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Encyclopedia > Web search engine
Google is one of the most successful search engines currently available on the internet.

A Web search engine is a search engine designed to search for information on the World Wide Web. Information may consist of web pages, images and other types of files. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Google, a search engine owned by Google, Inc is the most used search engine on the web. ... The World Wide Web and WWW redirect here. ... A screenshot of a web page. ...


Some search engines also mine data available in newsgroups, databases, or open directories. Unlike Web directories, which are maintained by human editors, search engines operate algorithmically or are a mixture of algorithmic and human input. A web directory or link directory is a directory on the World Wide Web. ... A web directory is a directory on the World Wide Web that specializes in linking to other web sites and categorizing those links. ... Flowcharts are often used to represent algorithms. ...

Contents

History

Timeline
Note: "Launch" refers only to web
availability of original crawl-based
web search engine results.
Year Engine Event
1993 Aliweb Launch
1994 WebCrawler Launch
Infoseek Launch
Lycos Launch
1995 AltaVista Launch (part of DEC)
Excite Launch
SAPO Launch
1996 Dogpile Launch
Inktomi Founded
HotBot Founded
Ask Jeeves Founded
1997 Northern Light Launch
1998 Google Launch
1999 AlltheWeb Launch
Naver Launch
Teoma Founded
Vivisimo Founded
2000 Baidu Founded
2003 Info.com Launch
2004 Yahoo! Search Final launch
A9.com Launch
2005 MSN Search Final launch
Ask.com Launch
GoodSearch Launch
2006 wikiseek Founded
Quaero Founded
Ask.com Launch
Live Search Launch
ChaCha Beta Launch
Guruji.com Beta Launch
2007 wikiseek Launched
AskWiki Launched

The very first tool used for searching on the Internet was Archie.[1] The name stands for "archive" without the "v". It was created in 1990 by Alan Emtage, a student at McGill University in Montreal. The program downloaded the directory listings of all the files located on public anonymous FTP (File Transfer Protocol) sites, creating a searchable database of file names; however, Archie did not index the contents of these files. ALIWEB (Archie Like Indexing for the WEB) can be considered the first Web search engine, as its predecessors were either built with different purposes (the Wanderer) or were literally just indexers (Archie, Gopher, Veronica and Jughead). ... See WebCrawler for the specific search engine of that name. ... A known logo Infoseek was a very popular search engine founded in 1994 by Steve Kirsch, et. ... Lycos is an Internet search engine and web portal. ... The name AltaVista refers both to an Internet search engine company and to that company’s search engine product. ... Digital Equipment Corporation was a pioneering American company in the computer industry. ... Excite Excite is an Internet portal with an included search engine. ... SAPO (Portuguese for male frog), Servidor de Apontadores Portugueses, is a brand and subsidiary company of Portugal Telecom Group. ... Dogpiles main logo // Dogpile is a metasearch engine that fetches results from Google, Yahoo!, Windows Live Search (formerly MSN Search), Ask. ... Inktomi was a Californian company that provided software for Internet Service Providers, which was founded in 1996 by UC Berkeley professor Eric Brewer and graduate student Paul Gauthier. ... Hotbot Hotbot was one of the early Internet search engines and was launched in May 1996 as a service of Wired Magazine. ... ask. ... Northern Light Group, LLC is a company specializing in knowledge management for market research and custom enterprise search applications. ... Google, a search engine owned by Google, Inc is the most used search engine on the web. ... Screenshot of AlltheWeb AlltheWeb is a major search engine which debuted in mid-1999. ... For other uses, see Naver (disambiguation). ... Teoma. ... Vivísimo is a company built on unique Web search technology developed by Carnegie Mellon University researchers such as Clusty. ... For the Ilkhanate ruler, see Baydu. ... The Info. ... This article is about the search engine. ... Screenshot of the home page A9. ... MSN Searchs homepage viewed in Microsoft Internet Explorer 6. ... Ask. ... GoodSearch home page GoodSearch is a Yahoo-powered search engine that donates 50% of its revenue, about a penny per search, to the charities designated by its users. ... Wikiseek is a search engine that has indexed only some Wikipedia pages, plus some pages that are linked from Wikipedia articles. ... Quaero (Latin: I seek) is the name of a program of research and industrial innovation (translated from French) which has the goal of developing multimedia and multilingual indexing and management tools for professional and general public applications (such as search engines)[1]. This program is supported by the French Agency... Ask. ... It has been suggested that MSN Search be merged into this article or section. ... ChaCha is a search engine that pays human guides to answer questions for users. ... Guruji. ... Wikiseek is a search engine that has indexed only some Wikipedia pages, plus some pages that are linked from Wikipedia articles. ... AskWiki, developed in partnership between AskMeNow and the Wikimedia Foundation, is a preliminary integration of a semantic search engine that seeks to provide specific answers to questions using information from Wikipedia articles. ... Archie was the first search engine ever invented, designed to index FTP archives, allowing people to find specific files. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... McGill University is a public co-educational research university located in Montréal, Québec, Canada. ... This article is about the File Transfer Protocol standardised by the IETF. For other file transfer protocols, see File transfer protocol (disambiguation). ...


