FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Webcam" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Webcam
A typical webcam
A typical webcam

Webcams are small cameras, (usually, though not always, video cameras) whose images can be accessed using the World Wide Web, instant messaging, or a PC video conferencing application. The term webcam is also used to describe the low-resolution digital video cameras designed for such purposes, but which can also be used to record in a non-real-time fashion. Image File history File links A Creative webcam, taken by me, Orange Goblin. ... Image File history File links A Creative webcam, taken by me, Orange Goblin. ... Video cameras are used primarily in two modes. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... A screenshot of PowWow, one of the first instant messengers with a graphical user interface An instant messenger is a client which allows instant text communication between two or more people through a network such as the Internet. ...


Web-accessible cameras involve a digital camera which uploads images to a web server, either continuously or at regular intervals. This may be achieved by a camera attached to a PC, or by dedicated hardware. Videoconferencing cameras typically take the form of a small camera connected directly to a PC. Analog cameras are also sometimes used (often of the sort used for closed-circuit television), connected to a video capture card and then directly or indirectly to the internet. The inside/front of a Dell PowerEdge web server The term Web server can mean one of two things: A computer program that is responsible for accepting HTTP requests from clients, which are known as Web browsers, and serving them HTTP responses along with optional data contents, which usually are... It has been suggested that H.331 be merged into this article or section. ... This article refers to a surveillance system. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Video editing card. ...

Contents

History

Started in 1991, the first webcam was pointed at the Trojan room coffee pot in the computer science department of Cambridge University. This webcam is now defunct, as it was finally switched off on August 22, 2001. The final image captured by the camera can still be viewed at the webcam's homepage [1]. The Trojan Room coffee pot was the inspiration for the worlds first webcam. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


As with many new technologies, webcams and webcam chat found early commercial adoption and aggressive technology advancement through use by the pornography industry. The adult industry required 'live' images and requested a Dutch developer to write a piece of software that could do this without requiring web browser plugins. This led to the birth of the 'live streaming webcam', which is still available in various forms today. Porn redirects here. ... An example of a Web browser (Mozilla Firefox) A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, videos, music and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ... For other uses, see Plug in. ...


One of the most widely reported-on webcam sites was JenniCam, started in 1996, which allowed Internet users to constantly observe the life of its namesake, somewhat like reality TV series Big Brother, launched three years later[1]. More recently, the website Justin.tv has shown a continuous video and audio stream from a mobile camera mounted on the head of the site's star. A glimpse of Jenni, January 9, 1999. ... Big Brother is a reality television format. ... Justin Kan speaking at Gnomedex in 2007 Justin. ...


Web-accessible cameras

This Axis camera can be connected directly to a network or the internet, via an RJ45 connector on its rear. Users can access the picture by connecting to an onboard HTTP server.
This Axis camera can be connected directly to a network or the internet, via an RJ45 connector on its rear. Users can access the picture by connecting to an onboard HTTP server.

In addition to use for personal videoconferencing, it was quickly realised that World Wide Web users enjoyed viewing images from cameras set up by others elsewhere in the world. While the term "webcam" refers to the technology generally, the first part of the term ("web-") is often replaced with a word describing what can be viewed with the camera, such as a nestcam or streetcam. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1503x1662, 259 KB) Summary This image shows a network webcam, the Axis 2100. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1503x1662, 259 KB) Summary This image shows a network webcam, the Axis 2100. ... Axiss products include this webcam, which can be connected directly to a network or the internet, via an RJ45 connector on its rear. ... Cat5 cables with RJ45 connectors, wired to EIA/TIA-568B An RJ45 connector that has yet to be crimped onto a cable RJ45 (Registered Jack 45) is a physical interface often used for terminating twisted pair type cables. ... HTTP (for HyperText Transfer Protocol) is the primary method used to convey information on the World Wide Web. ... It has been suggested that H.331 be merged into this article or section. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... For other uses, see Nest (disambiguation). ... A city-centre street in Frankfurt, Germany A residential street in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA A street is a public thoroughfare in the built environment. ...


