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Encyclopedia > Weed
Yellow starthistle, a thistle native to southern Europe and the Middle East that is an invasive weed in parts of North America.
Yellow starthistle, a thistle native to southern Europe and the Middle East that is an invasive weed in parts of North America.
Farming

General
Agribusiness · Agriculture
Agricultural science · Agronomy
Animal husbandry
Challenges of industrial farming
Factory farming · Free range
Extensive farming
History of agriculture
Industrial agriculture
Industrial agriculture (animals)
Industrial agriculture (crops)
Intensive farming · Organic farming
Sustainable agriculture
Zero waste agriculture
Download high resolution version (640x975, 162 KB)Yellow star thistle from http://www. ... Download high resolution version (640x975, 162 KB)Yellow star thistle from http://www. ... Binomial name Centaurea solstitialis L. The yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) is native to the Mediterranean region, but since its introduction to North America in the mid-nineteenth century it has become a large-scale noxious weed there. ... Milk thistle flowerhead Thistledown a method of seed dispersal by wind. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 644 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 838 pixel, file size: 187 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... In agriculture, agribusiness is a generic term that refers to the various businesses involved in the food production chain, including farming, seed, agrichemicals, farm machinery, wholesaling, processing, distribution, and retail sales. ... Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic, and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture. ... Agronomy is a branch of agricultural science that deals with the study of crops and the soils in which they grow. ... Shepherd with his sheep in Făgăraş Mountains, Romania. ... The challenges and issues of industrial agriculture for global and local society, for the industrial agriculture industy, and for the individual industrial agriculture farm include the costs and benefits of both current practices and proposed changes to those practices. ... The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ... Free range is a method of farming husbandry where the animals are permitted to roam freely instead of being contained in small sheds. ... The small pig farm in Swiss mountains. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... These female brood sows are confined most of their lives in gestation crates too small to enable them to turn around. ... Main article: Industrial agriculture Industrial animal agriculture is a modern form of intensive farming that refers to the industrialized production of livestock, including cattle, poultry (in battery farms) and fish. ... Main article: Industrial agriculture Industrial agriculture is a modern form of intensive farming that refers to the industrialized production of crops and livestock, including cattle, poultry (in battery farms) and fish. ... Intensive Farming Intensive agriculture is an agricultural production system characterized by the high inputs as relative to land area (as opposed to extensive farming). ... Organic cultivation of mixed vegetables in Capay, California. ... It has been suggested that Small-scale agriculture be merged into this article or section. ... Definition: The optimal use of the five natural kingdoms, i. ...

Particular
Aquaculture
Dairy farming
IMTA
Intensive pig farming
Poultry farming
Sheep husbandry
Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi Aquaculture is the cultivation of the natural produce of water (fish, shellfish, algae and other aquatic organisms). ... Dairy farming is a class of agricultural, or more properly, an animal husbandry enterprise, raising female cattle, goats, or other lactating animals for long-term production of milk, which may be either processed on-site or transported to a dairy for processing and eventual retail sale. ... Harvesting of kelp (Saccharina latissima, previously known as Laminaria saccharina) cultivated in proximity to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at Charlie Cove, Bay of Fundy, Canada. ... These female brood sows are confined most of their lives in gestation crates too small to enable them to turn around. ... A free range egg (left) next to a battery egg (right) Poultry farming is the practice of raising poultry, such as chickens, turkeys, ducks geese, as a subcategory of Animal husbandry, for the purpose of farming meat or eggs for food. ... Australian Sheep Sheep husbandry is the raising and breeding of domestic sheep. ...

Issues
Animal rights · Animal welfare
Antibiotics
Battery cage · BSE
Foie gras Genetically modified food
Gestation crate · Growth hormone
Pesticide · Veal crates
A civet, or sea fox, photographed in the Zigong Peoples Zoo, Sichuan, 2001. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Battery Cage is an American electronic music project led by Tyler Newman. ... Classic image of cattle with BSE. Frantic digging going nowhere. ... Pâté de foie gras (right) with pickled pear. ... Genetically Modified (GM) foods are produced from genetically modified organisms (GMO) which have had their genome altered through genetic engineering techniques. ... Female pigs used for breeding are confined in 7 ft by 2 ft gestation crates for most of their lives. ... Growth hormone (GH or somatotropin) is a 191-amino acid, single chain polypeptide hormone which is synthesised, stored and secreted by the somatotroph cells within the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary gland, which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Veal is a culinary term for meat produced from calves (young cattle). ...

