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Encyclopedia > Weightlessness
Astronauts on the International Space Station display an example of weightlessness. Michael Foale can be seen exercising in the foreground
Astronauts on the International Space Station display an example of weightlessness. Michael Foale can be seen exercising in the foreground

Weightlessness is experienced by people during free-fall. Although the term 'zero gravity' is often used as a synonym, weightlessness in orbit is not the result of gravity itself being eliminated or even reduced significantly (in fact, the acceleration towards earth due to gravity at an altitude of 100 km is only 3% less than at the earth's surface.) Weightlessness (roughly speaking) occurs when a body (e.g. a person) is: falling freely; in orbit; in outer space (far from a planet, star, or other massive body); in an airplane following a particular parabolic flight path (e.g. the "Vomit Comet"); or one of several other (even more unusual) frames of reference. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Foale_ZeroG.jpg‎ [edit] Summary ISS008-E-21996 (22 April 2004) --- Cosmonaut Gennady I. Padalka (left), Expedition 9 commander, and European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Andre Kuipers of the Netherlands, look over a procedures checklist for the Dutch Expedition for Life Science, Technology and Atmospheric (DELTA... Image File history File links Foale_ZeroG.jpg‎ [edit] Summary ISS008-E-21996 (22 April 2004) --- Cosmonaut Gennady I. Padalka (left), Expedition 9 commander, and European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Andre Kuipers of the Netherlands, look over a procedures checklist for the Dutch Expedition for Life Science, Technology and Atmospheric (DELTA... ISS redirects here. ... Colin Michael Foale PhD CBE (born 6 January 1957) is a British-born astronaut with dual UK-US citizenship; he is a veteran of four space shuttle missions and extended stays on both Mir and the International Space Station. ... Free Fall opens with one of the most stunning first paragraphs I have ever, or am ever likely to, read. ... Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity and/or direction, and at any point on a velocity-time graph, it is given by the slope of the tangent to the curve at that point. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... Project Mercury astronauts on C-131 flying as Vomit Comet, 1959 Weightlessness inside the Vomit Comet Vomit Comet is a nickname for any airplane that briefly provides a nearly weightless environment in which to train astronauts, conduct research, and film motion pictures. ...


More generally, weightlessness occurs when a person (or object) is subject (at most) to the single non-contact force of gravity (or is not acted upon by any accelerating force), vs. the far more typical (in human experience) cases in which a contact force is acting—such as:

(The principal difference is that gravity is a field force acting directly on a person and/or other bodies, just like on the vehicle's mass—whereas forces like atmospheric drag and thrust act through contact on the vehicle body itself (and are transmitted, in turn, through the contact between the vehicle and the person). In the first case the person and the vehicle floor are not 'pushed' towards one another; in the other cases, the force is transmitted through the vehicle's structure to the person and/or contents.) The lift force, lifting force or simply lift is a mechanical force generated by solid objects as they move through a fluid. ... Mathematically the term trajectory refers to the ordered set of states which are assumed by a dynamical system over time (see e. ... “Reentry” redirects here. ... This article is about the device. ... Atmospheric drag is a form of drag, which is the force that opposes an object moving through a liquid or gas. ... An orbital maneuver is a change from one orbit to another, accomplished by applying thrust. ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ... Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newtons Second and Third Laws. ...

Contents

Overview

What humans perceive as "weight" is not actually the force of gravity pulling us towards the ground (actually, towards the center of the Earth—although this is the technical definition of "weight"). What we feel as "weight", is actually the normal reaction force of the ground (or whatever surface we are supported by) "pushing" upwards against us to counteract gravity's downward pull—that is: the "apparent weight". (In the remainder of this article, the term 'weight', without 'apparent', is used in this sense.) While this is not always intuitive, imagine the floor dropping out from under you: without it, you'd be falling—and experiencing weightlessness. It's the floor supporting you against gravity's pull—and which keeps you from falling to the center of the Earth—that creates the sensation of "weight". For other uses, see Force (disambiguation). ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... Newtons First and Second laws, in Latin, from the original 1687 edition of the Principia Mathematica. ... An objects weight, henceforth called actual weight, is the downward force exerted upon it by the earths gravity. ...


