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Encyclopedia > Weimar Republic
Deutsches Reich
German Reich

1919 – 1933
Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem
Das Lied der Deutschen
Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state
Capital Berlin
Language(s) German
Government Republic
President
 - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert
 - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg
Chancellor
 - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)
 - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last)
Legislature Reichstag
 - State council Reichsrat
Historical era Interwar period
 - Established 9 November 1918
 - Hitler takes office 30 January 1933
 - Reichstag fire 27 February 1933
 - Enabling Act March 23, 1933
Area
 - 1925 [1] 468,787 km² (181,000 sq mi)
Population
 - 1925 [1] est. 62,411,000 
     Density 133.1 /km²  (344.8 /sq mi)
Currency Papiermark (1919-1923)
Reichsmark (1924-1933)

The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik , IPA: [ˈvaɪ̯marɐ repuˈbliːk]) or its official name German Reich (Deutsches Reich) governed Germany from 1919 to 1933. This period of German history is often called the Weimar period. The republic was named after the city of Weimar, where a national assembly convened to predict a new constitution (which became effective on August 11, 1919) for the German Reich following the nation's defeat in World War I. Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(2-3). ... Image File history File links Wappen_Deutsches_Reich_(Weimarer_Republik). ... The flag of Germany was adopted in its present form in 1919. ... The Eagle has been the coat of arms of Germany in this form since the later days of the Weimar Republic The coat of arms of Germany is a symbol of Germany; the coat of arms feature an eagle. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Das Lied der Deutschen (The Song of the Germans, also known as Das Deutschlandlied, The Song of Germany) has been used wholly or partially as the national anthem of Germany since 1922. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3204x3224, 3710 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Weimar Republic List of Weimar states ... The Free State of Prussia (blue), within Germany at the time of the Weimar Republic Capital Berlin Government Republic Minister-President  - 1918 Friedrich Ebert  - 1920-19321 Otto Braun  - 1933-1945 Hermann Göring Historical era Interwar period  - Established 9 November, 1918  - Preußenschlag 20 July 1932  - Abolition (de facto) 30... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... in particular, for the archaizing senses of republic, as a translation of politeia or res publica Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on consent of the governed... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with President of Germany. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is not the Friedrich Ebert involved in the founding of the GDR, but rather his father. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Philipp Scheidemann (26 July 1865 – 29 November 1939) was a German Social Democratic politician, who proclaimed the Republic on 9 November 1918, and who became the first Chancellor of the Weimar Republic. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...   (7 April 1882 – 30 June 1934) was a German general and the last Chancellor of Germany during the era of the Weimar Republic. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... The Reichsrat was one of the two legislative bodies in Germany under the Weimar constitution, the other one being the Reichstag. ... Europe between 1929 and 1938. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... The Reichstag fire was a pivotal event in the establishment of Nazi Germany. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... The Enabling Act (Ermächtigungsgesetz in German) was passed by Germanys parliament (the Reichstag) on March 23, 1933. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... The name Papiermark (German: Paper mark) can be applied to the German currency from the point in 1914 when the link between the mark and gold was abandoned, due to the outbreak of the First World War. ... User(s) Germany Subunit 1/100 Reichspfennig Symbol RM Reichspfennig Rpf. ... Image File history File links De-WeimarRepublic. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The history of Germany is, in places, extremely complicated and depends much on how one defines Germany. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... This article gives an overview of the History of Germany. ... For the locality in Texas called Weimar see Weimar, Texas, there is also Weimar bei Kassel and Weimar in Marburg-Biedenkopf. ... The Weimar Constitution in booklet form. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The history of Germany is, in places, extremely complicated and depends much on how one defines Germany. ... The German Empire was one of the defeated Central Powers during World War I. It entered the conflict following the declaration of war against Serbia by its ally, Austria-Hungary. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Despite its political form, the new Republic was still officially known as the "Deutsches Reich" in German, while the half-translated term "German Reich" was officially used in English. [2] The name Weimar Republic is an invention of historians, and was not used officially during its existence. The Weimar Republic was established in February 1919 in defeated Germany and lasted until March 1933, when the state's interior was replaced with Hitler's so-called "Third Reich" (see Nazi Germany).   (IPA: ; German IPA: ), is the German word used most for empire, realm, or nation cognate with Scandinavian rike/rige, Dutch: , Sanskrit: and English: as found in bishopric. ...   (IPA: ; German IPA: ), is the German word used most for empire, realm, or nation cognate with Scandinavian rike/rige, Dutch: , Sanskrit: and English: as found in bishopric. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


This first attempt to establish a liberal democracy in Germany happened during a time of civil conflict, and failed with the ascent of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. Although technically the 1919 constitution was not invalidated until after World War II, the legal measures taken by the Nazi government in 1933 (commonly known as Gleichschaltung) destroyed the mechanisms of a typical democratic system, so that year is cited as the end of the Weimar Republic. Liberal democracy is a form of government. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The Nazi Party (German: , or NSDAP, English: National Socialist German Workers Party), was a far-right, racist political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The German word Gleichschaltung Ⓗ Ⓘ (literally synchronising, synchronization) is used in a political sense to describe the process by which the Nazi regime successively established a system of totalitarian control over the individual, and tight coordination over all aspects of society and commerce. ...

Contents

History

Controlled revolution: the establishment of the Republic (1918–1919)

Main article: German Revolution

From 1916 onwards, the 1871 German Empire had effectively been governed by the military headed by the Oberste Heeresleitung (OHL, Supreme Army Command) with the Chief of Staff Paul von Hindenburg. When it became apparent that World War I was lost, the OHL demanded that a civil government be installed in order to meet a key peace talk condition from United States President Woodrow Wilson. Any attempt to continue the war after Bulgaria had left the Central Powers would have only caused German territories to be militarily occupied by the victors. The new Reichskanzler Prince Max von Baden thus offered a cease-fire to U.S. President Wilson on October 3, 1918. On October 28, 1918, the 1871 constitution was finally amended to make the Reich a parliamentary democracy, which the government had refused for half a century: the Chancellor was henceforth responsible to Parliament, the Reichstag, and no longer to the Kaiser. Karl Liebknecht on 9 November 1918 in the Berliner Tiergarten Statue of a revolutionary soldier, memorial to the German Revolution of 1918-1919 in East Berlin. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... The Oberste Heeresleitung or OHL (Supreme Army Command) was the highest echelon of command of the German army in World War I, while the Navy was led by the Seekriegsleitung or SKL, (Naval Warfare Command). ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924), was the 28th President of the United States. ... European military alliances in 1914. ... Prince Maximilian of Baden (Max von Baden) (1 July 1867–6 November 1929) was the cousin and heir of Grand Duke Frederick II of Baden, and succeeded Frederick as head of the Grand Ducal House in 1928. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

History of Germany
Ancient times
Germanic peoples
Migration Period
Frankish Empire
Medieval times
Holy Roman Empire
East Colonisation
Sectionalism
Building a nation
Confederation of the Rhine
German Confederation
North German Confederation
The German Reich
German Empire
World War I
Weimar Republic
Nazi Germany
World War II
Post-war Germany
Since 1945
Allied Occupation
Expulsion
East Germany
West Germany
German reunification
Present day Germany
Modern Germany
Topical
Military history of Germany
Territorial changes of Germany
Timeline of German history
History of the German language
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The plan to transform Germany into a constitutional monarchy similar to Britain quickly became obsolete as the country slid into a state of near-total chaos. Germany was flooded with soldiers returning from the front, many of whom were wounded physically and psychologically. Violence was rampant, as the forces of the political right and left fought not only each other, but among themselves. This article gives an overview of the History of Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... The Frankish Empire was the territory of the Franks, from the 5th to the 10th centuries, from 481 ruled by Clovis I of the Merovingian Dynasty, the first king of all the Franks. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire around 1630, superimposed over modern European state borders Capital None Language(s) Latin, German, many others Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 962–967 Otto I  - 973–983 Otto II  - 996–1002 Otto III  - 1014– 1024 Henry II  - 1027–1039 Conrad II  - 1046... Evolution of German linguistic area from 700 to 1950 Settlement in the East (German: ), also known as German eastward expansion, refers to the eastward migration and settlement of Germans into regions inhabited since the Great Migrations by the Balts, Romanians, Hungarians and, since about the 8th century, the Slavs. ... Kleinstaaterei, a German word for the occurence of (many) petty states is a polyvalent term, mainly used for the internal state of Germany (and neighbouring regions) during the Holy Roman Empire, especially in its late phase, when it was officially known as Heiliges Römisches Reich Deutscher Nation. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Confederation of the Rhine in 1812 Capital Frankfurt Political structure Confederation Protector Napoleon I Primate  - 1806-1813 Karl von Dalberg  - 1813 Eugène de Beauharnais Historical era Napoleonic Wars  - Formation 12 July, 1806  - Collapse 19 October, 1813 The Confederation of the Rhine or Rhine Confederation (German: ; French: ) lasted from... Image File history File links Wappen_Deutscher_Bund. ... The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Federation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... The history of Germany is, in places, extremely complicated and depends much on how one defines Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... The German Empire was one of the defeated Central Powers during World War I. It entered the conflict following the declaration of war against Serbia by its ally, Austria-Hungary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(2-3). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... When in 1933 German dictator Adolf Hitler gained power, the world was little (if at all), aware of the intensity and duration of the armed conflict that would follow in just a few short years. ... Following Germanys defeat in World War II and the beginning of the Cold War, Germany was split, representing the focus of the two global blocs in the east and west. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(1946-1949). ... The C-Pennant Occupation zones in Germany (1945) Capital Berlin (de jure) Political structure Military occupation Governors (1945)  - UK zone F.M. Montgomery  - French zone Gen. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_East_Germany. ... “East Germany” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, in English commonly called West Germany). The start of this reunification process is commonly referred to... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... “Deutschland” redirects here. ... While German-speaking peoples have a long history, Germany as a nation-state dates only from 1871. ... // Part of the motivation behind the territorial changes are based on events in the history of Germany and Europe, especially Eastern Europe. ... 50 BC (approximately) Ingvaeones become Frisians, Saxons, Jutes and Angles by about now 8 BC Marcomanni and Quadi drive the Boii out of Bohemia 10 BC (approximately) differentiation of localized Teutonic tribes (Alamanni, Hermunduri, Marcomanni, Quadi, Suebi) in area formerly occupied by Irminones 8 BC Confederation of Marcomanni, Lugier, Semnones... The history of the German language as separate from common West Germanic begins in the Early Middle Ages with the High German consonant shift. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Rebellion broke out when on October 29, the military command, without consultation with the government, ordered the German High Seas Fleet to sortie. This was not only entirely hopeless from a military standpoint, but was also certain to bring the peace negotiations to a halt. The crews of two ships in Wilhelmshaven mutinied. When the military arrested about 1,000 seamen and had them transported to Kiel, the Wilhelmshaven mutiny turned into a general rebellion that quickly swept over most of Germany. Other seamen, soldiers and workers, in solidarity with the arrested, began electing worker and soldier councils modelled after the soviets of the Russian Revolution of 1917, and seized military and civil powers in many cities. On November 7, the revolution had reached Munich, causing King Ludwig III of Bavaria to flee. is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... German battlecruiser Derfflinger scuttled at Scapa Flow. ... Sortie is a term for deployment of one military aircraft or a ship for the purposes of a specific mission, whether alone, or with other aircraft or vessels. ... Wilhelmshaven is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Kiel ( ) is a city in northern Germany and the capital of the Bundesland Schleswig-Holstein. ... The Wilhelmshaven mutiny broke out in the German High Seas Fleet on 29 October 1918. ... A soviet (Russian: , IPA: , council[1]) originally was a workers local council in late Imperial Russia. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Ludwig III (Ludwig Leopold Joseph Maria Aloys Alfred), King of Bavaria, (January 7, 1845 – October 18, 1921) was the last King of Bavaria, reigning from 1913 to 1918. ...