Today there are millions of webcams that provide views into homes, offices and other buildings as well as providing panoramic views of cities (Metrocams) and the countryside. Webcams are used to monitor traffic with TraffiCams, the weather with WeatherCams and even volcanoes with VolcanoCams. Webcam aggregators allow viewers to search for specific webcams based on geography or other criteria. Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ...


Software

Webcams connected to PCs can act as web-accessible cameras with certain software; the software uploads pictures to an FTP server, from which they can be made accessible to anyone, over the web. The abbreviation FTP can refer to: The File Transfer Protocol used on the Internet. ...


Usually, this kind of software is programmed to work with almost every webcam. This software can be configured in many ways, and will often include options for image size and quality, overlaying logos, and time stamping images. Many different programs to do this are available, some of them free and open source. Timecode is also the title of a 2000 film directed by Mike Figgis which was shot in one continuous take. ...


Videoconferencing

Tech. Sgt. Troy Goodman watches the newest member of his family via webcam, from Iraq. Sergeant Goodman was able to watch the live birth over the Internet.

As webcam capabilities have been added to instant messaging text chat services such as AOL Instant Messenger, one-to-one live video communication over the internet has now reached millions of mainstream PC users worldwide. Increased video quality has helped webcams encroach on traditional video conferencing systems. New features such as lighting, real-time enhancements (retouching, wrinkle smoothing and vertical stretch) can make users more comfortable, further increasing popularity. Features and performance vary between programs. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 504 pixelsFull resolution (2928 × 1844 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 504 pixelsFull resolution (2928 × 1844 pixel, file size: 2. ... // Instant messaging (IM) is a form of real-time communication between two or more people based on typed text. ... AOL Instant Messenger (AIM) is a free, advertisement-supported proprietary instant messaging and presence computer program which uses the OSCAR instant messaging protocol and the TOC protocol. ...


Videoconferencing support is included in programs including Yahoo Messenger, AOL Instant Messenger (AIM), Windows Live Messenger, Skype, Ekiga and Camfrog. Categories: Computer stubs | Mac OS instant messengers | Windows instant messengers | Yahoo! ... AOL Instant Messenger (AIM) is a free, advertisement-supported proprietary instant messaging and presence computer program which uses the OSCAR instant messaging protocol and the TOC protocol. ... For the old versions of this software called MSN Messenger, see MSN Messenger. ... Skype (IPA: , rhymes with type) is a software program created by the entrepreneurs Niklas Zennström and Janus Friis. ... Ekiga (formerly called GnomeMeeting) is a free and open source VoIP and video conferencing application for GNOME and Windows. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Some online video broadcasting sites have taken advantage of this technology to create internet television programs centered around two (or more) people "diavlogging" with each other from two different places. Among others, BloggingHeads.tv uses this technology to set up conversations between prominent journalists, scientists, bloggers, and philosophers. A diavlog (sometimes written dia-vlog) is a type of video blog (or vlog) in which more than one person participates, in other words a video weblog dialog. ... BloggingHeads. ...


Video security

Webcams are being used for security purposes. Software is available allowing PC-connected cameras to watch for movement and sound, recording both when they are detected; these recordings can be saved to the computer, e-mailed or uploaded to the internet. In one well-publicised case [2] a computer e-mailed out images as the burglar stole it, allowing the owner to give police a clear picture of the burglar's face even after the computer had been stolen.


As a control input device

Special software can use the video stream from a webcam to assist or enhance a users control of applications and games. Video features, including faces, shapes, models and colors can be observed and tracked to produce a corresponding form of control. For example, the position of a single light source can be tracked and used to emulate a mouse pointer, if the light is head mounted it allows hands-free computing which greatly improves computer accessibility. This can also be applied to games, providing additional control, improved interactivity and immersiveness. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In human-computer interaction, computer accessibility refers to the usability of a computer system by people with disabilities or age-related limitations. ...