Large agribusiness corporations
Bernard Matthews
Cargill
ContiGroup Companies
Maple Leaf Foods
Monsanto
Philip Morris
Premium Standard Farms
Smithfield Foods
Tyson Foods
Wayne Farms
In agriculture, agribusiness is a generic term that refers to the various businesses involved in the food production chain, including farming, seed, agrichemicals, farm machinery, wholesaling, processing, distribution, and retail sales. ... Bernard Matthews is a food processing company headquartered in Norwich, Norfolk, with 57 farms throughout Norfolk, Suffolk and Lincolnshire [1]. They produce and market turkey and other meat products, oven-ready turkeys, day-old turkeys, fish products and other poultry products. ... Cargill, Incorporated is a privately held, multinational corporation, and is based in the state of Minnesota in the United States. ... Formed in 1813, ContiGroup Companies, Inc (CGC) was originally founded by Simon Fribourg in Arlon, Belgium as a grain-trading firm. ... Maple Leaf Foods TSX: MFI is a major Canadian food processing company. ... The Monsanto Company (NYSE: MON) is a multinational agricultural biotechnology corporation. ... Altria Group, Inc. ... Formed in 1988, Premium Standard Farms, Inc (PSF) (NASDAQ: PORK) was founded with the aim of creating a standardized method for which to produce premium pork. ... Smithfield Packing Company was founded in 1936 by Joseph W. Luter and his son Joseph W. Luter, Jr. ... Tyson Foods, Inc. ... Formerly operating under Allied Mills, the Poultry Division of ContiGroup Companies, Wayne Farms LLC is the sixth largest vertically integrated producer and processor of poultry in the United States. ...

Categories
Agriculture by country
Agriculture companies
Agriculture companies, U.S.
Biotechnology
Farming history
Livestock
Meat processing
Poultry farming

A weed in a general sense is a plant that is considered by the user of the term to be a nuisance, and normally applied to unwanted plants in human made settings like a garden, lawn, or agricultural areas but also to parks, woods and other natural areas. More specifically, the term is often used to describe native or nonnative plants that grow and reproduce aggressively.[1] Weeds may be unwanted because they are unsightly, or they limit the growth of other plants by blocking light or using up nutrients from the soil. They also can harbor and spread plant pathogens that can infect and degrade the quality of crop or horticultural plants. Weeds may be a nuisance because they have thorns or prickles, cause skin irritation when contacted, or parts of the plants might come off and attach to fur or clothes. Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... Nuisance is a common law tort. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In the field of ecology, an indigenous species is an organism which is native to a region or ecosystem. ... Link title {{portal|Food} A nutrient is either a chemical element or compound used in an organisms metabolism or physiology. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Technically, soil forms the pedosphere: the interface between the lithosphere (rocky part of the planet) and the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... Look up crop in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Horticulture (Latin: hortus (garden plant) + cultura (culture)) is classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ...


The term weed in its general sense is a subjective one, without any classification value, since a weed is not a weed when growing where it belongs or is wanted. Indeed, a number of "weeds" have been used in gardens or other cultivated-plant settings. An example is the corncockle, Agrostemma, which was a common field weed exported from Europe along with wheat, but now sometimes grown as a garden plant.[2] Binomial name Agrostemma githago L. Corncockle (Agrostemma githago - also Corn cockle and Corn-cockle) is a slender pink flower of European corn fields. ... Binomial name Agrostemma githago L. Corncockle (Agrostemma githago - also Corn cockle and Corn-cockle) is a slender pink flower of European corn fields. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ...