In contrast to Russia one year earlier, the councils were not controlled by a communist party. Still, with the emergence of the Soviet Union, the rebellion caused great fear in the establishment down to the middle classes. The country seemed to be on the verge of a communist revolution. A communist revolution is a proletarian revolution inspired by the ideas of Marxism that aims to replace capitalism with communism, typically with socialism (state or worker ownership over the means of production) as an intermediate stage. ...


At the time, the political representation of the working class was divided: a faction had separated from the Social Democratic Party, the traditional working-class party, calling themselves "Independent Social Democrats" (USPD) and leaning towards a socialist system. In order not to lose their influence, the remaining "Majority Social Democrats" (MSPD, who supported a parliamentary system) decided to put themselves at the front of the movement, and on November 7, demanded that Emperor Wilhelm II abdicate. When he refused, Prince Max of Baden simply announced that he had done so and frantically attempted to establish a regency under another member of the House of Hohenzollern. On November 9, 1918, the Republic was proclaimed by Philipp Scheidemann at the Reichstag building in Berlin, to the fury of the Reichskanzler, who still hoped to preserve the monarchy. Two hours later a Soviet republic was proclaimed, 2 kilometers away, at the Berliner Stadtschloss by a left-wing radical named Karl Liebknecht. is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... German Emperor Wilhelm (born Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albrecht, Prince of Prussia 27 January 1859–4 June 1941), was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (de: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. ... Prince Maximilian of Baden (Max von Baden) (1 July 1867–6 November 1929) was the cousin and heir of Grand Duke Frederick II of Baden, and succeeded Frederick as head of the Grand Ducal House in 1928. ... Regency may have several meanings: A regency may be a period of time when a regent holds power in the name of the current monarch, or in the name of the Crown itself, if the throne is vacant. ... Hohenzollern redirects here. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Philipp Scheidemann (26 July 1865 – 29 November 1939) was a German Social Democratic politician, who proclaimed the Republic on 9 November 1918, and who became the first Chancellor of the Weimar Republic. ... The Reichstag building. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... The head of government in Germany has traditionally been called Kanzler (Chancellor). ... The Berlin City Palace (German: Berliner Stadtschloss) was a palace in central Berlin, on Schlossplatz, next to Alexanderplatz. ... â–¶ (help· info) (August 13, 1871 - January 15, 1919) was a German socialist and a co-founder of the Spartacist League and the Communist Party of Germany. ...


On November 9, in a legally questionable act, Reichskanzler Prince Max of Baden transferred his powers to Friedrich Ebert, the leader of the MSPD, who, shattered by the monarchy's fall, reluctantly accepted. It was apparent, however, that this act would not be sufficient to satisfy Liebknecht and his followers, so a day later, a coalition government called "Council of People's Commissioners" (Rat der Volksbeauftragten) was established, consisting of three MSPD and three USPD members, led by Ebert for the MSPD and Hugo Haase for the USPD. Although the new government was confirmed by the Berlin worker and soldier council, it was opposed by the Spartacist League led by communists Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht. Ebert called for a National Congress of Councils, which took place from December 16 to December 20, 1918, and in which the MSPD had the majority. Ebert thus managed to enforce quick elections for a National Assembly to produce a constitution for a parliamentary system, marginalizing the movement that called for a socialist republic (see below). is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Prince Maximilian of Baden (Max von Baden) (1 July 1867–6 November 1929) was the cousin and heir of Grand Duke Frederick II of Baden, and succeeded Frederick as head of the Grand Ducal House in 1928. ... This is not the Friedrich Ebert involved in the founding of the GDR, but rather his father. ... Hugo Haase (September 29, 1863 - November 7, 1919) was a German politician, jurist, and pacifist. ... The Spartacist League (Spartakusbund in German) was a left-wing Marxist revolutionary movement organized in Germany during and just after the politically volatile years of World War I. It was founded by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg (nicknamed Red Rosa) along with others such as Clara Zetkin. ... Rosa Luxemburg Rosa Luxemburg (March 5, 1870 or 1871 – January 15, 1919, in Polish Róża Luksemburg) was a Jewish Polish-born Marxist political theorist, socialist philosopher, and revolutionary. ... â–¶ (help· info) (August 13, 1871 - January 15, 1919) was a German socialist and a co-founder of the Spartacist League and the Communist Party of Germany. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


From November 1918 through January 1919, Germany was governed dictatorially by the Council of People's Commissioners. In those three months, the government was extraordinarily active, and issued a large number of decrees. At the same time, its main activities were confined to certain spheres: the eight-hour workday, domestic labour reform, agricultural labour reform, right of civil-service associations, local municipality social welfare relief (split between Reich and States) and important national health insurance, re-instatement of demobilised workers, protection from arbitrary dismissal with appeal as a right, regulated wage agreement, and Universal suffrage from 20 years of age in all classes of elections — local and national. Occasionally the name "Die Deutsche Sozialdemokratische Republik" (The German Social-Democratic Republic) appeared in leaflets and on posters from this era, although this was never the official name of the country. 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...


The Reichswehr and the Revolution

To ensure that his fledgling government was able to maintain control over the country, Ebert made an uneasy pact with the OHL, now led by Ludendorff's successor General Wilhelm Groener. This Ebert-Groener pact stipulated that the government would not attempt to reform the Army so long as the army swore to protect the state. On the one hand, this agreement symbolised the acceptance of the new government by the military, assuaging concern among the middle classes; on the other hand, it was considered a betrayal of worker interests by the radical left wing. The new model Reichswehr armed forces, limited by the Treaty of Versailles to 100,000 army soldiers and 15,000 seamen, remained fully under the control of the German officer class despite its nominal re-organisation. As an independent and conservative group in Weimar, it wielded a large amount of influence over the fate of the republic. Wilhelm Groener (November 22, 1867 - May 3, 1939) was a German soldier and politician. ... The Ebert-Groener pact was an agreement between Friedrich Ebert, President of Germany 1919 - 1925, and Wilhelm Groener, General of the armies of Germany, giving the army a free pass in dealing with the communists of Germany, namely the Räterepublik of Munich and the KPD. This was handy for... The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ...


This also marked one of several steps that caused the permanent split in the working class' political representation into the SPD and Communists. The eventual fate of the Weimar Republic derived significantly from the general political incapacity of the German labour movement. The several strands within the central mass of the socialist movement adhered more to sentimental loyalty to alliances arising from chance than to any recognition of political necessity. Combined action on the part of the socialists was impossible without action from the millions of workers who stood midway between the parliamentarians and the ultra-leftists who supported the workers councils. Confusion made acute the danger of extreme right and extreme left engaging in virulent conflict. A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ...


The split became final after Ebert called upon the OHL for troops to put down another Berlin army mutiny on November 23, 1918, in which soldiers had captured the city's garrison commander and closed off the Reichskanzlei where the Council of People's Commissioners was situated. The ensuing street fighting was brutal with several dead and injured on both sides. This caused the left wing to call for a split with the MSPD which, in their view, had joined with the Anti-Communist military to suppress the Revolution. The USPD thus left the Council of People's Commissioners after only seven weeks. In December, the split deepened when the Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (KPD) was formed out of a number of radical left-wing groups, including the radical left wing of the USPD and the Spartacist League group. is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ... The Spartacist League (Spartakusbund in German) was a left-wing Marxist revolutionary movement organized in Germany during and just after the politically volatile years of World War I. It was founded by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg (nicknamed Red Rosa) along with others such as Clara Zetkin. ...


In January, more armed attempts at establishing communism, known as the Spartacist uprising, by the Spartacist League and others in the streets of Berlin were put down by paramilitary Freikorps units consisting of volunteer soldiers. Bloody street fights culminated in the beating and shooting deaths of Rosa Luxemburg and Liebknecht after their arrests on January 15. With the affirmation of Ebert, the murderers were not tried before a court martial, leading to very lenient sentences, which did not exactly lead to more acceptance for Ebert from the radical left. Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... The Spartacist uprising, also known as the January uprising, was a general strike (and the armed battles accompanying it) in Germany from January 5 to January 12, 1919. ... The Spartacist League (Spartakusbund in German) was a left-wing Marxist revolutionary movement organized in Germany during and just after the politically volatile years of World War I. It was founded by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg (nicknamed Red Rosa) along with others such as Clara Zetkin. ... The designation of Freikorps (German for Free Corps, i. ... Rosa Luxemburg Rosa Luxemburg (March 5, 1870 or 1871 – January 15, 1919, in Polish Róża Luksemburg) was a Jewish Polish-born Marxist political theorist, socialist philosopher, and revolutionary. ... ▶ (help· info) (August 13, 1871 - January 15, 1919) was a German socialist and a co-founder of the Spartacist League and the Communist Party of Germany. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ...

Official postcard of the National Assembly.
Official postcard of the National Assembly.

The National Assembly elections took place January 19, 1919. In this time, the radical left-wing parties, including the USPD and KPD, were barely able to get themselves organized, leading to a solid majority of seats for the MSPD moderate forces. To avoid the ongoing fights in Berlin, the National Assembly convened in the city of Weimar, giving the future Republic its unofficial name. The Weimar Constitution created a republic under a semi-presidential system with the Reichstag elected by proportional representation. The Socialist and (Non-Socialist) Democratic parties obtained a solid 80 per cent of the vote. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1128x771, 208 KB) Beschreibung Drei Briefmarken der Deutschen Reichspost von 1919. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1128x771, 208 KB) Beschreibung Drei Briefmarken der Deutschen Reichspost von 1919. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the locality in Texas called Weimar see Weimar, Texas, there is also Weimar bei Kassel and Weimar in Marburg-Biedenkopf. ... The Weimar Constitution in booklet form. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ...