For example: a person in a broken lift in free-fall "experiences" weightlessness. This is because there is no force from the lift's floor on the person's feet, against the pull of gravity, as both the lift and the person are being pulled down with the same acceleration. When the lift is at rest on the ground, however, the force of gravity pulling downwards on the person is exactly matched (in the opposite direction, and by the same amount) by the support of the lift floor. Free Fall opens with one of the most stunning first paragraphs I have ever, or am ever likely to, read. ...


Because the person's skeleton is solid, each horizontal cross section of the person experiences not only the force due to gravity on it, but also the weight of whatever portion of the person is above it. (In the case of an object, or portion thereof, which is not supported from below, but suspended from above, a 'negative pressure', or tension gradient exists. It occurs because each cross section of a hanging object, a rope for instance, must support the weight of every piece below it.) Part of feeling "weight", then, is actually experiencing such a pressure/tension gradient within one's own body parts (e.g.: while standing on one foot, the foot on the ground would feel the pressure of the entire body's weight, whereas the other leg and both arms would feel/be subjected to the tension gradients of their own weight being pulled down against their sockets).


In free-fall, a person or object experiences no measurable (or apparent) weight because all parts of the object are accelerating uniformly (any variations in acceleration due to tidal forces being imperceptible). The tidal force is a secondary effect of the force of gravity and is responsible for the tides. ...


Terminology

Look up Weightlessness in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

Zero gravity

Look up zero gravity in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Often, the term 'zero gravity' or 'reduced gravity' is used to describe weightlessness, but these are scientifically inaccurate. A spacecraft and its contents are kept in orbit by the gravity of the body it orbits; that they are all subject to roughly the same gravity is the reason for the weightlessness. James Oberg explains:[1] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... James Edward Oberg (b. ...

The myth that satellites remain in orbit because they have "escaped Earth's gravity" is perpetuated further (and falsely) by almost universal use of the zingy but physically nonsensical phrase "zero gravity" (and its techweenie cousin, "microgravity") to describe the free-falling conditions aboard orbiting space vehicles. Of course, this isn't true; gravity still exists in space. It keeps satellites from flying straight off into interstellar emptiness. What's missing is "weight", the resistance of gravitational attraction by an anchored structure or a counterforce. Satellites stay in space because of their tremendous horizontal speed, which allows them--while being unavoidably pulled toward Earth by gravity--to fall "over the horizon." The ground's curved withdrawal along the Earth's round surface offsets the satellites' fall toward the ground. Speed, not position or lack of gravity, keeps satellites up, and the failure to understand this fundamental concept means that many other things people "know" just ain't so.

Microgravity

Look up microgravity in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Candle flame in orbital conditions.
Candle flame in orbital conditions.

The term 'microgravity' is also used because weightlessness in e.g. a spaceship or other container is not perfect. Causes in Earth orbit include: Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links Candlespace. ... Image File history File links Candlespace. ... For other uses, see Candle (disambiguation). ... Main article: Weightlessness A microgravity environment is one where gravity has little or no measurable effect. ...

  • Centripetal gravity decreases 1 ppm for every 3 m increase in altitude. Objects that are not points will feel a tidal force, a differential pull on their various parts.
  • In a spaceship in orbit the centrifugal force is likewise higher at the upper side. (This is also the tidal force.)
  • Objects left alone will "fall" toward the densest part of the spacecraft. When they eventually touch the spacecraft, they will stop moving and feel weight.
  • Though very thin, there is some air at the level of the Space Shuttle's orbit height of 185 to 1,000 km, which causes deceleration due to friction. This is perceived as "weight" in the direction of motion. Above 10,000km, this fades into negligibility compared to solar wind.
  • Left to themselves, different parts of a vehicle either side of its orbital plane are in their own orbital planes. In the frame of reference of the vehicle, this pushes objects inwards towards the orbital plane of the vehicle as a whole.

The microgravity symbol, µg, was used on the insignia of the Space Shuttle flight STS-107, because this flight was devoted to microgravity research (see picture in that article). Parts per million (ppm) is a measure of concentration that is used where low levels of concentration are significant. ... Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 after breaking up under the influence of Jupiters tidal forces. ... Centrifugal force (from Latin centrum centre and fugere to flee) is a term which may refer to two different forces which are related to rotation. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... The plasma in the solar wind meeting the heliopause The solar wind is a stream of charged particles (i. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... The STS-107 crewmembers strike a ‘flying’ pose for their traditional in-flight crew portrait in the SPACEHAB aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. ...


