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Encyclopedia > Welsh Channel
Satellite view of the Bristol Channel
Map of the Bristol Channel

The Bristol Channel (Welsh: Môr Hafren) is a major inlet in the island of Great Britain, separating South Wales from the West Country and extending from the lower estuary of the River Severn (Afon Hafren) to that part of the North Atlantic Ocean known as the Celtic Sea (Môr Celtaidd). It takes its name from the English city of Bristol and is over 30 miles (50km) across at its widest point. Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Approximate extent of South Wales South Wales (Welsh: ) is an area of Wales bordered by England and the Bristol Channel to the east and south, and Mid Wales and West Wales to the north and west. ... The West Country is an informal term for the area of south-western England roughly corresponding to the modern South West England government region. ... Rio de la Plata estuary Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Estuaries An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ... “Severn” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ... Map of the Celtic Sea, an arm of the Atlantic. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the Queen England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 967 AD  Area  -  Total 130,395 km²  50,346 sq mi  Population  -  2007 estimate 50... View from Cumberland Basin of the Clifton Suspension Bridge and the Avon Gorge Bristol (IPA: ) is a city, unitary authority and ceremonial county in South West England, 115 miles (185 km) west of London. ...


The lower limit of the Bristol Channel is St Govans Head in Pembrokeshire, Lundy Island, and Hartland Point in Devon. The upper limit is a straight line between Sand Point, Somerset and Lavernock Point in South Wales. East of this line is the Severn estuary. Western and Northern Pembrokeshire and North Cornwall are outside of the limit of the Bristol Channel, and are considered part of the seaboard of the Atlantic Ocean, although Bude in North Cornwall during the industrial era was often called by sailors on their way to Cardiff as "the gateway/entrance to the Bristol Channel". Pembrokeshire (Welsh: ) is a county in the southwest of Wales in the United Kingdom. ... The Old Light, Lundy For a map, see the end of this article Lundy is an island in the Bristol Channel of Great Britain, about a third of the way from Devon to the coast of South Wales. ... Hartland Point is a rocky outcrop of land on the coast of Devon in the United Kingdom. ... “Devonshire” redirects here. ... For other uses of this term, see Sand Point (disambiguation). ... Lavernock Point is a headland on the coast of South Wales, and lies 8km south of Cardiff and 6km east of Barry, Vale of Glamorgan. ... Pembrokeshire (Welsh: ) is a county in the southwest of Wales in the United Kingdom. ... Cornwall (Cornish: ) is a county in South West England, United Kingdom, on the peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar and Devon. ... For the French humanist jurist, see Guillaume Budé. Bude (Cornish: Bud) is a small resort town in north Cornwall, England, UK, on the coast at the mouth of the River Neet. ... Cardiff (English:  , Welsh: ) is the capital, largest and core city of Wales. ...


The Bristol Channel, on both the South Wales and West Country sides, has more miles of Heritage Coast seaboard than any other stretch of water in the U.K. Heritage coastlines include Exmoor, Bideford Bay, Glamorgan, Gower Peninsula and South Pembrokeshire. A Heritage Coast is a strip of coastline designated by the Countryside Agency in England and Wales. ... Dunster Yarn Market (a covered market for the sale of local cloth, built in 1609) and Dunster Castle, Exmoor Exmoor National Park is a national park situated on the Bristol Channel coast of Devon and Somerset in South West England. ... Location within the British Isles Arms of Bideford Town Council Bideford is a small port town on the northern coast of the county of Devon in south-west England. ... In geography, a bay or gulf is a collection of water that is surrounded by land on three sides. ... Glamorgan or Glamorganshire (Welsh: ) is one of thirteen historic counties and former administrative counties of Wales. ... Rhossili Beach, Gower, Wales The Gower peninsula (Welsh: ) is a peninsula on the south coast of Glamorgan, Wales. ... South Pembrokeshire was a local government district of Dyfed, Wales from 1974 to 1996. ...


In 2004, The Times "Travel" magazine selected Barafundle Bay in Pembrokeshire as one of the best 12 best beaches in the world, and in 2007 Oxwich Bay made the same aforementioned magazine's Top 12 best beaches in the world list and it also selected Oxwich as Britain's best beach for 2007. The Bristol Channel and nearby Celtic Sea beaches of Wales, North Devon and North Cornwall are acknowledged by many travel magazine writers as the by far the best in the U.K for sand/water quality and atmospheric settings. Oxwich Bay is a bay on the south of the Gower peninsula, Wales. ...