During the debates in Weimar, fighting continued. A Soviet republic was declared in Munich, but was quickly put down by Freikorps and remnants of the regular army. The fall of the Munich Soviet Republic to these units, many of which were situated on the extreme right, resulted in the growth of far-right movements and organizations in Bavaria, including the Nazis, Organisation Consul, and societies of exiled Russian Monarchists. Sporadic fighting continued to flare up around the country. In eastern provinces, forces loyal to Germany's fallen Monarchy fought the republic, while militias of Polish nationalists fought for independence: Great Poland Uprising in Provinz Posen and three Silesian Uprisings in Upper Silesia. The Bavarian Soviet Republic (Bayrische Räterepublik) — also known as the Munich Soviet Republic (Münchner Räterepublik) — was a short-lived revolutionary government in the German state of Bavaria in 1919 that sought to replace the fledgling Weimar Republic in its early days. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Münchner Räterepublik, known as the Munich Soviet Republic or Bavarian Soviet Republic (Bayerische Räterepublik), was a short-lived communist country, organized in Bavaria in the year 1919. ... Far right, extreme right, ultra-right, or radical right are terms used to discuss the qualitative or relative position a group or person occupies within a political spectrum. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Soldiers of Greatpolish Army Greater Poland Uprising of 1918- 1919 (Polish: powstanie wielkopolskie 1918-19 roku) was a military insurrection of the Polish people in the Greater Poland region (also called the Grand Duchy of Poznań) against the German/Prussian forces. ... The Province of Posen (German: Provinz Posen, Polish: Prowincja Poznańska) was a province of Prussia (1846-1918). ... The Silesian Uprisings (Polish: Powstania Å›lÄ…skie) was a series of three military insurections (1919-1921) of the Polish people in the Upper Silesia region against the German/Prussian forces in order to force them out the region and join it with Poland, that regained her independence after the World... Map of Upper Silesia, 1746 Upper Silesia (Polish: Górny ÅšlÄ…sk, German: Oberschlesien, Czech: Horní Slezsko) is the south-eastern part of Silesia, a historical and geographical region of Poland (Opole Voivodship and Silesian Voivodship) and of the Czech Republic (Silesian-Moravian Region). ...


The socialist roots of Weimar

The carefully thought-out social and political legislation introduced during the revolution was generally unappreciated by the German working-class. The two goals sought by the government, democratisation and social protection of the working class, were never achieved. This has been attributed to a lack of pre-war political experience on the part of the Social Democrats. The government had little success in confronting the twin economic crises following the war.


The permanent economic crisis was a result of lost pre-war industrial exports, the loss of supplies in raw materials and food stuffs from Alsace-Lorraine, Polish districts and the colonies along with worsening debt balances and reparations payments. Military-industrial activity had almost ceased, although controlled demobilisation kept unemployment at around one million. The fact that the Allies continued to blockade Germany until after the Treaty of Versailles did not help matters, either. Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ... The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ...


The allies permitted only low import levels of goods that most Germans could not afford. After four years of war and famine, many German workers were exhausted, physically impaired and discouraged. Millions were disenchanted with capitalism and hoping for a new era. Meanwhile the currency devalued.


The German peace delegation in France signed the Treaty of Versailles accepting mass reductions of the German military, unrealistically heavy war reparations payments, and the controversial "War Guilt Clause". Adolf Hitler later blamed the republic and its democracy for the oppressive terms of this treaty, though most current historians disregard the "stab-in-the-back" myth Hitler advocated for his own personal political gain. The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Article_231_of_the_Treaty_of_Versailles. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Magazine title from 1924, example of a propaganda illustration in support of the legend The Stab-in-the-back myth (German: Dolchstoßlegende, literally Dagger stab legend) refers to a social myth and persecution-propaganda theory popular in Germany in the period after World War I through World War II...


The Republic's first Reichspräsident ("Reich President"), Friedrich Ebert of the SPD, signed the new German constitution into law on August 11, 1919. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with President of Germany. ... This is not the Friedrich Ebert involved in the founding of the GDR, but rather his father. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...


The early years: internal conflict (1919–1923)

1923-issue 50 million mark banknote. Worth approximately $1 US when printed, this sum would have been worth approximately $12 million, nine years earlier. The note was practically worthless a few weeks later due to continued inflation.
1923-issue 50 million mark banknote. Worth approximately $1 US when printed, this sum would have been worth approximately $12 million, nine years earlier. The note was practically worthless a few weeks later due to continued inflation.
Inflation 1923–24: a woman feeds her tiled stove with money. At the time, burning money was less expensive than buying firewood.

The Republic was under great pressure from both left and right-wing extremists. The radical left accused the ruling Social Democrats of having betrayed the ideals of the workers' movement by preventing a communist revolution. Right-wing extremists were opposed to any democratic system, preferring an authoritarian state like the 1871 Empire. To further undermine the Republic's credibility the extremists of the right (especially certain members of the former officer corps) also blamed an alleged conspiracy of Socialists and Jews for Germany's defeat in World War I (see Dolchstoßlegende). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x682, 262 KB) Summary September 1, 1923 50 Million Mark. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x682, 262 KB) Summary September 1, 1923 50 Million Mark. ... Inflation 1923/24: a woman feeds her tiled stove with money. ... Inflation 1923/24: a woman feeds her tiled stove with money. ... Magazine title from 1924, example of a propaganda illustration in support of the legend The Dolchstoßlegende, (German dagger-thrust legend, often translated in English as stab-in-the-back legend) refers to a social mythos and persecution-propaganda theory popular in post-World War I Germany. ...


For the next five years Germany's large cities suffered political violence between left-wing and right-wing groups, both of which committed violence and murder against innocent civilians and against each other, resulting in many deaths. The worst of the violence was between right-wing paramilitaries called the Freikorps and pro-Communist militias called the Red Guards, both of which admitted ex-soldiers into their ranks. Political terrorism is a form of terrorism (a tactic of violence that targets civilians) used to influence socio-political events so that gains occur that might not have otherwise happened by peaceful means or by conventional warfare. ... The designation of Freikorps (German for Free Corps, i. ... Red Guards refer to socialist or communist militia formed to instigate, support, or defend communist revolutions. ...


The first challenge to the Weimar Republic came when a group of communists and anarchists took over the Bavarian government in Munich and declared the creation of the Bavarian Soviet Republic. The communist rebel state was quickly put down one month later when Freikorps units were brought in to battle the leftist rebels. The Bavarian Soviet Republic (Bayrische Räterepublik) — also known as the Munich Soviet Republic (Münchner Räterepublik) — was a short-lived revolutionary government in the German state of Bavaria in 1919 that sought to replace the fledgling Weimar Republic in its early days. ...


The Kapp Putsch took place on March 13, 1920, involving a group of Freikorps troops who gained control of Berlin and installed Wolfgang Kapp (a right-wing journalist) as chancellor. The national government fled to Stuttgart and called for a general strike. While Kapp's vacillating nature did not help matters, the strike crippled Germany's ravaged economy and the Kapp government collapsed after only four days on March 17. Memorial for the suppression of the Kapp putsch in Wetter station The Kapp Putsch —or more accurately the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch —was an attempt to overthrow the Weimar Republic, based in opposition to the imposed Treaty of Versailles at the end of World War I. It was branded right... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... The designation of Freikorps (German for Free Corps, i. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Wolfgang Kapp (July 24, 1858 - June 12, 1922) was an East Prussian civil servant and journalist. ... , City Center seen from Weinsteige Road Castle Solitude The 1956 TV Tower The Weissenhof Estate in 1927 Stuttgart (IPA: []) is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. ... A general strike is a strike action by an entire labour force in a city, region or country. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Inspired by the general strikes, a communist uprising began in the Ruhr region when 50,000 people formed a "Red Army" and took control of the province. The regular army and the Freikorps ended the uprising on their own authority. Other communist rebellions were put down in March 1921 in Saxony and Hamburg. Ruhr Area within Germany Map of the Ruhr Area The Ruhr Area, also called simply Ruhr, (German Ruhrgebiet, colloquial Ruhrpott or Kohlenpott) is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, consisting of a number of large formerly industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to... The designation of Freikorps (German for Free Corps, i. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... Location Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE6 First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  755 km² (292 sq mi) Population 1,754,317 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 2,324 /km² (6,018...


In 1922, Germany signed a treaty - the Treaty of Rapallo - with Russia, and disarmament was brought to a halt. Under the Treaty of Versailles Germany could only have 100,000 solders and no conscription, Naval forces reduced to 15,000 men, 12 destroyers, 6 battleships, and 6 cruisers, no submaries or aircraft. The Treaty with Russia worked in secret, as the treaty allowed Germany to train military personal, and Russia gained the benefits of Germany military technology. This was against the Treaty of Versailles, but Russia had pulled out of World War I against the Germans', due to a Revolution and was looked down on by the League of Nations.So Germany seized the chance to make an ally. Disarmament means the act of reducing or depriving arms i. ... The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919-1920. ...


By 1923, the Republic claimed it could no longer afford the reparations payments required by the Versailles treaty, and the government defaulted on some payments. In response, French and Belgian troops occupied the Ruhr region, Germany's most productive industrial region at the time, taking control of most mining and manufacturing companies in January of 1923. Strikes were called, and passive resistance was encouraged. These strikes lasted eight months, further damaging the economy and raising expensive imports. The strike meant no goods were being produced. This infuriated the French, who began to kill and exile protestors in the region. Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Occupation of the Varun Balan in 1923 and 1924, by troops from France and Belgium was a response to the failure of German Weimar Republic under Cuno to pay reparations in the aftermath of World War I. Initiated by French Prime Minister Raymond Poincaré, the invasion took place on... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Since striking workers were paid benefits by the state, much additional currency was printed, fueling a period of hyperinflation. Hyperinflation started when Germany had no goods to trade with. The government printed money was to deal with the crisis, although other options were available, such as borrowing money from the US under the Dawes Pact. This allowed Germany to pay war loans and reparations with worthless marks and helped formerly great industrialists to pay back their own loans. This also led to pay raises for workers and for businessmen who wanted to profit from it. Circulation of money rocketed and soon, the Germans discovered their money was worthless. The value of the Papiermark had declined from 4.2 per US dollar at the outbreak of World War I to 1 million per dollar by August 1923. On 15 November 1923, a new currency, the Rentenmark, was introduced at the rate of 1 trillion (1,000,000,000,000) Papiermark for 1 Rentenmark. At that time, 1 U.S. dollar was equal to 4.2 Rentenmark. Reparation payments resumed, and the Ruhr was returned to Germany under the Locarno Pact, which defined a border between Germany, France and Belguim. Certain figures in this article use scientific notation for readability. ... The name Papiermark (German: Paper mark) can be applied to the German currency from the point in 1914 when the link between the mark and gold was abandoned, due to the outbreak of the First World War. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A 1926 5 Rentenmark banknote The Rentenmark (literally, Security Mark) (RM) was a currency issued on 15 November 1923 to stop the hyperinflation of 1922 and 1923 in Germany. ... One million million (1,000,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,000,001. ...