Reduced weight

Reduced weight aircraft

NASA's C-9 aircraft

NASA's C-9 Reduced Gravity Aircraft is based at Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center and affectionately called the "vomit comet". It is an airplane that NASA flies in 6 mile long parabolic arcs, first climbing in altitude, then falling, in such a way that the flight path and speed correspond to that of an object without propulsion and not experiencing air friction. This is realized by propulsion and steering such that air friction is compensated and nothing else. The result is that people inside are not pushed towards the bottom or any other side of the plane, i.e. they are temporarily weightless, each time for a period of 25 seconds. Typically one flight lasts about two hours, in which 40 parabolas are flown. For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... A C-9 Skytrain II offloading on the ramp at Naval Air Station Brunswick. ... Project Mercury astronauts on C-131 flying as Vomit Comet, 1959 Weightlessness inside the Vomit Comet Vomit Comet is a nickname for any airplane that briefly provides a nearly weightless environment in which to train astronauts, conduct research, and film motion pictures. ... An aerial view of the Johnson Space Center facility of Houston in 1989 The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations center for human spaceflight activities. ... Project Mercury astronauts on C-131 flying as Vomit Comet, 1959 Weightlessness inside the Vomit Comet Vomit Comet is a nickname for any airplane that briefly provides a nearly weightless environment in which to train astronauts, conduct research, and film motion pictures. ... A parabola A parabola (from the Greek: παραβολή) is a conic section generated by the intersection of a cone, and a plane tangent to the cone or parallel to some plane tangent to the cone. ... For other uses, see Friction (disambiguation). ...


NASA's Microgravity University - Reduced Gravity Flight Opportunities Plan, also known as the Reduced Gravity Student Flight Opportunities Program, allows teams of undergraduates to submit a microgravity experiment proposal. If selected, the teams design and implement their experiment, and students are invited to fly on NASA's McDonnell Douglas C-9. The aircraft flies in the pattern described above, so that the experiment has around 20 to 25 seconds (each parabola) to perform its function in microgravity. DC-10, retired from American Airlines fleet at gate McDonnell Douglas was a major American aerospace manufacturer, producing a number of famous commercial and military aircraft. ... A C-9 Skytrain II offloading on the ramp at Naval Air Station Brunswick. ...


Zero Gravity Corporation

The Zero Gravity Corporation operates a modified Boeing 727 which flies parabolic arcs similar to those of NASA's Reduced Gravity Aircraft. Flights may be purchased for both tourism and research purposes. Zero Gravity Corporation (also known as ZERO-G) is a Fort Lauderdale-based company which operates weightless flights. ... The Boeing 727 is a mid-size, narrow-body, three-engine commercial jet airliner. ...


European Space Agency A300 Zero-G

The European Space Agency flies parabolic flights on a specially-modified Airbus A300 aircraft, in order to research microgravity. The ESA flies campaigns of three flights on consecutive days, each flight flying about 30 parabolas, for a total of about 10 minutes of weightlessness per flight. The ESA campaigns are currently operated from Bordeaux - Mérignac Airport in France by the company Novespace,[2] while the aircraft is operated by the Centre d'essais en Vol (CEV - French Test Flight Centre). The first ESA Zero-G flights were in 1984, using a NASA KC-135 aircraft in Houston, Texas. As of March 2006, the ESA has flown 43 campaigns. Other aircraft it has used include the Russian Ilyushin Il-76 MDK and French Caravelle.[3][4][5] ESA redirects here. ... The Airbus A300 is a short to medium range widebody aircraft. ... Astronauts on the International Space Station display an example of weightlessness Weightlessness is the experience (by people and objects) during freefall, of having no weight. ... Bordeaux - Mérignac Airport (French: ) (IATA: BOD, ICAO: LFBD) is an airport serving the French city of Bordeaux. ... Houston redirects here. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Ilyushin Il-76 (NATO reporting name: Candid) is a 4-engined strategic airlifter designed in the Soviet Union and in widespread use in eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. ... Sud Aviation Caravelle The SE 210 Caravelle was the first short/medium_range jet airliner, produced by the French Sud Aviation firm starting in 1955 (when it was still known as SNCASE). ...