Contents

Ecology

The channel from Barry, Wales
The Bristol Channel coast at Ilfracombe, North Devon, looking west towards Lee Bay

At low tide large parts of the channel become mud flats due to the tidal range of 15 metres, the second largest in the world. The Bristol Channel is an important area for wildlife, in particular waders, and has protected areas, including National Nature Reserves such as Bridgwater Bay at the mouth of the River Parrett. Development schemes have been proposed along the channel, including an airport and a tidal barrier for electricity generation, but conservation issues have so far managed to block such schemes. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 584 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cardiff Vale of Glamorgan Bristol Channel... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 584 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cardiff Vale of Glamorgan Bristol Channel... Barry (Welsh: ) is a town in the Vale of Glamorgan, Wales. ... The Bristol Channel coast at Ilfracombe, North Devon, England, looking west towards Lee Bay. ... The Bristol Channel coast at Ilfracombe, North Devon, England, looking west towards Lee Bay. ... It has been suggested that Theory of tides be merged into this article or section. ... Mudflats are relatively flat, muddy regions found in intertidal areas. ... The tidal range is the vertical difference between the highest high tide and the lowest low tide. ... The or meter (see spelling differences) is a measure of length. ... Families Scolopacidae Rostratulidae Jacanidae Thinocoridae Pedionomidae Burhinidae Chionididae Pluvianellidae Ibidorhynchidae Recurvirostridae Haematopodidae Charadriidae Dunlin (Calidris alpina). ... National Nature Reserve is a United Kingdom government conservation designation for a nature reserve of national significance. ... Bridgwater Bay is on the estuary of the River Severn, near Bridgwater in Somerset, United Kingdom at the mouth of the River Parrett. ... The River Parrett has its source in the springs in the hills around Chedington in Dorset in England and flows west through the Somerset Levels to its mouth in the Bristol Channel at Burnham on Sea a town on the edge of Bridgwater Bay, an important Nature Reserve. ...


Major islands in the Bristol Channel are Lundy, Steep Holm and Flat Holm. The islands and headlands provide some shelter for the upper reaches of the channel from storms. These islands are mostly uninhabited and protected as nature reserves, and are home to some unique wild flower species. The harbour at Lundy Lundy is an island in the Bristol Channel, administered as part of Torridge district of the English county of Devon. ... Categories: UK geography stubs | English islands ... Flat Holm (Welsh: Ynys Echni) is a Welsh island lying in the Bristol Channel approximately 3. ...


The Bristol Channel has beaches and spectacular scenery, particularly on the coast of Exmoor and Bideford Bay in Devon and the likes of the Vale of Glamorgan and the Gower Peninsula on the Glamorgan coast. The western stretch of Exmoor boasts the highest cliffs in mainland Britain, culminating near Combe Martin in the gigantic 'Great Hangman', a 1043ft 'hog-backed' hill with a cliff-face of 820ft; its sister cliff 'The Little Hangman' has a cliff-face of 716ft. On the Gower Peninsula, at its western extremity is the Worms Head, a serpent shaped island of carboniferous limestone which is approachable at low tide only. The beaches of Gower (at Rhossili, for example) and North Devon (at Woolacombe for example) win awards for their water quality and setting, as well as their excellent surfing. Dunster Yarn Market (a covered market for the sale of local cloth, built in 1609) and Dunster Castle, Exmoor Exmoor National Park is a national park situated on the Bristol Channel coast of Devon and Somerset in South West England. ... Location within the British Isles Arms of Bideford Town Council Bideford is a small port town on the northern coast of the county of Devon in south-west England. ... “Devonshire” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Vale of Glamorgan (disambiguation). ... Rhossili Beach, Gower, Wales The Gower peninsula (Welsh: ) is a peninsula on the south coast of Glamorgan, Wales. ... Combe Martin is a village in the English county of Devon. ... Rhossili Beach, Gower, Wales The Gower peninsula (Welsh: ) is a peninsula on the south coast of Glamorgan, Wales. ... The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Rhossili is a small village on the southwestern tip of the Gower Peninsula near Swansea in Wales. ... Woolacombe is a seaside resort on the coast of North Devon, England with a long sandy beach and lies at the mouth of a valley. ... Hein Cooper at Banzai Pipeline, December 1981 Surfing is a surface water sport in which the participant is carried along the face of a breaking wave as it approaches shore, usually on a surfboard. ...