FreeTrack is a free webcam motion tracking application for Microsoft Windows that can track a special head mounted model in up to six degrees of freedom and outputs data to mouse, keyboard, joystick and FreeTrack supported games. FreeTrack is a free optical motion tracking application for Microsoft Windows, released under the GNU General Public License. ... Windows redirects here. ... The phrase degrees of freedom is used in three different branches of science: in physics and physical chemistry, in mechanical and aerospace engineering, and in statistics. ... This is a list of PC games that can interface directly with FreeTrack, without using mouse, keyboard or joystick emulation. ...


The EyeToy for the PlayStation 2 and similarly the Xbox Live Vision Camera for the Xbox 360 and Xbox Live are color digital cameras that have been used as control input devices for some games. The EyeToy is a color digital camera device, similar to a webcam, for the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation Portable. ... PS2 redirects here. ... The Xbox Live Vision Camera is a camera designed for the Xbox 360 and Xbox Live. ... It has been suggested that Xbox 360 Elite be merged into this article or section. ... Xbox Live is a subscription-based online gaming service for Microsofts Xbox and Xbox 360 video game consoles. ...


Small webcam-based PC games are available as either standalone executables or inside web browser windows using Adobe Flash. Adobe Flash, or simply Flash, refers to both the Adobe Flash Player, and to the Adobe Flash Professional multimedia authoring program. ...


Non-real-time webcams

A webcam that records to a video file is essentially no different from any other video camera which records directly to hard disk, including hi-def cameras such as the Thomson Viper, which would never be described as webcams. However, webcam is frequently used to describe any footage shot on the digital video cameras designed for real-time webcam use, recognizable by the distinct quality of image such cameras offer. An example of such webcam use would be in the film Dark Night by Justin Hall. Digital cinematography is the process of capturing motion pictures as digital images, rather than on film. ... Justin Hall, 2007 Justin Hall (born December 16, 1974 in Chicago, Illinois), is an American freelance journalist who is best known as a pioneer blogger (internet-based diarist), and for writing reviews from game conferences such as E3 and the Tokyo Game Show. ...


Adult webcams

One of the more common applications of webcams has been for the dissemination of Internet pornography and video chat. For many surfers the word "webcam" is synonymous with "adult webcam". Adult applications usually involve streaming video to a centralized server, where it is relayed to viewers who have subscribed to the service. The most common set-up is a model who interacts with viewers in a chatroom. Adult webcam sites are a multi billion dollar industry[citation needed] that has become a staple format for digital adult content. There are also many sites where nudity is not involved such as interactive webcam dating. Internet pornography is pornography that is distributed via the Internet, primarily via websites, peer-to-peer file sharing, or Usenet newsgroups. ...


A problem with Webcam Pornography is that now, many girls under the age of 16 expose themselves on Webcam through online chat programs, most commonly MSN & Yahoo Messenger. Many people also engange in visual mutual masturbation using webcams with these programs.


Aggregators

Due to the increasing volume of webcams throughout the world, aggregator websites have arisen, allowing users to find live video streams based on location or other criteria. Aggregators such as Livelook and Earthcam provide collections of thousands of live video streams.


Technology

Webcams typically include a lens, an image sensor, and supporting circuitry.

Webcams typically include a lens, an image sensor, and some support electronics. Various lenses are available, the most common being a plastic lens that can be screwed in and out to set the camera's focus. Fixed focus lenses are also available, which require no adjustment. Image sensors can be CMOS or CCD, the former being dominant for low-cost cameras, but CCD cameras do not necessarily outperform CMOS-based cameras in the low cost price range. Consumer webcams usually offer a resolution in the VGA region, at a rate of around 25 frames per second. The higher resolution of 1.3 Megapixel is also available from the brands Microsoft, Logitech, and HP. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (681x1586, 297 KB) Summary This is a Sweex miniwebcam USB with its casing removed. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (681x1586, 297 KB) Summary This is a Sweex miniwebcam USB with its casing removed. ... A dismantled USB webcam, with and without a lens over its (Bayer format) image sensor. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A high-tech CMOS imager, mainly developed for medical imaging. ... A specially developed CCD used for ultraviolet imaging in a wire bonded package. ... VGA Port VGA plug Video Graphics Array (VGA) is an analog computer display standard first marketed in 1987 by IBM. It has been technologically outdated in the PC market for some time. ...