Others

In Austria, a company called Paul's Parabelflug offers parabolic flights, but they are prohibited from offering zero-g flights, and now offer only Martian and lunar gravity flights.[citation needed]


A company in Hungary briefly offered parabolic flights, but went out of business after only a few flights.[citation needed]


A Swedish company, Xero, planned to fly parabolic flights with the mammoth Ilyushin Il-76, but the person in charge of the project left the company, and the project was cancelled.[citation needed] The Ilyushin Il-76 (NATO reporting name: Candid) is a 4-engined strategic airlifter designed in the Soviet Union and in widespread use in eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. ...


Ground-based reduced weight facilities

Ground-based facilities that produce reduced-weight conditions for research purposes are typically referred to as drop tubes or drop towers. In Physics and Materials Science, a drop tower or drop tube is a structure used to produce a controlled period of weightlessness for an object under study. ...


NASA drop facilities

NASA's Zero Gravity Facility, located at the Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, is a 145-meter vertical shaft, largely below the ground, with an integral vacuum drop chamber, in which an experiment vehicle can have a free fall for a duration of 5.18 seconds, falling a distance of 132 meters. The experiment vehicle is stopped in approximately 4.5 meters of pellets of expanded polystyrene and experiences a peak deceleration rate of 65g. Aerial View of Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field The Glenn Research Center is a NASA center, located in Cleveland, Ohio between Cleveland Hopkins International Airport and the Rocky River Reservation (part of the Cleveland Metroparks). ... Cleveland redirects here. ... In Physics and Materials Science, a drop tower or drop tube is a structure used to produce a controlled period of weightlessness for an object under study. ... From left to right, flat, round nose, hollow point and pointed pellets. ... For other uses, see Polystyrene (disambiguation). ... Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity, and at any point on a v-t graph, it is given by the gradient of the tangent to that point In physics, acceleration (symbol: a) is defined as the rate of change (or time derivative) of velocity. ...


Also at NASA Glenn is the 2.2 Second Drop Tower, which has a drop distance of 24.1 meters. Experiments are dropped in a Drag Shield, in order to reduce the effects of air drag. The entire package is stopped in a 3.3 meter tall air bag, at a peak deceleration rate of approximately 20g. While the Zero Gravity Facility conducts one or two drops per day, the 2.2 Second Drop Tower can conduct up to twelve drops per day.


NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center hosts another drop tube facility that is 105 meters tall and provides a 4.6 second free fall under near-vacuum conditions.[6] Aerial view of the test area at Marshall Space Flight Center The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is a lead NASA center for propulsion, Space Shuttle propulsion, external fuel tank, crew training and payloads, International Space Station (ISS) design and construction, for computers, networks, and information management. ... In Physics and Materials Science, a drop tower or drop tube is a structure used to produce a controlled period of weightlessness for an object under study. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Humans cannot utilize these gravity shafts, as the deceleration experienced by the drop chamber would likely kill or seriously injure anyone using them; 20 g is about the highest deceleration that a fit and healthy human being can withstand momentarily without sustaining permanent injury.


Other facilities worldwide

In Physics and Materials Science, a drop tower or drop tube is a structure used to produce a controlled period of weightlessness for an object under study. ... Grenoble (Arpitan: Grenoblo) is a city and commune in south-east France situated at the foot of the Alps where the Drac joins the Isère River. ... Picture of the Fallturm Fallturm Bremen is a drop tower at the Center for Applied Space Travel Technology and Microgravitation at the University of Bremen in Bremen. ... The University of Bremen (Universität Bremen) is a university of about 23,000 students and 1,500 scientists in Bremen, Germany. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ...

Reduced weight in pilot training

People have differing reactions to reduced weight sensations, and these can compromise flight safety if an aircraft pilot is not trained to respond properly, particularly in an emergency. Normally in flight training, flight instructors will gradually introduce reduced weight maneuvers, while carefully monitoring the student pilot. Most students become accustomed to the sensation and are able to perform satisfactorily with some training. Students who are not able to overcome their anxiety will not be able to complete flight training.[7] Flight training is a course of study used when learning to pilot an aircraft. ... A flight instructor is a person who teaches others to fly aircraft. ...