Further pressure from the right came in 1923 with the Beer Hall Putsch, staged by Adolf Hitler in Munich. In 1920, the German Workers' Party had become the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP), nicknamed the Nazi Party, and would become a driving force in the collapse of Weimar. Hitler was named chairman of the party in July 1921. On November 8, 1923, the Kampfbund, in a pact with Erich Ludendorff, took over a meeting by Bavarian prime minister Gustav von Kahr at a beer hall in Munich. Ludendorff and Hitler declared a new government, planning to take control of Munich the following day. The 3,000 rebels were thwarted by 100 policemen. Hitler was arrested and sentenced to five years in prison, a minimum sentence for the charge and he served less than eight months before his release. Following the failure of the Beer Hall Putsch, his imprisonment and subsequent release, Hitler focused on legal methods of gaining power. The Beer Hall Putsch was a failed coup détat that occurred between the evening of Thursday, November 8 and the early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923, when the Nazi partys Führer Adolf Hitler, the popular World War I General Erich Ludendorff, and other leaders of the... Hitler redirects here. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... The German Workers Party (German: Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, short DAP) was a briefly existing progenitor of the NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers Party). ... The Nazi Party (German: , or NSDAP, English: National Socialist German Workers Party), was a far-right, racist political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Kampfbund was a league of patriotic fighting societies and the German National Socialist party in Bavaria, Germany in the 1920s. ... Ludendorff in 1918 Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865 – December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, Quartermaster General during World War I, victor of Liege, and, with Paul von Hindenburg, one of the victors of the battle of Tannenberg. ... Gustav Ritter von Kahr (1862–June 30, 1934) was a German right-wing conservative politician, active in the state of Bavaria. ...


Stresemann's Golden Era (1923–1929)

The Sino-German cooperation played a great role in Chinese history of the early and mid 20th century. An alliance reversed in 1941, with Nazi Germany backing Imperial Japan's occupation of China
The Sino-German cooperation played a great role in Chinese history of the early and mid 20th century. An alliance reversed in 1941, with Nazi Germany backing Imperial Japan's occupation of China

Gustav Stresemann was Reichskanzler for a brief period in 1923, and served as foreign minister from 1923-1929, a period of relative stability for the Weimar Republic when there were fewer uprisings and the beginnings of economic recovery. Image File history File links Sino-german_cooperation. ... Image File history File links Sino-german_cooperation. ... Sino-German cooperation played a great role in Chinese history of the early and mid 20th century. ... ‹ The template below (History of China - BC) is being considered for deletion. ... The ensign of Imperial Japanese Navy was a prominent symbol of Imperial Japan. ... Gustav Stresemann (May 10, 1878 – October 3, 1929) was a German liberal politician and statesman who served as Chancellor and Foreign Secretary during the Weimar Republic. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Stresemann's first move was to issue a new currency, the Rentenmark, to halt the extreme hyperinflation crippling German society and the economy. It was successful because Stresemann refused to issue more currency, the cause of the inflationary spiral. To further stabilise the economy, he reduced spending and bureaucracy while increasing taxes. He signed the Locarno Treaties with the Allied countries in 1925 as a means of restoring Germany's diplomatic status in Europe. A 1926 5 Rentenmark banknote The Rentenmark (literally, Security Mark) (RM) was a currency issued on 15 November 1923 to stop the hyperinflation of 1922 and 1923 in Germany. ... Certain figures in this article use scientific notation for readability. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... -1... The Locarno Treaties were seven agreements negotiated at Locarno, Switzerland on 5 October—16 October 1925 and formally signed in London on December 1, in which the World War I Western European Allied powers and the new states of central and Eastern Europe sought to secure the post-war territorial...


During this period, the Dawes Plan was created, tying reparations payments to Germany's ability to pay. Germany was admitted into the League of Nations, made agreements over its western border. However, this progress was funded by overseas loans, increasing the nation's debts, while overall trade decreased and unemployment rose. Stresemann's reforms did not relieve the underlying weaknesses of Weimar but gave the appearance of a stable democracy. At the conclusion of World War I the Allies imposed in the Treaty of Versailles a plan for reparations to be paid by Germany. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919-1920. ...


Despite the progress during these years, Stresemann was criticized by opponents for his policy of "fulfilment", or compliance with the terms of the Versailles Treaty, and by the German people after the invasion of the Ruhr, in which he agreed to pay the reparations set by the treaty in order for the French troops to evacuate. Woodrow Wilson with the American Peace Commissioners The Treaty of Versailles of 1919 is the peace treaty created as a result of six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 which put an official end to World War I between the Allies and Central Powers. ...


In 1929, Stresemann's death marked the end of the "Golden Era" of the Weimar Republic. He died at the age of 51, four months after receiving the Nobel Peace Prize. Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize Image:Nobel-medal. ...


The Republic crumbles and Hitler's support rises (1930–1932)

Loss of credibility

The last years of the Weimar Republic were stamped by even more political instability than in the previous years and the administrations of Chancellors Brüning, Papen, Schleicher and Hitler (from 30 January to 23 March 1933) were all Presidentially appointed dictatorships. On March 29, 1930, the finance expert Heinrich Brüning had been appointed the successor of Chancellor Müller by Paul von Hindenburg after months of political lobbying by General Kurt von Schleicher on behalf of the military. The new government was expected to lead a political shift towards conservatism, based on the emergency powers granted to the Reichspräsident by the constitution, since it had no majority support in the Reichstag. is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Heinrich Brüning on a Centre Party election poster (German Resistance Museum, Berlin) Dr. Heinrich Brüning ( ) (November 26, 1885 – March 30, 1970) was a German politician during the Weimer Republic. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ...   (7 April 1882 – 30 June 1934) was a German general and the last Chancellor of Germany during the era of the Weimar Republic. ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ...


After an unpopular bill to reform the Reich's finances was left unsupported by the Reichstag, Hindenburg established the bill as an emergency decree based on Article 48 of the constitution. On July 18, 1930, the bill was again invalidated by a slim majority in the Reichstag with the support of the SPD, KPD, the (then small) NSDAP and DNVP. Immediately afterwards, Brüning submitted to the Reichstag the president's decree that it would be dissolved. Article 48 was a measure in the constitution of the Weimar Republic of Germany (1919–1933) that allowed the President to rule by decree without the consent of the Reichstag (parliament). ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ... The German National Peoples Party (German: Deutschnationale Volkspartei) (DNVP) was a right wing national-conservative party in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic. ...


The Reichstag general elections on September 14, 1930 resulted in an enormous political shift: 18.3% of the vote went to the Nazis, five times the percentage compared to 1928, although still less than 1/5 of the popular vote. Nevertheless, the increased legislative representation of the NSDAP had devastating consequences for the Republic. There was no longer a moderate majority in the Reichstag even for a Great Coalition of moderate parties, and this encouraged the supporters of the Nazis to force their claim to power with increasing violence and terror. After 1930, the Republic slid more and more into a state of potential civil war. is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


From 1930 to 1932, Brüning attempted to reform the devastated state without a majority in Parliament, governing with the help of the President's emergency decrees. During that time, the Great Depression reached its lowpoint. In line with liberal economic theory that less public spending would spur economic growth, Brüning drastically cut state expenditures, including in the social sector. He expected and accepted that the economic crisis would, for a while, deteriorate before things would improve. Among others, the Reich completely halted all public grants to the obligatory unemployment insurance (which had been introduced only in 1927), which resulted in higher contributions by the workers and fewer benefits for the unemployed. This was understandably an unpopular move on his part. The Great Depression was a dramatic, worldwide economic downturn beginning in some countries as early as 1928. ...


The economic downturn lasted until the second half of 1932, when there were first indications of a rebound. By this time though, the Weimar Republic had lost all credibility with the majority of Germans. While scholars greatly disagree about how Brüning's policy should be evaluated, it can safely be said that it contributed to the decline of the Republic. Whether there were alternatives at the time remains the subject of much debate.


The bulk of German capitalists and land-owners originally gave support to the conservative experiment: not from any personal liking for Brüning, but believing the conservatives would best serve their interests. As, however, the mass of the working class and also of the middle classes turned against Brüning, more of the great capitalists and landowners declared themselves in favour of his opponents - Hitler and Hugenberg. By late 1931 conservatism as a movement was dead, and the time was coming when Hindenburg and the Reichswehr would drop Brüning and come to terms with Hugenberg and Hitler. Hindenburg himself was no less a supporter of an anti-democratic counter-revolution represented by Hugenberg and Hitler.[3] The Reichswehr (help· info) (literally National Defense or Imperial Defense) formed the military organization of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when the government rebranded it as the Wehrmacht (Defence Force). ...


On May 30, 1932, Brüning resigned after no longer having Hindenburg's support. Five weeks earlier, Hindenburg had been re-elected Reichspräsident with Brüning's active support, running against Hitler (the president was directly elected by the people while the Reichskanzler was not). is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Franz von Papen calls for elections

Hindenburg then appointed Franz von Papen as new Reichskanzler. Von Papen lifted the ban on the SA, imposed after the street riots, in an unsuccessful attempt to secure the backing of Hitler. Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen (29 October 1879 – 2 May 1969) was a German nobleman Catholic politician, General Staff officer, and diplomat, who served as Chancellor of Germany in 1932. ... The seal of SA SA propaganda poster. ...

SPD election poster, 1932. Translation: "Against Papen, Hitler, Thälmann; List 2, Social Democrats". The poster shows the Social Democrats crushing their three ideological enemies, Monarchism, Nazism and Communism.

Von Papen was closely associated with the industrialist and land-owning classes and pursued an extreme Conservative policy along Hindenburg's lines. He appointed as Reichswehr Minister Kurt von Schleicher and all of the members of the new cabinet were of the same political opinion as Hindenberg. This government was to be expected to assure itself of the co-operation of Hitler. Since the Republicans and Socialists were not yet ready to take action and the Conservatives had shot their political bolt, Hitler and Hindenberg were certain to achieve power. Download high resolution version (431x624, 38 KB)SPD poster for 1932 general elections. ... Download high resolution version (431x624, 38 KB)SPD poster for 1932 general elections. ... SPD redirects here. ... Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen (29 October 1879 – 2 May 1969) was a German nobleman Catholic politician, General Staff officer, and diplomat, who served as Chancellor of Germany in 1932. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... Ernst Thälmann Ernst Thälmann statue in Weimar. ... Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy as a form of government in a nation. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...   (7 April 1882 – 30 June 1934) was a German general and the last Chancellor of Germany during the era of the Weimar Republic. ...