The rise of Gopher (created in 1991 by Mark McCahill at the University of Minnesota) led to two new search programs, Veronica and Jughead. Like Archie, they searched the file names and titles stored in Gopher index systems. Veronica (Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerized Archives) provided a keyword search of most Gopher menu titles in the entire Gopher listings. Jughead (Jonzy's Universal Gopher Hierarchy Excavation And Display) was a tool for obtaining menu information from specific Gopher servers. While the name of the search engine "Archie" was not a reference to the Archie comic book series, "Veronica" and "Jughead" are characters in the series, thus referencing their predecessor. Gopher is a distributed document search and retrieval network protocol designed for the Internet. ... Mark McCahill (born February 7, 1956) has been involved in developing and popularizing a number of Internet technologies since the late 1980s. ... This article is about the oldest and largest campus of the University of Minnesota. ... Veronica is a search engine system for the Gopher protocol, developed in 1992 by Steven Foster and Fred Barrie at the University of Nevada. ... Jughead is a search engine system for the Gopher protocol. ... Archie was the first search engine ever invented, designed to index FTP archives, allowing people to find specific files. ... Archie Comics is an American comic book publisher known for its many series featuring the fictional teenage Archie Andrews, Betty Cooper, Veronica Lodge, Reggie Mantle and Forsythe Jughead Jones characters created by Bob Montana. ... Veronica Ronnie Lodge (created April 1942) is an adolescent fictional character in the Archie Comics books series. ... Forsythe Pendleton Jughead Jones III is a fictional character in Archie Comics, first appearing in December 1941. ...


The first Web search engine was Wandex, a now-defunct index collected by the World Wide Web Wanderer, a web crawler developed by Matthew Gray at MIT in 1993. Another very early search engine, Aliweb, also appeared in 1993, and still runs today. JumpStation (released in early 1994) used a crawler to find web pages for searching, but search was limited to the title of web pages only. One of the first "full text" crawler-based search engines was WebCrawler, which came out in 1994. Unlike its predecessors, it let users search for any word in any webpage, which became the standard for all major search engines since. It was also the first one to be widely known by the public. Also in 1994 Lycos (which started at Carnegie Mellon University) was launched, and became a major commercial endeavor. Also referred to as just the Wanderer, this was a perl based web crawler that was first deployed in June, 1993 to measure the size of the World Wide Web. ... For the search engine of the same name, see WebCrawler. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... ALIWEB (Archie Like Indexing for the WEB) can be considered the first Web search engine, as its predecessors were either built with different purposes (the Wanderer) or were literally just indexers (Archie, Gopher, Veronica and Jughead). ... See WebCrawler for the specific search engine of that name. ... Lycos is an Internet search engine and web portal. ... Carnegie Mellon University is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ...


Soon after, many search engines appeared and vied for popularity. These included Excite, Infoseek, Inktomi, Northern Light, and AltaVista. Yahoo! was among the most popular ways for people to find web pages of interest, but its search function operated on its web directory, rather than full-text copies of web pages. Information seekers could also browse the directory instead of doing a keyword-based search. Excite Excite is an Internet portal with an included search engine. ... A known logo Infoseek was a very popular search engine founded in 1994 by Steve Kirsch, et. ... Inktomi was a Californian company that provided software for Internet Service Providers, which was founded in 1996 by UC Berkeley professor Eric Brewer and graduate student Paul Gauthier. ... Northern Light Group, LLC is a company specializing in knowledge management for market research and custom enterprise search applications. ... The name AltaVista refers both to an Internet search engine company and to that company’s search engine product. ... Yahoo redirects here. ... A web directory or link directory is a directory on the World Wide Web. ...


Search engines were also known as some of the brightest stars in the Internet investing frenzy that occurred in the late 1990s.[2] Several companies entered the market spectacularly, receiving record gains during their initial public offerings. Some have taken down their public search engine, and are marketing enterprise-only editions, such as Northern Light. Many search engine companies were caught up in the dot-com bubble, a speculation-driven market boom that peaked in 1999 and ended in 2001. IPO redirects here. ... The dot-com bubble was a speculative bubble covering roughly 1995–2001 during which stock markets in Western nations saw their value increase rapidly from growth in the new Internet sector and related fields. ...


Around 2000, the Google search engine rose to prominence.[citation needed] The company achieved better results for many searches with an innovation called PageRank. This iterative algorithm ranks web pages based on the number and PageRank of other web sites and pages that link there, on the premise that good or desirable pages are linked to more than others. Google also maintained a minimalist interface to its search engine. In contrast, many of its competitors embedded a search engine in a web portal. Google, a search engine owned by Google, Inc is the most used search engine on the web. ... Mathematical PageRanks (out of 100) for a simple network (PageRanks reported by google are rescaled logarithmically). ... For information regarding portals on Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Portal. ...