Support electronics are present to read the image from the sensor and transmit it to the host computer. The camera pictured to the right, for example, uses a Sonix SN9C101 to transmit its image over USB. Some cameras - such as mobile phone cameras - use a CMOS sensor with supporting electronics "on die", i.e. the sensor and the support electronics are built on a single silicon chip to save space and manufacturing costs. USB redirects here. ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ...


Notably, Apple Inc. has implemented built-in webcams (that is, hardwired to the machine and irremovable) in many of its personal computer products. Apple Inc. ...


Some webcams feature built in microphones to make video conferencing more convenient. Creative Technology has introduced a webcam called featuring built in noise cancellation to focus the audio to the speaker who is directly in front of the camera, excluding ambient noise. Creative Technology Limited (SGX: C76, NASDAQ: CREAF) is a listed manufacturer of computer multimedia products based in Singapore where the firm was initially founded by Sim Wong Hoo (born 1957) on July 1, 1981. ...


Privacy

Some 'Trojan horse' programs can allow malicious hackers to activate a computer's camera without the user's knowledge, providing the hacker with a live video feed from the unfortunate user's camera. Cameras such as Apple's older external iSight cameras include lens covers to thwart this. Most other webcams have a built-in LED that lights up whenever the camera is active. In the context of computing and software, a Trojan horse, or simply trojan, is a piece of software which appears to perform a certain action, but in fact, performs another. ... Apple Inc. ... iSight was a webcam developed and marketed by Apple Inc. ...


In mid-January 2005 some search engine queries were published in an on-line forum[3] which allow anyone to find thousands of Panasonic- and Axis-made high-end web cameras accessible through the web. Many such cameras are running on default configuration, which does not require any password login or IP address verification, making them visible to anyone. A search engine is an information retrieval system designed to help find information stored on a computer system. ... Panasonic is an international brand name for Japanese electric products manufacturer Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. ... Axiss products include this webcam, which can be connected directly to a network or the internet, via an RJ45 connector on its rear. ... A password is a form of secret authentication data that is used to control access to a resource. ...


See also

List of digital camera brands past and present, updated to 2005, but may miss some. ... Look up Creative in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The term creative can refer to: Creativity is defined as the ability to be creative. ... The EyeToy is a color digital camera device, similar to a webcam, for the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation Portable. ... iSight was a webcam developed and marketed by Apple Inc. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Connectix Quickcam This 1996 picture was taken with the original Connectix QuickCam for Macintosh. ... Video cameras are used primarily in two modes. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Mobiola Web Camera is a mobile software that transforms Symbian smartphone into a mobile Bluetooth wireless webcam. ... A view of the UK Webcam Map Website The UK Webcam Map is a Google maps-based website depicting webcam images from across the UK. Originally made to map live and controllable webcams, the focus swithced to map cameras displaying an image that refreshes regularly, as this can be added... There are many webcams situated in the UK, but often they are operational for a limited time so maintaining an accurate list of their locations is difficult. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

References

  1. ^ "Plug pulled on live website seen by millions" by Oliver Burkeman in The Guardian, 3rd January, 2004
  2. ^ "Serial burglar caught on webcam" BBC News, 16th February 2005, retrieved 3rd January 2006
  3. ^ "Google exposes web surveillance cams" by Kevin Poulsen, The Register, 8th January 2005, retrieved 5th September 2006

  Results from FactBites:
 
Webcam - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (939 words)
While the term "webcam" refers to the technology generally, the first part of the term ("web-") is often replaced with a word describing what can be viewed with the camera, such as a nestcam or streetcam.
Webcams are used to monitor traffic with TraffiCams, the weather with WeatherCams and even volcanoes with VolcanoCams.
The webcam is attached to a telescope via a custom-made adaptor, and usually used in conjunction with barlow lenses and IR/UV cut-off filters.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m