glendower (c. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Butch Cassidy, a famous outlaw An outlaw, a person living the lifestyle of outlawry, is most familiar to contemporary readers as a stock character in Western movies. ... C2 is a Welsh language music show on BBC Radio Cymru. ... Datblygu (meaning develop) was an experimental Welsh rock group in the 1980s and early to mid-1990s, now regarded as a catalyst of the new wave of Welsh rock in the early 80s. ... Gorkys Zygotic Mynci were a Welsh popular music band, formed in Carmarthen, west Wales in 1991. ... Super Furry Animals (also known as SFA, the Furries and the Super Furries) are a Welsh rock band, with leanings towards psychedelic rock and electronic experimentation. ... Mwng (Welsh: Mane) is an album by Super Furry Animals. ... Gruff Rhys (pronounced ; born July 18, 1970 in Haverfordwest (Welsh: Hwlffordd) in south-west Wales) is a member of the Super Furry Animals who were at the forefront of the wave of successful Welsh bands which broke through into the mainstream music scene in the 1990s. ... Euros Childs is a Welsh musician and song-writer, best known as the frontman for the band Gorkys Zygotic Mynci. ...

See also

Wales Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... The Association of Welsh Translators and Interpreters (Welsh: Cymdeithas Cyfieithwyr Cymru) is a professional body representing English/Welsh translators and interpreters in Wales. ... The Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion (or Anrhydeddus Gymdeithas y Cymmrodorion) was founded in 1751 as a literary society devoted to the preservation of the Welsh language. ... The United Kingdom does not have a constitutionally defined official language. ... For Welsh language poets prior to 1600, see List of Welsh language poets. ... Welsh language poetry has, until quite recently, been regulated by specific verse forms (Canu Caeth), with the encouragement of the eisteddfod movement. ... List of Welsh people is a list of notable Welsh people alphabetically within categories. ... This is a List of Welsh principal areas by the percentage of those professing some skills in the Welsh language in the 2001 UK census. ... The Welsh Language Board (in Welsh, Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg) is a statutory body set up by the British Government as part of the 1992 Welsh Language Act. ... The term Welsh literature may be used to refer to any literature originating from Wales or by Welsh writers. ... The first Welsh language translation of the Bible was produced by William Morgan in 1588. ... The Welsh Tract, also called the Welsh Barony, was a portion of Pennsylvania settled largely by Welsh-speaking Quakers. ...

Notes

  1. ^ 2004 Welsh Language Use Survey: the report - Welsh Language Board
  2. ^ http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/archives/welsh-l/welsh-l/1993/Mar/More-Welsh-Speakers
  3. ^ Ethnologue: Welsh
  4. ^ Ethnologue: Languages of Canada.
  5. ^ USEnglish.orgPDF (89.8 KiB)
  6. ^ Cultural Table, New Zealand government (XLS).
  7. ^ Western Australia.
  8. ^ a b Main Statistics about Welsh from the Welsh Language Board
  9. ^ Summary of 1993 S4C survey
  10. ^ Welsh language provision at S4C Analogue
  11. ^ At the BBC website (Real Media).
  12. ^ Thomas, Peter Wynn (1996) Gramadeg y Gymraeg. Cardiff: University of Wales Press: 757.
  13. ^ English and Welsh, an essay by J. R. R. Tolkien
  14. ^ Thomas, B. and Thomas, P. W. Cymraeg, Cymrâg, Cymrêg: cyflwyno'r tafodieithoedd, published by Gwasg Taf, ISBN 0-948469-14-5. Out of print
  15. ^ Thomas, A. R. 1973 Linguistic Geography of Wales
  16. ^ Klingebiel, Kathryn. 234 Welsh Verbs: Standard Literary Forms. Ford & Bailie, 223. ISBN 0-926689-04-5. 
  17. ^ King, G. Modern Welsh: a comprehensive grammar, published by Routledge, ISBN 0-415-09269-8 p3
  18. ^ Welsh medium or bilingual provision, Welsh Language Board
  19. ^ The Welsh National Database of Standardised Terminology was released in March 2006.
  20. ^ Selections of Welsh-language blogs are listed on the sites Y Rhithfro and Blogiadur.
  21. ^ Petition for.cym TLD.
  22. ^ Heath, Tony. "Welsh speak up for their ancient tongue", The Independent, 1996-08-26, pp. 6. 

“PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet program written and distributed by Microsoft for computers using the Microsoft Windows operating system and Apple Macintosh computers. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... The Welsh Language Board (in Welsh, Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg) is a statutory body set up by the British Government as part of the 1992 Welsh Language Act. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • J.W.Aitchison and H.Carter. Language,Economy and Society. The changing fortunes of the Welsh Language in the Twentieth Century. Cardiff. University of Wales Press. 2000.
  • J.W.Aitchison and H.Carter. Spreading the Word. The Welsh Language 2001. Y Lolfa. 2004

External links

Wikipedia
Welsh language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Welsh language
Wikibooks
Wikibooks has more on the topic of

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ...

Statistical data

  • link summary for Welsh Language Statistics from the Welsh Assembly Government
  • example Census data from the ONS

About the language

Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... BBC Wales (Welsh: ) is a division of the British Broadcasting Corporation for Wales. ... The front of the building The National Library of Wales (Welsh: Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru) is the national legal deposit library of Wales, located in Aberystwyth. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Tolkien redirects here. ...

Dictionaries

Wiktionary
Welsh language edition of Wiktionary, the free dictionary/thesaurus

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

Learning the language

The Bretons are a distinct celtic ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France. ... The Cornish people are a British ethnic group originating in Cornwall. ... Irish Travellers (sometimes known as Tinkers) are a nomadic or itinerant people of Irish origin living in Ireland, Great Britain and the United States. ... This article is about the Scottish people as an ethnic group. ... This article is about Welsh people who are considered to be an ethnic group and a nation. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
Welsh language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4071 words)
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg, pronounced [kəmˈrɑːɨɡ], [ə ɡəmˈrɑːɨɡ]), is a member of the Brythonic branch of Celtic spoken natively in Wales (Cymru), England by some along the Welsh border, and in the Chubut Valley, a Welsh immigrant colony in the Patagonia region of Argentina.
Although Welsh is a minority language, and thus threatened by the dominance of English, support for the language grew during the second half of the 20th century, along with the rise of nationalist political organisations such as the political party Plaid Cymru and Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg (the Welsh Language Society).
Welsh morphology has much in common with that of the other modern Insular Celtic languages, such as the use of initial consonant mutations, and the use of so-called "conjugated prepositions" (prepositions that fuse with the personal pronouns that are their object).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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