Coastal cities and towns

The Bristol Channel from Llantwit Major near Barry on the Glamorgan coast

The Bristol Channel is a dangerous area of water because of its strong tides and the rarity of havens on the north Cornish and north Devon coasts that can be entered in all states of the tide. A sailor's rhyme goes "Twixt Hartland Point and Padstow Bay is a sailor's grave by night or day." Because of the treacherous waters, pilotage is an essential service for shipping. A specialised style of sailing boat the Bristol Channel Pilot Cutter developed in the area. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 685 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bristol Channel Llantwit Major Llantwit Major... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 685 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bristol Channel Llantwit Major Llantwit Major... View From Llantwit Major Beach Across The Bristol Channel Llantwit Major (Welsh: Llanilltud Fawr -- llan church enclosure + Illtud + mawr great) is a small coastal town and community in the Vale of Glamorgan, South Wales, lying on the Bristol Channel coast. ... The single word Barry may refer to: Barry (name) Barry (dog), a famous St. ...


In the Severn estuary above Avonmouth, river rescue is provided by Severn Area Rescue Association, while in Burnham-on-Sea the Burnham-On-Sea Area Rescue Boat (BARB)[1] uses a hovercraft to rescue people from the treacherous mud flats on that part of the coast. A hovercraft was recently tested to determine the feasibility of setting upa similar rescue service in Weston-super-Mare. Categories: Stub | Bristol | Ports and harbours of the UK ... The Severn Area Rescue Association aka SARA or Severn Rescue provides inshore Rescue Boat services for the River Severn Estuary and upper reaches of the River Severn. ... Burnham-on-Sea is a town in Somerset, England, at the mouth of the River Parrett. ... Weston-super-Mare is an English seaside resort town in North Somerset, population 65,000 (1991 estimate). ...


The city of Bristol, situated on the River Avon, gives its name to the Channel and was once one of the most important ports in Britain. There are still docks in the city centre, but these are largely now given over to leisure use. Bristol's dock activity has now been transferred to the nearby Severn estuary at Avonmouth Docks and Royal Portbury Dock. Resort towns on the Bristol Channel include Weston-super-Mare, Burnham-on-Sea, Watchet, Minehead and Porlock in Somerset; and Ilfracombe, Bideford and Barnstaple in Devon. View from Cumberland Basin of the Clifton Suspension Bridge and the Avon Gorge Bristol (IPA: ) is a city, unitary authority and ceremonial county in South West England, 115 miles (185 km) west of London. ... The Avon Gorge and Clifton Suspension Bridge The River Avon is a river in the south west of England. ... St Augustines Reach and Peros Bridge, during the 2004 Harbour Festival. ... The Royal Portbury Dock The Royal Portbury Dock is part of the Port of Bristol, in England. ... Statistics Population: Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: ST074431 Administration District: West Somerset Shire county: Somerset Region: South West England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Somerset Historic county: Somerset Services Police force: Avon and Somerset Police Fire and rescue: {{{Fire}}} Ambulance: South Western Post office and... Minehead is a coastal town in West Somerset, England with a population of around 10,000. ... Porlock Weir Porlock beach A map of Porlock from 1937 Porlock is a quiet coastal village in Somerset, England, situated in a deep hollow below Exmoor, five miles west of Minehead. ... Somerset is a county in the south-west of England. ... Location within the British Isles Ilfracombe is a seaside resort on the north coast of Devon, England with a small harbour, surrounded by cliffs. ... Location within the British Isles Arms of Bideford Town Council Bideford is a small port town on the northern coast of the county of Devon in south-west England. ... Statistics Population: 34,000 (April 2006 Est. ... “Devonshire” redirects here. ...


The Welsh capital, Cardiff, is on the northern side side of the estuary, with Cardiff Bay protected behind the Cardiff Bay Barrage. Further west is the city of Swansea with a fine marina. Important ports on the Welsh coast include Milford Haven, a major oil import terminal. Resort towns and villages on the Welsh coastline include Penarth, Llantwit Major, Mumbles and Barry with Barry Island. Cardiff (English:  , Welsh: ) is the capital, largest and core city of Wales. ... Cardiff Bay Cardiff Bay (Welsh: Bae Caerdydd) is the regeneration area created by the Cardiff Barrage which impounded two rivers (Taff and Ely) to form a new freshwater lake around the former dockland area south of the city centre of Cardiff in south Wales // The Cardiff Bay Development Corporation was... Cardiff Barrage Entrance locks The Cardiff Bay Barrage lies across the mouth of Cardiff Bay, Wales between Queen Alexandra Dock and Penarth Head. ... For other places with the same name, see Swansea (disambiguation). ... Milford Haven is a natural harbour in Pembrokeshire, south Wales. ... View From Llantwit Major Beach Across The Bristol Channel Llantwit Major (Welsh: Llanilltud Fawr -- llan church enclosure + Illtud + mawr great) is a small coastal town and community in the Vale of Glamorgan, South Wales, lying on the Bristol Channel coast. ... Mumbles village, Wales Mumbles (otherwise The Mumbles – Welsh Y Mwmbwls) is an extremely large village and adjacent headland stretching into Swansea Bay. ... The single word Barry may refer to: Barry (name) Barry (dog), a famous St. ...