Weedy plants generally share similar adaptations that give them advantages and allow them to proliferate in disturbed environments whose soil or natural vegetative cover has been damaged. Naturally occurring disturbed environments include dunes and other windswept areas with shifting soils, alluvial flood plains, river banks and deltas, and areas that are often burned. Since human agricultural practices often mimic these natural environments where weedy species have evolved, weeds have adapted to grow and proliferate in human-disturbed areas such as agricultural fields, lawns, roadsides, and construction sites. A biological adaptation is an anatomical structure, physiological process or behavioral trait of an organism that has evolved over a period of time by the process of natural selection such that it increases the expected long-term reproductive success of the organism. ... A diagram showing the formation of a dune with a slipface. ... Alluvium is soil land deposited by a river or other running water. ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ...


The weedy nature of these species often gives them an advantage over more desirable crop species because they often grow quickly and reproduce quickly, have seeds that persist in the soil seed bank for many years, or have short lifespans with multiple generations in the same growing season. Perennial weeds often have underground stems that spread out under the soil surface or, like ground ivy (Glechoma hederacea), have creeping stems that root and spread out over the ground.[3] A number of weedy species have developed allelopathy, chemical means to prevent the germination or growth of neighboring plants. Reproduction is the creation of one thing as a copy of, product of, or replacement for a similar thing, e. ... The Soil Seed Bank is the collective name for the store of seeds, often dormant, which are stored within the soil of many terrestrial ecosystems. ... Binomial name Glechoma hederacea L. Glechoma hederacea (Ground-ivy) is a flowering plant in the family Lamiaceae, native to Europe and southwestern Asia. ... Casuarina equisetifolia litter completely suppresses germination of understory plants as shown here despite the relative openess of the canopy and ample rainfall (>120 cm/yr) at the location The term allelopathy denotes the production of specific biomolecules by one plant that can induce suffering in, or give benefit to, another... It has been suggested that Germination rate be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

Weeds and People

As long as people have cultivated plants, weeds have been a problem. Weeds have even found their way into religious and literature texts as these quotes from the Bible and Shakespeare show: This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ...

"Cursed is the ground because of you; through painful toil you will eat of it all the days of your life. It will produce thorns and thistles for you, and you will eat the plants of the field. By the sweat of your brow you will eat your food until you return to the ground,"[4]

"To thy fair flower add the rank smell of weeds: But why thy odour matcheth not thy show, The soil is this, that thou dost common grow."[5]


Weeds and human civilization have a long history. Often weedy plant seeds are collected and transported with crops after the harvesting of grains, so that many of these weed species have moved out of their natural geographic locations and have spread around the world with humans. (See Invasive species.) Not all weeds have the same ability to damage crops and horticultural plants. Some have been classified as noxious weeds because if left unchecked, they often dominate the environment where crop plants are to be grown. They are often foreign species mistakenly or accidentally imported into a region where there are few natural controls to limit their spread and population. With the conversion of land to agriculture producing large areas of open soil and human distribution of food crops mixed with seeds of weeds from other parts of the world, many weeds have ideal areas for growth and reproduction. With Humans being the vector of transport and producer of disturbed environments, weedy species have an ideal association with humans and our impact on the globel environment. The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ... This article is about unwanted plants. ...


A number of weeds, such as the dandelion Taraxacum, are edible, and their leaves and roots may be used for food or herbal medicine. Burdock is common weed over much of the world, and is sometimes used to make soup and other medicine in East Asia. These so-called "beneficial weeds" may have other beneficial effects, such as drawing away the attacks of crop-destroying insects but often are breeding grounds for insects and pathogens that attack other plants. Dandelions besides being a weed in lawns, are one of several species which break up hardpan in overly cultivated fields, helping crops grow deeper root systems. Some modern species of domesticated flower actually originated as weeds in cultivated fields and have been breed by people into garden plants for their flowers or foliage. For other uses, see Dandelion (disambiguation). ... Species Taraxacum officinale Taraxacum japonicum Taraxacum albidum and a few others. ... The term Herbalism refers to folk and traditional medicinal practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Beneficial weeds are various plants not necessarily considered domesticated, but which nonetheless have some companion plant effect, or else are edible, including a great many wildflowers, but also including many weeds which people are wont to generically kill or poison, without realizing the benefit of that plant. ... In soil science, agriculture and gardening, hardpan is a general term for a dense layer of soil, residing usually below the uppermost topsoil layer. ... A Phalaenopsis flower Rudbeckia fulgida A flower, (<Old French flo(u)r<Latin florem<flos), also known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). ...