Elections of July 1932

Since most parties opposed the new government, von Papen had the Reichstag dissolved and called for new elections. The general elections on July 31, 1932 yielded major gains for the KPD and the Nazis, who won 37.2% of the vote, supplanting the Social Democrats as the largest party in the Reichstag. The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ... SPD redirects here. ...


July 1932 resulted in the question as to now what part the immense Nazi Party would play in the Government of the country. The Nazi party owed its huge increase to an influx of workers, unemployed, despairing peasants, and middle-class people. The millions of radical adherents at first forced the Party towards the Left. They wanted a renewed Germany and a new organisation of German society. The left of the Nazi party strove desperately against any drift into the train of such capitalist and feudal reactionaries. Therefore Hitler refused ministry under Papen, and demanded the chancellorship for himself, but was rejected by Hindenburg on August 13, 1932. There was still no majority in the Reichstag for any government; as a result, the Reichstag was dissolved and elections took place once more in the hope that a stable majority would result. is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


November and 'Socialist General' Schleicher

The November 6, 1932 elections yielded 33.1% for the Nazis[4]: it dropped 2 million voters. Franz von Papen stepped down, and was succeeded by General von Schleicher as Reichskanzler on December 3. The political army officer Schleicher, had developed in atmosphere of semi-obscurity and intrigue that encompassed the Republican military policy. He had for years been in the camp of those supporting the Conservative counter-revolution. Schleicher's bold and unsuccessful plan was to build a majority in the Reichstag by uniting the Trade Unionist left wings in the various parties, including that of the Nazis led by Gregor Strasser. This did not prove successful either. is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers...


In this brief Presidential Dictatatorship entr'acte, Schleicher took the role of 'Socialist General', and entered into relations with the Christian Trade Unions, the Left Nazis, and even with the Social Democrats. Schleicher's plan was for a sort of Labour Government under his Generalship. It was an utterly un-workable idea as the Reichswehr officers were hardly prepared to follow Schleicher on this path, and the working class had a natural distrust of their future allies. Equally, Schleicher aroused hatred amongst the great capitalists and landowners by these plans. The SPD and KPD could have achieved success building on a Berlin transport strike.


Hitler learned from von Papen that the general had no authority to abolish the Reichstag parliament, whereas any majority of seats did. The cabinet (under a previous interpretation of Article 48) ruled without a sitting Reichstag, which could vote only for its own dissolution. Hitler also learned that all past crippling Nazi debts were to be relieved by German big business.


On January 22, Hitler's efforts to persuade Oskar von Hindenburg (the President's son) included threats to bring criminal charges over estate taxation irregularities at the President's Neudeck estate (although 5000 extra acres were soon allotted to Hindenburg's property). Out maneuvered by von Papen and Hitler on plans for the new cabinet, and having lost Hindenburg's confidence, Schleicher asked for new elections. On January 28 von Papen described Hitler to Paul von Hindenburg as only a minority part of an alternative, von Papen-arranged government. The four great political movements, the SPD, KPD, Centre, and the Nazis were in opposition. If this continued there was real danger that the Centre and Nazi parties would radicalize further, and that in the end a vast united national bolshevist front would be formed against the ruling system. is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Neudeck was the country estate of the Hindenburg family near Rosenberg, East Prussia. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ...


On 29 January Hitler and von Papen thwarted a last-minute threat of an officially-sanctioned Reichswehr takeover, and on 30 January 1933 Hindenburg accepted the new Papen-Nationalist-Hitler coalition with the Nazis holding only three of eleven Cabinet seats. Later that day, the first cabinet meeting was attended by only two political parties, representing a minority in the Reichstag: The Nazis and the DNVP led by Alfred Hugenberg (196 + 52 seats). Eyeing the Catholic Centre Party's 70 (+ 20 BVP) seats, Hitler refused their leader's demands for constitutional "concessions" (amounting to protection) and planned for dissolution of the Reichstag. January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... The German National Peoples Party (German: Deutschnationale Volkspartei) (DNVP) was a right wing national-conservative party in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic. ... Alfred Hugenberg (June 19, 1865 - March 12, 1951) was an influential German businessman and politician. ... The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... The Bavarian Peoples Party (Bayerische Volkspartei) was the Bavarian branch of the Centre Party, which broke off from the rest of the party in 1919 to pursue a more conservative, Bavarian particularist, course. ...


Hindenburg, despite his misgivings about the Nazis' goals and about Hitler as a person, reluctantly agreed to Papen's theory that, with Nazi popular support on the wane, Hitler could now be controlled as chancellor. The date dubbed Machtergreifung (seizure of power) by the Nazi propaganda is commonly seen as the beginning of Nazi Germany. Machtergreifung is a German word meaning seizure of power. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


Hitler's chancellorship and the death of the Weimar Republic (1933)

Hitler was sworn in as Chancellor on the morning of January 30, 1933 in what some observers later described as a brief and indifferent ceremony. By early February, a mere week after Hitler's assumption of the chancellorship, the government had begun to clamp down on the opposition. Meetings of the left-wing parties were banned, and even some of the moderate parties found their members threatened and assaulted. Measures with an appearance of legality suppressed the Communist Party in mid-February and included the plainly illegal arrests of Reichstag deputies. Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... For other uses, see Chancellor (disambiguation). ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...


Reichstag Fire

The Reichstag Fire on February 27 was blamed by Hitler's government on the Communists, and Hitler used the ensuing state of emergency to obtain the assent of President von Hindenburg to issue the Reichstag Fire Decree the following day. The decree invoked Article 48 of the Weimar Constitution and suspended a number of constitutional protections of civil liberties, allowing the Nazi government to take swift action against political meetings, arresting or murdering members of the Communist party. The Reichstag fire was a pivotal event in the establishment of Nazi Germany. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A German newspapers final issue, announcing its own prohibition (Verbot) by the police authorities on the basis of the Reichstag fire decree The Reichstag Fire Decree (Reichstagsbrandverordnung in German) is the common name of the decree issued by German president Paul von Hindenburg in direct response to the Reichstag... Article 48 was a measure in the constitution of the Weimar Republic of Germany (1919–1933) that allowed the President to rule by decree without the consent of the Reichstag (parliament). ... The Weimar Constitution in booklet form. ...


Reichstag election of March 5

Hitler and the Nazis exploited the German state's broadcasting and aviation facilities in a massive attempt to sway the electorate, but this election — the last democratic election to take place until the end of the Third Reich twelve years later — yielded a scant majority of 16 seats for the coalition. At the Reichstag elections, which took place 5 March, the NSDAP obtained seventeen million votes. The Communist, Socialist and Catholic Centre votes stood firm. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... This article is about the day. ...


Hitler addressed disparate interest groups, stressing the necessity for a definitive solution to the perpetual instability of the Weimar Republic. He now blamed Germany's problems on the Communists, even threatening their lives on March 3. Former Chancellor Heinrich Bruning proclaimed that his Centre Party would resist any constitutional change and appealed to the President for an investigation of the Reichstag fire. Hitler's successful plan was to induce what remained of the now Communist-depleted Reichstag to grant him, and the Government, the authority to issue decrees with the force of law. The hitherto Presidential Dictatorship hereby was to give itself a new legal form. is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Heinrich Brüning (November 26, 1885–March 30, 1970) was a German politician who was Chancellor of Germany. ...


On 15 March the first cabinet meeting was attended by the two coalition parties, representing a minority in the Reichstag: The Nazis and the DNVP led by Alfred Hugenberg (196 + 52 seats). According to the Nuremberg Trials this cabinet meeting's first order of business was how at last to achieve the complete counter-revolution by means of the constitutionally-allowed Enabling Act, requiring two-thirds parliamentary majority. This Act would, and did, bring Hitler and the NSDAP unfettered dictatorial powers. is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The German National Peoples Party (German: Deutschnationale Volkspartei) (DNVP) was a right wing national-conservative party in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic. ... Alfred Hugenberg (June 19, 1865 - March 12, 1951) was an influential German businessman and politician. ... The Süddeutsche Zeitung announces The Verdict in Nuremberg. ... The Enabling Act (Ermächtigungsgesetz in German) was passed by Germanys parliament (the Reichstag) on March 23, 1933. ... The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ...


Hitler cabinet meeting in mid-March

At the meeting of the new cabinet on March 15, Hitler introduced the Enabling Act, which would have authorised the cabinet to enact legislation without the approval of the Reichstag. Meanwhile, the only remaining question for the Nazis was whether the Catholic Centre Party (Zentrum) would support the Enabling Act in the Reichstag, thereby providing the two-thirds majority required to ratify a law that amended the constitution. Hitler expressed his confidence to win over the Centre's votes. Hitler is recorded at the Nuremberg Trials as being sure of eventual Centre Party Germany capitulation and thus rejecting of the DNVP's suggestions to "balance" the majority through further arrests, this time of socialists. Hitler however assured his coalition partners that arrests would resume after the elections, and in fact some 26 SDP Socialists were physically removed. After meeting with Centre leader Monsignor Ludwig Kaas and other Centre Trade Union leaders daily, and denying them a substantial participation in the government, negotiation succeeded in respect of guarantees towards Catholic civil-servants and education issues. is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Enabling Act (Ermächtigungsgesetz in German) was passed by Germanys parliament (the Reichstag) on March 23, 1933. ... The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... Monsignor Ludwig Kaas (23 May 1881-15 April 1952) was a Roman Catholic priest, and a prominent German politician during the Weimar Republic. ...


At the last internal Centre meeting prior to the debate on the Enabling Act, Kaas expressed no preference or suggestion on the vote, but as a way of mollifying opposition by Centre members to the granting of further powers to Hitler, Kaas somehow arranged for a letter of constitutional guarantee from Hitler himself prior to his voting with the centre en bloc in favor of the Enabling Act. This guarantee was not ultimately given. Kaas, the party's chairman since 1928, had strong connections to the Vatican Secretary of State, later Pope Pius XII. In return for pledging his support for the act, Kaas would use his connections with the Vatican to set in train and draft the Holy See's long desired Reichskonkordat with Germany (only possible with the co-operation of the Nazis). The Enabling Act (Ermächtigungsgesetz in German) was passed by Germanys parliament (the Reichstag) on March 23, 1933. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pope Pius XII (Latin: ), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as the 260th pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City, from March 2, 1939 until his death. ... The Reichskonkordat is the concordat between the Holy See and the German Reich, signed in 1933. ...