Transport

Road and Rail

There are no road and rail crossings in the Bristol Channel. The bridges and tunnel of the Severn crossing are located on the River Severn. The Severn crossing is generally used to refer to two river crossings over the River Severn between England and Wales. ... “Severn” redirects here. ...


Paddle steamers

P and A Campbell of Bristol were the main operators of pleasure craft and particularly paddle steamers, from the mid-1800s to the late 1970s, also the Barry Railway Company. This tradition is continued each summer by the PS Waverley, the last sea-going paddle steamer in the world (built in 1947). The steamer provides pleasure trips between the Welsh and English coasts and to the islands of the channel. P & A Campbell Ltd of Bristol with its White Funnel Fleet became the dominant excursion-steamer operator in the Bristol Channel by the 1890s. ... View from Cumberland Basin of the Clifton Suspension Bridge and the Avon Gorge Bristol (IPA: ) is a city, unitary authority and ceremonial county in South West England, 115 miles (185 km) west of London. ... A paddle steamer, paddleboat, or paddlewheeler is a ship or boat propelled by one or more paddle wheels driven by a steam engine. ... The Barry Railway Company was promoted by interests in coal mining and steel in the South Wales valleys as an alternative to the existing rail service to Cardiff docks in Tiger Bay. ... PS Waverley steaming down the Firth of Clyde - additional views at Image:PS Waverley off Brodick castle 1989. ...


Severn Barrage

The proposed Severn Barrage would constitute a third road crossing. The Severn Barrage is the name of any number of ideas - past and present - for building a barrage from the English coast to the Welsh coast over the Severn tidal estuary. ...


1607 flood

Main article: Bristol Channel floods, 1607

On 30 January 1607 (New style) thousands of people were drowned, houses and villages swept away, farmland inundated and flocks destroyed when a flood hit the shores of the channel. The devastation was particularly bad on the Welsh side from Laugharne in Carmarthenshire to above Chepstow on the English border. Cardiff was the most badly affected town. There remain plaques up to 8 ft above sea level to show how high the waters rose on the sides of the surviving churches. It was commemorated in a contemporary pamphlet "God's warning to the people of England by the great overflowing of the waters or floods." On 30 January 1607 (New style) the Bristol Channel floods resulted in the drowning of an estimated 2,000 or more people, with houses and villages swept away, farmland inundated and livestock destroyed, wrecking the local economy along the coasts of the Bristol Channel, England. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 20 - Tidal wave swept along the Bristol Channel, killing 2000 people. ... In Britain and countries of the British Empire, Old Style or O.S. after a date means that the date is in the Julian calendar, in use in those countries until 1752; New Style or N.S. means that the date is in the Gregorian calendar, adopted on 14 September... Picture of flooding in Amphoe Sena, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. ... This article is about the country. ... Dylan Thomass boathouse and the Heron-Priested Shore Laugharne (Welsh: Talacharn) is a town in Carmarthenshire, Wales, lying on the estuary of the River Tâf. ... Carmarthenshire (Welsh: ) is a county in Wales. ... Chepstow (Welsh: Cas-gwent) is a border town straddling the Monmouthshire—Gloucestershire border, situated at the confluence of the River Wye and River Severn on the Severns west bank. ... Cardiff (English:  , Welsh: ) is the capital, largest and core city of Wales. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


The cause of the flood is disputed: it had long been believed that the floods were caused by a combination of meteorological extremes and tidal peaks, but research published in 2002 has shown evidence of a tsunami in the Channel. Satellite image of Hurricane Hugo with a polar low visible at the top of the image. ... It has been suggested that Theory of tides be merged into this article or section. ... The tsunami that struck Malé in the Maldives on December 26, 2004. ...


Coordinates: 51°18′00″N 3°37′00″W / 51.3, -3.616667 Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


 
 

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