Examples

Binomial name L. The Mike Jones, Cart Track Plant, Common Plantain, Dooryard Plantain, Greater Plantago, Healing Blade, Hen Plant, Lambs Foot, Roadweed, Roundleaf Plantain, Waybread, Wayside Plantain, White Mans Foot (Plantago major) is a member of the plantago family, Plantaginaceae. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Binomial name Glechoma hederacea L. Creeping Charlie (Glechoma hederacea), also called Ground Ivy, of the Mint family (Lamiaceae), is a viney, invasive plant considered a weed in lawns. ... For other uses, see Dandelion (disambiguation). ... Species See text. ... For other uses, see Kudzu (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Euphorbia esula L. Leafy Spurge (Euphorbia esula), also known as Wolfs Milk, or Wolfs-milk is a flowering plant native to North America. ... Species Silybum eburneum Silybum marianum Silybum × gonzaloi This article is about the true milk thistles. ... Binomial name Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze Poison-ivy (Toxicodendron radicans or Rhus toxicodendron), in the family Anacardiaceae, is a woody vine that is well-known for its ability to produce urushiol, a skin irritant which for most people will cause an agonizing, itching rash. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Rumex acetosa L. The common sorrel, or spinach dock, Ambada bhaji is a perennial herb, which grows abundantly in meadows in most parts of Europe and is cultivated as a leaf vegetable. ... Species About 250 species; see text Rhus is a genus approximately 250 species of woody shrubs and small trees in the family Anacardiaceae. ... Binomial name Daucus carota Species Daucus carota Wild carrot or Queen Annes lace, Daucus carota, is the ancestor of the domesticated carrot of Europe, widely introduced in North America. ... Species See text Oxalis is the largest genus in the wood sorrel family Oxalidaceae. ...

See also

A herbicide is a pesticide used to kill unwanted plants. ... This is a list of undomesticated or feral plants, considered weeds, yet having some positive effects or uses, often being ideal as companion plants in gardens. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Weed control, a botanical component of pest control, stops weeds from reaching a mature stage of growth when they could be harmful to domesticated plants, sometimes livestocks, by using manual techniques including soil cultivation, mulching and herbicides. ... In ecology, a weedy species is a species that lives in a wide variety of ecologies, including unstable ones and those damaged by humans. ... Seaweed covered rocks in the UK Phycologists consider seaweed to refer any of a large number of marine benthic algae that are multicellular, macrothallic (large-bodied), and thus differentiated from most algae that tend towards microscopic size (Smith, 1944). ... A seaweed (Laurencia) up close: the branches are multicellular and only about 1 mm thick. ...

External links

  • Common weeds of the northern United States and Canada from Canadian Weed Science Society

This article or section should include material from Virginia Bioinformatics Institute. ...

References

  1. ^ ISBN 0-7167-1031-5 Janick, Jules. Horticultural Science. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman, 1979. Page 308.
  2. ^ http://davesgarden.com/pf/go/1341/
  3. ^ http://employees.csbsju.edu/ssaupe/biol327/Lecture/foraging_case_study.htm
  4. ^ Genesis 3:17-19 New International Version
  5. ^ http://www.infoplease.com/t/lit/shakespeare-sonnets/69.html

  Results from FactBites:
 
Weed - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (538 words)
In cases like the prickly pear in Australia, the weeds are termed invasive species (or exotic invasives).
In the case of using the fl plastic sheet, the greenhouse effect is used to kill the plants beneath the sheet.
In agriculture, irrigation is sometimes used as a weed control measure such as in the case of paddy fields.
Weed Man - Lawn Care - FAQ (1559 words)
Weed Man professionals are fully trained and licensed to look after your lawn and ensure that the products are handled with the highest regard for safety.
The products used to control weeds on lawns have relatively low toxicity, are applied at low rates and do not pose a significant risk when applied and stored according to their directions.
Weed Man professionals are available to answer any questions that you may have about the products or services that are used to help promote and protect a healthy lawn.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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