Ludwig Kaas is considered along with von Papen as being one of the two most important political figures in the creation of a National Socialist dictatorship.[5] Monsignor Ludwig Kaas (23 May 1881-15 April 1952) was a Roman Catholic priest, and a prominent German politician during the Weimar Republic. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ...


Enabling Act negotiations

On March 20 negotiation began between Hitler and Frick on one side and the Catholic Centre Party (Zentrum) leaders — Kaas, Stegerwald and Hackelsburger — on the other. The aim was to settle on conditions under which Center would vote in favor of the Enabling Act. Because of the Nazis' narrow majority in the Reichstag, Center's support was necessary to receive the required two-thirds majority vote. On March 22, the negotiations concluded; Hitler promised to continue the existence of the German states, agreed not to use the new grant of power to change the constitution, and promised to retain Zentrum members in the civil service. Hitler also pledged to protect the Catholic confessional schools and to respect the concordats signed between the Holy See and Bavaria (1924), Prussia (1929) and Baden (1931). Hitler also agreed to mention these promises in his speech to the Reichstag before the vote on the Enabling Act. is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Ceremonial opening of the Reichstag in Potsdam on March 21

The ceremonial opening of the Reichstag on March 21 was held at the Garrison Church in Potsdam, a shrine of Prussianism, in the presence of many Junker landowners and representatives of the imperial military caste. This impressive and often emotional spectacle — orchestrated by Joseph Goebbels — aimed to link Hitler's government with Germany's imperial past and portray National Socialism as a guarantor of the nation's future. The ceremony helped convince the "old guard" Prussian military elite of Hitler's homage to their long tradition and, in turn, produced the relatively convincing view that Hitler's government had the support of Germany's traditional protector — the Army. Such support would publicly signal a return to conservatism to curb the problems affecting the Weimar Republic, and that stability might be at hand. In a cynical and politically adroit move, Hitler bowed in respectful humility before President and Field Marshal von Hindenburg. March 21 is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Potsdam is the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. ... Junkers (English pronunciation: ; German pronunciation: ) were the landed nobility of Prussia and Eastern Germany - lands which are often also called Eastelbia (Ostelbien in German - the land east of river Elbe). ... Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: ) (29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ...


Passage of the Enabling Act by the Reichstag on March 23

The Reichstag Government convened on March 23, 1933, and in the midday opening, Hitler made a historic speech, appearing outwardly calm and conciliatory. It is most noticeable for its abrupt reversal of the Nazi Party's hardline stance against Christianity and particularly Catholicism. Hitler presented an appealing prospect of respect towards Christianity by paying tribute to the Christian faiths as "essential elements for safeguarding the soul of the German people". He promised to respect their rights and declared his government's "ambition is a peaceful accord between Church and State" and that he hoped "to improve our friendly relations with the Holy See." This speech aimed especially at the future recognition by the named Holy See and therefore to the votes of the Centre Party addressing many concerns Kaas had voiced during the previous talks. Kaas is considered to have had a hand therefore in the drafting of the speech.[5] Kaas is also reported as voicing the Holy see's desire for Hitler as bulwark against atheistic Russian nihilism previously as early as May 1932.[6] is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... The separation of church and state is a concept in law whereby the structures of state or national government are kept separate from those of religious institutions. ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... Nihilism (from the Latin nihil, nothing) is a philosophical position which argues that the world, especially past and current human existence, is without objective meaning, purpose, comprehensible truth, or essential value. ...


In the debate prior to the vote on the Enabling Act, Hitler orchestrated the full political menace of his paramilitary forces like the storm troopers in the streets to intimidate reluctant Reichstag deputies into approving the Enabling Act. The Communists' 81 seats had been empty since the Reichstag Fire Decree and other lesser known procedural measures, thus excluding their anticipated "No" votes from the balloting. Otto Wels, the leader of the Social Democrats, whose seats were similarly depleted from 120 to below 100, was the only speaker to defend democracy and in a futile but brave effort to deny Hitler the two-thirds majority, he made a speech critical of the abandonment of democracy to dictatorship. At this Hitler could no longer restrain his wrath.[7] A paramilitary organization is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ... The seal of SA SA propaganda poster. ... Otto Wels (September 15, 1873 - September 16, 1939) was the chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) from 1919 and a member of parliament from 1920 to 1930. ...


In his retort to Wels, Hitler abandoned earlier pretence at calm statesmanship and delivered a characteristic screaming diatribe, promising to exterminate all Communists in Germany and threatening Wels' Social Democrats as well. Meanwhile Hitler's promised written guarantee to Monsignor Kaas was being typed up, it was asserted to Kaas, and thereby Kaas was persuaded to silently deliver the Centre bloc's votes for the Enabling Act anyway. Otto Wels (September 15, 1873 - September 16, 1939) was the chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) from 1919 and a member of parliament from 1920 to 1930. ...


Aftermath

Main article: Nazi Germany

The passing of the Enabling Act gave Hitler and his government sweeping powers to legislate without the Reichstag's approval, and to make foreign policy decisions and deviate from the constitution where they saw fit. Hitler would use these powers to remove all opposition to the dictatorship he wished to create. The decrees issued by Hitler's cabinet within succeeding weeks rapidly stripped Germans of their rights, removed all non-Nazi members of the Civil Service, and banned all other political parties and unions, ushering in the Third Reich. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


The NSDAP movement had rapidly passed the power of the majority Nationalist Ministers to control. Unchecked by the police, the S.A indulged in acts of terrorism throughout Germany. Communists, Social Democrats, and the Centre were ousted from public life everywhere. The violent persecution of Jews began, and by the summer 1933 the NSDAP felt itself so invincible that it did away with all the other parties, as well as trades unions. The Nationalist Party was among those suppressed. The NSDAP ruled alone in Germany. The Reichswehr had, however, remained completely un-touched by all these occurrences. It was still the same State within a State that it had been in the Weimar Republic. Similarly, the private property of wealthy industrialists and landowners was untouched, whilst the administrative and judicial machinery was only very slightly tampered with.[3] The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ...


Reasons for the Weimar Republic's failure

The reasons for the Weimar Republic's collapse are the subject of continuing debate. It may have been doomed from the beginning since even moderates disliked it and extremists on both the left and right loathed it. Germany had no democratic traditions and Weimar democracy was widely seen as chaotic. And since Weimar politicians had been blamed for the "stab in the back" myth that was then widely believed in Germany as the real cause of the surrender of the German army in World War I, the popular legitimacy of the government was on shaky ground. Magazine title from 1924, example of a propaganda illustration in support of the legend The Stab-in-the-back myth (German: Dolchstoßlegende, literally Dagger stab legend) refers to a social myth and persecution-propaganda theory popular in Germany in the period after World War I through World War II...


No single reason can explain the failure of the Weimar Republic. The most commonly asserted causes can be grouped into three categories: economic problems, institutional problems and the roles of specific individuals.


Economic problems

The Weimar Republic had some of the most serious economic problems ever experienced by any Western democracy in history. Rampant hyperinflation, massive unemployment and a large drop in living standards were primary factors. In 1923-29 there was a short period of economic recovery, but the Great Depression of the 1930s led to a worldwide recession. Germany was particularly affected because it depended heavily on American loans. In 1932, about 5 million Germans were unemployed. Many blamed the Weimar Republic. This was made apparent when political parties on both right and left wanting to disband the Republic altogether made any democratic majority in Parliament impossible. Certain figures in this article use scientific notation for readability. ... The Great Depression was a dramatic, worldwide economic downturn beginning in some countries as early as 1928. ...


The Weimar Republic was severely affected by the Great Depression triggered by the Wall Street Crash of 1929. The crash and subsequent economic stagnation led to increased demands on Germany to repay the debts owed to the United States. As the Weimar Republic was very fragile in all of its existence, the depression proved to be devastating, and played a major role in the NSDAP's takeover. The Great Depression was a dramatic, worldwide economic downturn beginning in some countries as early as 1928. ... Crowd gathering on Wall Street. ... The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ...


The Treaty of Versailles was considered by most Germans to be a punishing and degrading document because it forced them to surrender resource-rich areas and pay massive amounts of compensation. These punitive reparations caused consternation and resentment, although the actual economic damage resulting from the Treaty of Versailles is difficult to determine. While the official reparations were considerable, Germany ended up paying only a fraction of them. However, the reparations did damage Germany's economy by discouraging market loans, which forced the Weimar government to finance its deficit by printing more money, causing rampant hyperinflation. In addition, the rapid disintegration of Germany in 1919, due to the return of a disillusioned army, the rapid change from possible victory in 1918 to defeat in 1919, and the political chaos may have caused a psychological imprint on Germans that could lead to extreme nationalism, shown by Hitler. The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ...


Most historians agree that many industrial leaders identified the Weimar Republic with labour unions and with the Social Democrats, who had established the Versailles concessions of 1918/1919. Although some did see Hitler as a means to abolish the latter, the Republic was already unstable before any industry leaders were supporting Hitler. Even those who supported Hitler's appointment often did not want Nazism in its entirety and considered Hitler a temporary solution in their efforts to abolish the Republic. Industry support alone cannot explain Hitler's enthusiastic support by large segments of the population, including many workers who had turned away from the left.


Institutional problems

It is widely agreed that the 1919 constitution had several weaknesses, making the eventual establishment of a dictatorship likely but it is unknown whether a different constitution could have prevented the Third Reich. However, the 1949 West German constitution (the Grundgesetz) is generally viewed as a strong response to these flaws. The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of modern Germany. ...

  • The institution of the Reichspräsident was frequently considered as an Ersatzkaiser ("substitute emperor"), an attempt to replace the Kaiser (who resigned and fled in 1918) with a similarly strong institution meant to diminish party politics. Article 48 of the constitution gave the President power to "take all necessary steps" if "public order and security are seriously disturbed or endangered". Although this was intended as an emergency clause, it was often used before 1933 to issue decrees without the support of Parliament (see above) and also made Gleichschaltung easier. For example, the Reichstag Fire Decree was issued on the basis of Article 48.
  • The use of almost pure proportional representation meant any party with a small amount of support could gain entry into the Reichstag. This led to many small parties, some extremist, building political bases within the system (In 1949, four years after the Second World War the electoral law was changed and only parties with 5% or more of the total vote would be allowed to enter the Bundestag). Yet, it has to be noted that the Reichstag of the monarchy was fractioned to a similar degree although being elected by majority vote under a first-past-the-post system.
  • The Reichstag could remove the Reichskanzler from office even if it was unable to agree on a successor. This "Motion of No Confidence" led to many chancellors in quick succession, adding to the Republic's instability (see Chancellor of Germany for a list). As a result, the 1949 Grundgesetz stipulates that a chancellor may only be voted down by Parliament if a successor is elected at the same time (see Constructive Vote of No Confidence).
  • The constitution provided that in the event of the president's death or resignation, the Reichskanzler would assume that office (and crucially possess its powers) pending election of a new president. This allowed Hitler to easily unite the offices of Reichskanzler and Reichspräsident after Hindenburg's death in 1934. However, by this time the dictatorship was already firmly installed and this clause alone cannot be blamed for Nazism.