Neutral buoyancy

Weightlessness can also be simulated with the use of neutral buoyancy, in which human subjects and equipment are placed in a water environment and weighted or buoyed until they hover in place. NASA uses neutral buoyancy to prepare for EVAs at its Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory. Neutral buoyancy is also used for EVA research at the University of Maryland's Space Systems Laboratory, which operates the only neutral buoyancy tank at a college or university. Neutral Buoyancy is a condition in which a physical bodys mass equals the mass it displaces in a surrounding medium. ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... An astronaut training in the NBL The Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory or NBL is a training facility for astronauts maintained by NASAs Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. ... The University of Maryland, College Park (also known as UM, UMD, or UMCP) is a public university located in the city of College Park, in Prince Georges County, Maryland, just outside Washington, D.C., in the United States. ... The tank at the SSLs Neutral Buoyancy Research Facility The Space Systems Laboratory (SSL) is part of the Aerospace Engineering Department and James A. Clark School of Engineering at the University of Maryland in College Park, Maryland. ...


It is important to note that neutral buoyancy is not weightlessness. While both experiences feature floating, astronauts who are doing neutral buoyancy training still feel their full body weight within their spacesuit. In orbit, an astronaut's body weighs nothing at all.


Weightlessness in a spaceship

Astronaut Marsha Ivins demonstrates the effect of weightlessness on long hair during STS-98
Astronaut Marsha Ivins demonstrates the effect of weightlessness on long hair during STS-98

Long periods of weightlessness occur in a spaceship outside a planet's atmosphere, provided no propulsion is applied and the ship is not rotating. This is the case when orbiting the earth (except when rockets fire for orbital maneuvers), but not during atmospheric re-entry. Weightlessness does not occur in a rocket ship that is accelerating by firing its rockets. Even if the rocket accelerates uniformly, the force is applied to the back end of the rocket by the escaping gas and that force is transferred throughout the ship via pressure or tension, precluding weightlessness. Weightlessness in a spaceship or space station is achieved by free-fall. The ship and all things in it are literally falling toward the Earth's surface, but their speed in orbit around the Earth allows for almost perpetual falling. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (434x640, 87 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Weightlessness Marsha Ivins ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (434x640, 87 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Weightlessness Marsha Ivins ... External link NASA Biography Categories: Stub | 1951 births | Astronauts ... This is a mission of the United States Space Shuttle // Crew Kenneth D. Cockrell (4), Commander Mark L. Polansky (1), Pilot Robert L. Curbeam (2), Mission Specialist Thomas D. Jones (4), Mission Specialist Marsha S. Ivins (5), Mission Specialist Mission parameters Mass: Orbiter liftoff: 115,529 kg Orbiter landing: 90... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... An orbital maneuver is a change from one orbit to another, accomplished by applying thrust. ... Atmospheric entry is the transition from the vacuum of space to the atmosphere of any planet or other celestial body. ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ...


Weightlessness in the center of a planet

In the center of a planet a person would feel weightless because the pull of the surrounding mass of the planet would cancel out. More generally, the gravitational force is zero everywhere within a hollow spherically symmetrical planet, by the shell theorem. A Hollow Earth theory posits that the planet Earth has a hollow interior and, possibly, a habitable inner surface. ... In Newtonian physics, the shell theorem states that the gravity due to a uniform spherical shell is zero on an object inside the shell, and acts on an object outside the shell as if the entire mass of the shell were at its center. ...


Health effects

Following the establishment of orbiting stations that can be inhabited for long durations by humans, exposure to weightlessness has been demonstrated to have some deleterious effects to health. Humans are well-adapted to the physical conditions prevailing at the surface of the Earth. When weightless, certain physiological systems begin to alter and temporary and long term health issues can occur. The International Space Station in 2007 A space station is an artificial structure designed for humans to live in outer space. ...


The most common initial condition experienced by humans after the first couple of hours or so of weightlessness is known as space adaptation syndrome or SAS, commonly referred to as space sickness. The symptoms include general queasiness, nausea, vertigo, headaches, lethargy, vomiting, and an overall malaise. The first case was reported by cosmonaut Gherman Titov in 1961. Since then roughly 45% of all people to experience free floating under zero gravity have also suffered from this condition. The duration of space sickness varies, but in no case has it lasted more than 72 hours. By that time the astronauts have grown accustomed to the new environment. NASA measures SAS using the "Garn scale", named for United States Senator Jake Garn, whose SAS during STS-51-D was so severe as to be ranked 13 on this scale. Space adaptation syndrome, or space sickness, is what astronauts go through during adaptation to zero gravity. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vertigo. ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Fatigue is a feeling of excessive tiredness or lethargy, with a desire to rest, perhaps to sleep. ... Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ... U.S. Space Shuttle astronaut Bruce McCandless II using a manned maneuvering unit. ... Gherman Titov Gherman Stepanovich Titov (Russian: Герман Степанович Титов; September 11, 1935, Verkhnee Zhilino – September 20, 2000, Moscow) was a Soviet cosmonaut and the second person to orbit the Earth. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Edwin Jacob Garn (born October 12, 1932) is an American politician, a member of the Republican Party, and served as a U.S. Senator representing Utah from 1974 to 1993. ... STS 51-D was the sixteenth flight of a Space Shuttle and the fourth flight of Discovery. ...


