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Encyclopedia > Weil's disease

Leptospirosis aka Weil's disease aka canicola fever aka canefield fever aka nanukayami fever aka 7-day fever was first described by Adolph Weil in 1886 when he reported an "acute infectious disease with enlargement of spleen, jaundice and nephritis". The pathogen, Leptospira-genus bacteria was isolated in 1907 from post-mortem renal tissue slice. The spleen is a ductless, vertebrate gland that is not necessary for life but is closely associated with the circulatory system, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells and removal of other debris from the bloodstream, and also in holding a reservoir of blood. ... Jaundice, technically known as icterus, is yellowing of the skin, sclera (the white of the eyes) and mucous membranes caused by increased levels of bilirubin in the system. ... Nephritis is inflammation of the kidney. ...

Though being recognised among world's most common zoonosis, leptospirosis is a relatively rare bacterial infection in humans; the pathogen, however, may cause a serious disease that involves multiple systems of the organism and can be fatal. Zoonosis is any infectious disease that can be transmitted from animals, both wild and domestic, to humans. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ...

Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that affects humans and a wide range of animals, including mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles.

leptospirose 200x magnified with dark-field microscope
leptospirose 200x magnified with dark-field microscope

The infection is commonly transmitted to humans by allowing fresh water that has been contaminated by animal urine to come in contact with unhealed breaks in the skin, eyes or with the mucous membranes. leptosirose 200x magified File links The following pages link to this file: Leptospirosis ... leptosirose 200x magified File links The following pages link to this file: Leptospirosis ... Binomial name Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies Homo sapiens idaltu (extinct) Homo sapiens sapiens Human beings define themselves in biological, social, and spiritual terms. ... Urine is liquid waste excreted by the kidneys and eventually expelled from the body in a process known as urination. ... Model of the layers of human skin In zootomy and dermatology, skin is an organ of the integumentary system; which is composed of a layer of tissues that protect underlying muscles and organs. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ...

Leptospirosis is caused by spirochaetes of the genus Leptospira. Approximately 250 strains have been found, divided into serogroups, serovars and strains, depending on serological differences. Not all strains are pathogenic, and most pathogenic strains are host specific. Some hosts can be carriers (i.e. without having disease), such as rats. Families Brachyspiraceae Leptospiraceae Spirochaetaceae The spirochaetes are a phylum of distinctive bacteria, which have long, helically coiled cells. ... See genus (mathematics) for the use of the term in mathematics. ... A pathogen (literally birth of pain from the Greek παθογένεια) is a biological agent that can cause disease to its host. ...

Except for tropic areas, leptospirosis cases have a relatively distinct seasonality with most of them occuring August thru Septmember (in the Northen Hemisphere).

In humans leptospiral infection causes a wide range of symptoms, and some infected persons may have no symptoms at all. Because of the wide range of symptoms the infection is often wrongly diagnosed. This leads to a lower registered number of cases than there really are. Symptoms of leptospirosis include high fever, severe headache, chills, muscle aches, and vomiting, and may include jaundice, red eyes, abdominal pain, diarrhea, or a rash. Complications include renal failure, meningitis, liver failure, and respiratory distress (This severe form of the disease is known as Weil's disease). Approximately 5-40% of severe leptospirosis cases are fatal, however, such cases only constitute about 10% of all registered incidents. Diagnosis of leptospirosis is confirmed with serological tests like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and PCR. Fever, also known as pyrexia, is a medical symptom which describes an increase in internal body temperature to levels which are above normal (37 degrees Celsius, 98. ... A headache is a condition of mild to severe pain in the head; sometimes upper back or neck pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ... Jaundice, technically known as icterus, is yellowing of the skin, sclera (the white of the eyes) and mucous membranes caused by increased levels of bilirubin in the system. ... An eye is an organ that detects light. ... Diarrhea in American English, (spelled diarrhoea in other anglophone countries) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent and watery or loose bowel movements (from the ancient Greek word διαρροή = leakage; lit. ... For the manga by Tsukasa Hôjô, see Rash. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... Inferior view of a brain with meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae. ... The liver is an organ in vertebrates, including humans. ... Diagnosis (from the Greek words dia = by and gnosis = knowledge) is the process of identifying a disease by its signs, symptoms and results of various diagnostic procedures. ... Serology is a medical blood test to detect the presence of antibodies against a microorganism. ... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = leaven) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ... The Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA or EIA for short) is a method usually employed in biochemistry to detect the presence of a certain substance in a sample. ...

On infection the microorganism can be found in blood for the first 7 to 10 days, invoking a serological reaction and then moving to the kidneys. After 7 to 10 days the microorganism can be found in fresh urine. Diagnostics are performed by testing a serum or blood sample serologically with a panel of different strains. It is possible to culture of the microorganism from blood or serum, fresh urine and possibly fresh kidney biopsy. Serological testing is laborious and expensive, thus often not an option in developing countries. A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ... A microbiological culture is a way to determine the cause of infectious disease by letting the agent multiply (reproduce) in predetermined media. ...

Outbreaks of leptospirosis are usually caused by exposure to water contaminated with the urine of infected animals (cattle, pigs, horses, dogs, rodents, and wild animals). Humans become infected through contact with water, food, or soil containing urine from these infected animals. This may happen by swallowing contaminated food or water or through skin contact. The disease is not known to be spread from person to person and cases of bacteria dissemination in convalescence are extremaly rare in humans.

There are no human vaccines. Animal vaccines are only for a few strains, and are only effective for a few months.

Leptospirosis is treated with antibiotics, such as doxycycline or penicillin. Doxycycline can also be used as a prophylaxis. An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Doxycycline is a tetracycline antibiotic that is commonly prescribed by medical doctors for infections and to treat acne. ... Penicillin is a β-lactam antibiotic used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... Prophylaxis refers to any medical or public health procedure whose purpose is to prevent, rather than treat or cure, disease. ...

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