The German word Gleichschaltung â’½ â’¾ (literally synchronising, synchronization) is used in a political sense to describe the process by which the Nazi regime successively established a system of totalitarian control over the individual, and tight coordination over all aspects of society and commerce. ... A German newspapers final issue, announcing its own prohibition (Verbot) by the police authorities on the basis of the Reichstag fire decree The Reichstag Fire Decree (Reichstagsbrandverordnung in German) is the common name of the decree issued by German president Paul von Hindenburg in direct response to the Reichstag... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Type Lower house President of the Bundestag Dr. Norbert Lammert, CDU since October 18, 2005 Members 614 Political groups (as of September 18, 2005 elections) Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union of Bavaria Bloc (226), Social Democratic Party of Germany (222), Free Democratic Party (61), The Left Party. ... Majoritarianism is a political philosophy or agenda which asserts that a majority (sometimes categorized by religion, language or some other identifying factor) of the population is entitled to the unfettered and unbounded exercise of majority rule within a democratic or republican government—e. ... The first-past-the-post electoral system is a voting system for single-member districts, variously called first-past-the-post (FPTP or FPP), winner-take-all, plurality voting, or relative majority. ... A motion of no confidence, also called a motion of non-confidence, a censure motion, a no-confidence motion, or simply a confidence motion, is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... The Constructive Vote of No Confidence (in German: konstruktives Misstrauensvotum) is a specialty of the 1949 German constitution, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ...

Role of individuals

Some historians prefer to consider individuals and the decisions they made. This brings up the problematic question of what alternatives were available at the time and leads to speculation and hypothesis.


Brüning's economic policy from 1930-1932 has been the subject of much debate. It caused many Germans to identify the Republic with cuts in social spending and extremely liberal economics. Whether there were alternatives to this policy during Great Depression is an open question. The Great Depression was a dramatic, worldwide economic downturn beginning in some countries as early as 1928. ...


Paul von Hindenburg became Reichspräsident in 1925. He represented the older authoritarian 1871 Empire, and it is hard to label him as a democrat in support of the 1919 Republic, but he was never a Nazi. During his later years (at well over 80 years old), he was also senile. A president with solid democratic beliefs may not have allowed the Reichstag to be circumvented with the use of Article 48 decrees and might have avoided signing the Reichstag Fire Decree. Hindenburg waited one and a half days before he appointed Hitler as Reichskanzler on January 30, 1933, which indicates some hesitance. Some claim Nazism would have lost much public support if Hitler had not been named chancellor. Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A German newspapers final issue, announcing its own prohibition (Verbot) by the police authorities on the basis of the Reichstag fire decree The Reichstag Fire Decree (Reichstagsbrandverordnung in German) is the common name of the decree issued by German president Paul von Hindenburg in direct response to the Reichstag... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...


Writers John Cornwell and Ian Kershaw are amongst the modern commentators who have studied the role of Ludwig Kaas and his alliance to Pope Pius XII. John Cornwell is an English journalist and writer, known particularly for his science writing and books on the Papacy. ... Professor Sir Ian Kershaw (born April 29, 1943 in Oldham, Lancashire, England) is a British historian, noted for his biographies of Adolf Hitler. ... Monsignor Ludwig Kaas (23 May 1881-15 April 1952) was a Roman Catholic priest, and a prominent German politician during the Weimar Republic. ... Pope Pius XII (Latin: ), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as the 260th pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City, from March 2, 1939 until his death. ...


As regards the Rhenish-Westphalian Industrial Magnates and Franz von Papen, the Nuremberg Trials studied the era from January 30, 1933, and came to the conclusion that it would not be an indictable offence to have assisted Adolf Hitler and the NSDAP to power. Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen (29 October 1879 – 2 May 1969) was a German nobleman Catholic politician, General Staff officer, and diplomat, who served as Chancellor of Germany in 1932. ... The Süddeutsche Zeitung announces The Verdict in Nuremberg. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...


Constituent states of Germany during the Weimar period

Prior to World War I, the German Empire consisted of 22 smaller monarchies, three city-states and the Imperial territory of Alsace-Lorraine. After the territorial losses of the Treaty of Versailles and the revolution of 1918, the remaining states continued as republics. The former Ernestine duchies continued briefly as republics before merging to form the state of Thuringia in 1920, except for Saxe-Coburg, which became part of Bavaria. Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ... The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... Karl Liebknecht on 9 November 1918 in the Berliner Tiergarten Statue of a revolutionary soldier, memorial to the German Revolution of 1918-1919 in East Berlin. ... Coat of arms of the Ernestines on a boundary stone The Ernestine duchies, also called the Saxon duchies (although also the Albertine appanage duchies of Weissenfels, Merseburg and Zeitz were Saxon duchies and located adjacent to several Ernestine ones), were a changing number of small states in the present German... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ...

States of Germany (1925)
States of Germany (1925)
State Capital
Anhalt Dessau
Baden Karlsruhe
Bavaria (Bayern) Munich
Brunswick (Braunschweig) Braunschweig
Hesse (Hessen / Hessen-Darmstadt) Darmstadt
Lippe Detmold
Mecklenburg-Schwerin Schwerin
Mecklenburg-Strelitz Neustrelitz
Oldenburg Oldenburg
Prussia (Preußen) Berlin
Saxe-Coburg (Sachsen-Coburg) - to Bavaria in 1920 Coburg
Saxony (Sachsen) Dresden
Schaumburg-Lippe Bückeburg
Thuringia (Thüringen) - from 1920 Weimar
Waldeck-Pyrmont - to Prussia in 1921/1929 Arolsen
Württemberg Stuttgart
City-states
Bremen
Hamburg
Lübeck
States merged to form Thuringia in 1920
Reuss Gera
Saxe-Altenburg (Sachsen-Altenburg) Altenburg
Saxe-Gotha (Sachsen-Gotha) Gotha
Saxe-Meiningen (Sachsen-Meiningen) Meiningen
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) Weimar
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Rudolstadt
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Sondershausen

These states were gradually de facto abolished under the Nazi regime via the Gleichschaltung process, as the states were largely re-organised into Gaue. However, the city-state of Lübeck was formally incorporated into Prussia in 1937 following the Greater Hamburg Act - apparently motivated by Hitler's personal dislike for the city. Most of the remaining states were formally dissolved by the Allies at the end of World War II and ultimately re-organised into the modern states of Germany. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (945x762, 99 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:nl. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (945x762, 99 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:nl. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Flag Anthem: Anhaltlied The Free State of Anhalt (green), within Germany at the time of the Weimar Republic Capital Dessau Government Republic Prime Minister  - 1918-1919 Wolfgang Heine  - 1940-1945 Rudolf Jordan Historical era Interwar period  - Established 12 November, 1918  - Abolition (de facto) May 1932  - Abolition (de jure) 23 July... Dessau is a town in Germany on the junction of the rivers Mulde and Elbe, in the Bundesland (Federal State) of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Image File history File links Flagge_Großherzogtum_Baden_(1891-1918). ... Baden is a historical state in the southwest of Germany, on the right bank of the Rhine. ... Karlsruhe (population 285,812 in 2006) is a city in the south west of Germany, in the Bundesland Baden-Württemberg, located near the French-German border. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bavaria_(lozengy). ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flagge_Herzogtum_Braunschweig. ... Brunswick was a historical state in Germany, established as a duchy by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. ... Coordinates: Time zone: CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country: Germany State: Lower Saxony District: Urban district City subdivisions: 20 Boroughs Lord Mayor: Gert Hoffmann (CDU) Governing parties: CDU / FDP Basic Statistics Area: 192. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Flag Anthem: Hessenlied Hesse (red), within Germany at the time of the Weimar Republic Capital Darmstadt Government Republic President  - 1919-1928 Carl Ulrich  - 1935-1945 Jakob Sprenger Historical era Interwar period  - German revolution 9 November, 1918  - Constitution 12 December 1919  - Disestablished 19 September, 1945  - State of Hesse 1 December 1946... Darmstadt is a city in the Bundesland (federal state) of Hesse in Germany. ... Image File history File links Flagge_Fürstentum_Lippe. ... Lippe, within Germany at the time of the Weimar Republic Capital Detmold Government Republic Chairman  - 1918-1920 Clemens Becker  - 1920-1933 Heinrich Drake  - 1933 Ernst Krappe Minister-President  - 1933-1936 Hans Joachim Riecke  - 1936-1945 Alfred Meyer  - 1945-1947 Heinrich Drake Historical era Interwar period  - Established 9 November, 1918  - Incorporation... Detmold is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, with a population of about 80,000. ... Image File history File links Flagge_Großherzogtümer_Mecklenburg. ... Flag Capital Schwerin Government Republic Historical era Interwar period  - Established 1918  - Disestablished 1933 Population  - 1925 est. ... Schwerin is a town in northern Germany. ... Image File history File links Flagge_Großherzogtümer_Mecklenburg. ... Flag Capital Neustrelitz Government Republic Historical era Interwar period  - Established 1918  - Disestablished 1933 The Free State of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (German: ) was a state of the Weimar Republic established in 1918 following the German Revolution which had overthrown the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. ... Neustrelitz is a town in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Capital Oldenburg Government Republic History  - Established 1918  - Disestablished 1946 The Free State of Oldenburg was a state of the Weimar Republic. ... Oldenburg (Low German: Ollnborg) is an Independent City in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The Free State of Prussia (blue), within Germany at the time of the Weimar Republic Capital Berlin Government Republic Minister-President  - 1918 Friedrich Ebert  - 1920-19321 Otto Braun  - 1933-1945 Hermann Göring Historical era Interwar period  - Established 9 November, 1918  - Preußenschlag 20 July 1932  - Abolition (de facto) 30... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Image File history File links Flagge_Herzogtum_Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha_(1911-1920). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Coburg is a city located on the Itz River in Bavaria, Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saxony. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... Dresden (Sorbian: Drježdźany; etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest, Czech: ) is the capital city of the German Federal Free State of Saxony. ... Image File history File links Flagge_Fürstentum_Schaumburg-Lippe. ... Capital Bückeburg Government Republic Minister President  - 1918 Friedrich Freiherr von Feilitzsch  - 1933-1945 Karl Dreier History  - German Revolution 15 November, 1918  - Disestablished 1 November, 1946 Area  - 1939 340 km2 131 sq mi Population  - 1939 est. ... Map of Germany showing Bückeburg Bückeburg is a small town in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thuringia. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... For other uses, see Weimar (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(2-3). ... Flag Anthem Das Waldecker Lied Location of Waldeck within Germany (after 1921) Capital Arolsen Government Republic Historical era Interwar period  - Established 1918  - Pyrmont joins Hanover 1921  - Disestablished 1929 Population  - 1925 est. ... Arolsen is a small town in northern Hesse and the baroque 18th century residence of the Princes of Waldeck_Pyrmont, a former principality in Hesse, Germany. ... Image File history File links Flagge_Königreich_Württemberg. ... Arms of the Kingdom of Württemberg The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Wuerttemberg. ... , City Center seen from Weinsteige Road Castle Solitude The 1956 TV Tower The Weissenhof Estate in 1927 Stuttgart (IPA: []) is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bremen. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE5 State subdivisions 2 urban districts Capital Bremen Senate President Jens Böhrnsen (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Alliance 90/The Greens Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  408 km² (158 sq mi) Population 664,000... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hamburg. ... Location Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE6 First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  755 km² (292 sq mi) Population 1,754,317 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 2,324 /km² (6,018... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Location of the Free City of Lübeck with the German Empire   Capital Lübeck Government Republic History  - Formation 1226  - Abolition April 1, 1937 The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Luebeck. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Reuss (German: Reuß) was the name of several historical states located in present-day Thuringia, Germany. ... Gera is the largest Town in the east of Thuringia, Germany. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Altenburg is a town in the German Bundesland of Thuringia. ... Image File history File links Flagge_Herzogtum_Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha_(1911-1920). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Gotha may refer to: A district in the German state of Thuringia A town in the District of Gotha (its capital) A former Thuringian Dukedom, see Sachsen-Gotha the Gothaer Waggonfabrik Company. ... Image File history File links Flagge_Herzogtum_Sachsen-Meiningen. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Meiningen is a town in Germany - located in the Southern part of the state Thuringia in the district of Schmalkalden-Meiningen. ... Image File history File links Flagge_Großherzogtum_Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach_(1813-1897). ... The Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Herzogtum Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) was created in 1809 by the merger of the Ernestine duchies of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach, which had been in personal union since 1741, when the Saxe-Eisenach line had died out. ... For other uses, see Weimar (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt was a small state in Germany, in the present-day state of Thuringia, with capital at Rudolstadt. ... Rudolstadt is a city in Germany. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Schwarzburg-Sondershausen was a small state in Germany, in the present day state of Thuringia, with capital at Sondershausen. ... Sondershausen, a town of Germany, capital of the principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, situated in a plain 37 miles by rail North of Erfurt. ... The German word Gleichschaltung â’½ â’¾ (literally synchronising, synchronization) is used in a political sense to describe the process by which the Nazi regime successively established a system of totalitarian control over the individual, and tight coordination over all aspects of society and commerce. ... A Gau (plural Gaue) is a German term for a region within a country, often a (former or actual) province. ... Location of the Free City of Lübeck with the German Empire   Capital Lübeck Government Republic History  - Formation 1226  - Abolition April 1, 1937 The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Luebeck. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Greater Hamburg Act (German: ) was passed by the government of the German Reich on January 26, 1937, and mandated the exchange of territories between Hamburg and the Free State of Prussia. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ...