The most significant adverse effects of long-term weightlessness are muscle atrophy and deterioration of the skeleton, or spaceflight osteopenia; these effects can be minimized through a regimen of exercise. Other significant effects include fluid redistribution, a slowing of the cardiovascular system, decreased production of red blood cells, balance disorders, and a weakening of the immune system. Lesser symptoms include loss of body mass, nasal congestion, sleep disturbance, excess flatulence, and puffiness of the face. These effects are reversible upon return to Earth. // Clinical settings of atrophy There are many diseases and conditions which cause a decrease in muscle mass, known as atrophy. ... For other uses, see Skeleton (disambiguation). ... Spaceflight osteopenia refers to the characteristic bone loss that occurs during spaceflight. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... “Red cell” redirects here. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Flatulence is the presence of a mixture of gases known as flatus in the digestive tract of mammals expelled from the rectum. ...


Many of the conditions caused by exposure to weightlessness are similar to those resulting from aging. Scientists believe that studies of the detrimental effects of weightlessness could have medical benefits, such as a possible treatment for osteoporosis and improved medical care for the bed-ridden and elderly. Osteoporosis is a disease of bone - leading to an increased risk of fracture. ...


Effects on non-human organisms

Russian scientists have observed differences between cockroaches conceived in space and their terrestrial counterparts. The space-conceived cockroaches grew more quickly, and also grew up to be faster and tougher.[8]


See also

Artificial gravity is a simulation of gravity in outer space or free-fall. ... Human physiological adaptation to the conditions of space is a challenge faced in the development of human spaceflight. ... Project Mercury astronauts on C-131 flying as Vomit Comet, 1959 Weightlessness inside the Vomit Comet Vomit Comet is a nickname for any airplane that briefly provides a nearly weightless environment in which to train astronauts, conduct research, and film motion pictures. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Oberg, James (May 1993). "Space myths and misconceptions". Omni 15 (7). Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  2. ^ Novespace: microgravity, airborne missions
  3. ^ European Space Agency. A300 Zero-G. ESA Human Spaceflight web site. Retrieved on 2006-11-12.
  4. ^ European Space Agency. Next camaign. ESA Human Spaceflight web site. Retrieved on 2006-11-12.
  5. ^ European Space Agency. Campaign Organisation. ESA Human Spaceflight web site. Retrieved on 2006-11-12.
  6. ^ Marshall Space Flight Center Drop Tube Facility
  7. ^ Reduced G Familiarization from Gliding New Zealand.
  8. ^ Mutant super-cockroaches from space. New Scientist (January 21, 2008).

James Edward Oberg (b. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ESA redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ESA redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ESA redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Criticism of the terms "Zero Gravity" and "Microgravity", a persuasion to use terminology that reflects accurate physics (Sci.space post).
  • Zero-G Research Facility, a NASA facility for ground-based microgravity research.
  • Microgravity flights on board the Airbus A300 Zero-G
  • NASA Microgravity University, a NASA student program that allows teams of college students to plan a microgravity experiment and fly on board NASA's C-9.
  • maniacworld.com "NASA Reduced Gravity Aircraft", videos of the NASA Reduced Gravity Aircraft and of participants in a flight on that aircraft.
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... A C-9 Skytrain II offloading on the ramp at Naval Air Station Brunswick. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Zero Gravity Experience Weightlessness Parabolic Flights in the USA (551 words)
Weightless flights are offered in cooperation with ZeroG Corp and take place aboard a specially-modified and FAA certified Boeing 727 christened GForce One.
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Weightlessness is only a sensation; it is not a reality corresponding to an individual who has lost weight.
Earth-orbiting astronauts are weightless for the same reasons that riders of a free-falling amusement park ride or a free-falling elevator are weightless.
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