Citations

  1. ^ Das Deutsche Reich im Überblick. Wahlen in der Weimarer Republik. Retrieved on 2007-04-26.
  2. ^ Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928: Use of "German Reich" (in place of an accurate translation) as an appellation for Germany in an official document.
  3. ^ a b Rosenberg, Arthur (1936). A History of The German Republic. London: Methuen. 
  4. ^ Evans, Richard J. (2004). The Coming of the Third Reich. New York: The Penguin Press, 446. ISBN 1594200041. 
  5. ^ a b von Klemperer, Klemens (1992). German Resistance Against Hitler:The Search for Allies Abroad 1938-1945. Oxford: OUP / Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-821940-7. 
  6. ^ Mowrer, Edgar Ansel (1970). Triumph and Turmoil. London: Allen & Unwin, 209. ISBN 0049200267. 
  7. ^ Shirer, William L. (1960). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-72868-7. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Arthur Rosenberg (1889-1943) was a German Marxist historian and writer. ... Professor Richard Evans (born 1947) is a British historian of Germany. ... Edgar Ansel Mowrer was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1933 for his reporting on the rise of Adolf Hitler. ... Shirer (at far left) after winning a National Book Award in 1961 for his The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, pictured with fellow authors and award winners Conrad Richter and Randall Jarrell. ... The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich by journalist William L. Shirer was the first definitive history of Nazi Germany in English. ... Jean-François Millet Le Semeur (The Sower) Simon & Schuster logo, circa 1961. ...

References

  • Abraham, David (1986). The Collapse of the Weimar Republic: Political Economy and Crisis, 2nd Edition, New Jersey: Holmes & Meier Publishers. ISBN 0-8419-1084-7. 
  • Allen, William Sheridan (1984). The Nazi seizure of Power: the experience of a single German town, 1922-1945. New York, Toronto: F. Watts. ISBN 0-531-09935-0. 
  • Berghahn, V. R. (1982). Modern Germany. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-34748-3. 
  • Bookbinder, Paul (1996). Weimar Germany: the Republic of the Reasonable. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-4286-0. 
  • Bracher, Karl Dietrich (1971). Die Auflösung der Weimarer Republik; eine Studie zum Problem des Machtverfalls in der Demokratie (in German). Villingen, Schwarzwald: Ring-Verlag. 
  • Broszat, Martin (1987). Hitler and the Collapse of Weimar Germany. Leamington Spa, New York: Berg. ISBN 0-85496-509-2. 
  • Childers, Thomas (1983). The Nazi Voter: The Social Foundations of Fascism in Germany, 1919-1933. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-1570-5. 
  • Craig, Gordon A. (1980). Germany 1866-1945 (Oxford History of Modern Europe). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-502724-8. 
  • Dorpalen, Andreas (1964). Hindenburg and the Weimar Republic. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. 
  • Feuchtwanger, Edgar (1993). From Weimar to Hitler: Germany, 1918-33. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-27466-0. 
  • Gay, Peter (1968). Weimar Culture: The Outsider as Insider. New York: Harper & Row. 
  • Gordon, Mel (2000). Volutpuous Panic: The Erotic World of Weimar Berlin. New York: Feral House. 
  • Hamilton, Richard F. (1982). Who Voted for Hitler?. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09395-4. 
  • James, Harold (1986). The German Slump: Politics and Economics, 1924-1936. Oxford, Oxfordshire: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-821972-5. 
  • Kaes, Anton; Jay, Martin; Dimendberg, Edward (eds.) (1994). The Weimar Republic Sourcebook. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-06774-6. 
  • Kolb, Eberhard (1988). The Weimar Republic, P.S. Falla (translator), London: Unwin Hyman. ISBN 0-04-943049-1. 
  • Mommsen, Hans (1991). From Weimar to Auschwitz, Philip O'Connor (translator), Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-03198-3. 
  • Nicholls, Anthony James (2000). Weimar And The Rise Of Hitler. New York: St. Martin's Press,. ISBN 0-312-23350-7. 
  • Peukert, Detlev (1992). The Weimar Republic: the Crisis of Classical Modernity. New York: Hill and Wang. ISBN 0-8090-9674-9. 
  • Turner, Henry Ashby (1996). Hitler's Thirty Days To Power: January 1933. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-40714-0. 
  • Turner, Henry Ashby (1985). German Big Business and the Rise of Hitler. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-503492-9. 
  • Wheeler-Bennett, John (2005). The Nemesis of Power: German Army in Politics, 1918-1945. New York: Palgrave Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 1-4039-1812-0. 
  • Mowrer, Edgar Angel (1933). Germany Puts The Clock Back. London. 
  • Mowrer, Edgar Angel (1970). Triumph and Turmoil. George Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0049200267. 
  • Rosenberg, Arthur (1936). A History of The German Republic. London: Methuen. 

William Sheridan Allen wrote two books on Adolf Hitler debunking the point of view that he came to power democratically. ... Karl Dietrich Bracher (March 13, 1922-) is a German historian of the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany. ... Martin Broszat (August 14, 1926 – October 14, 1989) was a left-wing West German historian. ... Gordon Alexander Craig (November 13, 1913 - November 2, 2005) was a Scottish-born U.S historian of German, Swiss and of diplomatic history. ... Peter Gay (June 20, 1923-), a Jewish American historian of the social history of ideas, born in Berlin as Peter Joachim Fröhlich . ... Hans Mommsen (November 5, 1930-) is a left-wing German historian and twin brother of Wolfgang Mommsen. ... Detlev Peukert (1950-1990) was a communist German historian, noted for his studies of the relationship between what he called the spirit of science and the Holocaust and in social history. ... Henry Ashby Turner, Jr. ... Henry Ashby Turner, Jr. ... Sir John Wheeler Wheeler-Bennett, GCVO, MCG, OBE, FRSL, FBA, (October 13, 1902-December 9, 1975) was a conservative British historian of German and diplomatic history. ... Edgar Ansel Mowrer was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1933 for his reporting on the rise of Adolf Hitler. ... Edgar Ansel Mowrer was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1933 for his reporting on the rise of Adolf Hitler. ...

External links

  • The Constitution of the German Reich (Weimar constitution) of 11th August 1919, in full text
  • Data Bank
  • documents (German)

See also

Germany Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with 1920s Berlin. ... The German word Gleichschaltung Ⓗ Ⓘ (literally synchronising, synchronization) is used in a political sense to describe the process by which the Nazi regime successively established a system of totalitarian control over the individual, and tight coordination over all aspects of society and commerce. ... The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen (29 October 1879 – 2 May 1969) was a German nobleman Catholic politician, General Staff officer, and diplomat, who served as Chancellor of Germany in 1932. ... The Weimar Constitution in booklet form. ...



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The Weimar Republic, 1918-33: German History (379 words)
The Weimar Republic, proclaimed on November 9, 1918, was born in the throes of military defeat and social revolution.
The percentage of the vote gained by this coalition of parties in favor of the republic (76.2 percent, with 38 percent for the SPD alone) suggested broad popular support for the republic.
In mid-1919 the assembly ratified the constitution of the new Weimar Republic, so named because its constitution was drafted in the small city where the poets Goethe and Schiller had lived.
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