By 2000, Yahoo was providing search services based on Inktomi's search engine. Yahoo! acquired Inktomi in 2002, and Overture (which owned AlltheWeb and AltaVista) in 2003. Yahoo! switched to Google's search engine until 2004, when it launched its own search engine based on the combined technologies of its acquisitions. Inktomi was a Californian company that provided software for Internet Service Providers, which was founded in 1996 by UC Berkeley professor Eric Brewer and graduate student Paul Gauthier. ... Inktomi was a Californian company that provided software for Internet Service Providers, which was founded in 1996 by UC Berkeley professor Eric Brewer and graduate student Paul Gauthier. ... Overture (French ouverture, meaning opening) in music is the instrumental introduction to a dramatic, choral or, occasionally, instrumental composition. ... Screenshot of AlltheWeb AlltheWeb is a major search engine which debuted in mid-1999. ... The name AltaVista refers both to an Internet search engine company and to that company’s search engine product. ...


Microsoft first launched MSN Search (since re-branded Live Search) in the fall of 1998 using search results from Inktomi. In early 1999 the site began to display listings from Looksmart blended with results from Inktomi except for a short time in 1999 when results from AltaVista were used instead. In 2004, Microsoft began a transition to its own search technology, powered by its own web crawler (called msnbot). It has been suggested that MSN Search be merged into this article or section. ... Inktomi was a Californian company that provided software for Internet Service Providers, which was founded in 1996 by UC Berkeley professor Eric Brewer and graduate student Paul Gauthier. ... Looksmarts original site LookSmart owns an internet directory, Wisenut search engine, experimental Grub distributed web-crawling project, FindArticles premium content search and NetNanny desktop parental controls software. ... Inktomi was a Californian company that provided software for Internet Service Providers, which was founded in 1996 by UC Berkeley professor Eric Brewer and graduate student Paul Gauthier. ... The name AltaVista refers both to an Internet search engine company and to that company’s search engine product. ... For the search engine of the same name, see WebCrawler. ... msnbot is a web-crawling robot (type of internet bot), used by Microsoft to supply MSN Search. ...


As of late 2007, Google was by far the most popular Web search engine worldwide.[3] [4] A number of country-specific search engine companies have become prominent; for example Baidu is the most popular search engine in the People's Republic of China.[5] For the Ilkhanate ruler, see Baydu. ...


Current market share

Most popular search engines worldwide, Dec. 2007[6][not in citation given]
Company Millions of searches Relative market share
Google 28,454 46.47%
Yahoo! 10,505 17.16%
Baidu 8,428 13.76%
Microsoft 7,880 12.87%
NHN 2,882 4.71%
eBay 2,428 3.9%
Time Warner (includes AOL) 1,062 1.6%
Ask.com and related 728 1.1%
Yandex 566 0.9%
Alibaba.com 531 0.8%
Total 61,221 100.0%

This article is about the corporation. ... Yahoo redirects here. ... For the Ilkhanate ruler, see Baydu. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... NHN Corporation (KOSDAQ: 035420) is an Internet content service operator headquartered in Seoul, Korea and established in 1998. ... This article is about the online auction center. ... Time Warner Inc. ... For other uses, see AOL (disambiguation). ... Ask. ... The Yandex logo. ... Alibaba. ...

How Web search engines work

A search engine operates, in the following order Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

  1. Web crawling
  2. Indexing
  3. Searching

Web search engines work by storing information about many web pages, which they retrieve from the WWW itself. These pages are retrieved by a Web crawler (sometimes also known as a spider) — an automated Web browser which follows every link it sees. Exclusions can be made by the use of robots.txt. The contents of each page are then analyzed to determine how it should be indexed (for example, words are extracted from the titles, headings, or special fields called meta tags). Data about web pages are stored in an index database for use in later queries. Some search engines, such as Google, store all or part of the source page (referred to as a cache) as well as information about the web pages, whereas others, such as AltaVista, store every word of every page they find. This cached page always holds the actual search text since it is the one that was actually indexed, so it can be very useful when the content of the current page has been updated and the search terms are no longer in it. This problem might be considered to be a mild form of linkrot, and Google's handling of it increases usability by satisfying user expectations that the search terms will be on the returned webpage. This satisfies the principle of least astonishment since the user normally expects the search terms to be on the returned pages. Increased search relevance makes these cached pages very useful, even beyond the fact that they may contain data that may no longer be available elsewhere. See WebCrawler for the specific search engine of that name. ... Search engine indexing entails how data is collected, parsed, and stored to facilitate fast and accurate retrieval. ... A web search query is a query that a user enters into web search engine to satisfy his or her information needs. ... A screenshot of a web page. ... For the search engine of the same name, see WebCrawler. ... The robots exclusion standard or robots. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Meta tags are used to provide structured data about data. ... This article is about the corporation. ... Web caching is the caching of web documents (e. ... The name AltaVista refers both to an Internet search engine company and to that company’s search engine product. ... Link rot is the process by which links on a website gradually become more irrelevant or broken as time goes on, because the websites that are linked to disappear, change content or redirect to a new location. ... Usability is a term used to denote the ease with which people can employ a particular tool or other human-made object in order to achieve a particular goal. ... User expectations refers to the consistency that users expect from products. ... In user interface design, programming language design, and ergonomics, the principle (or rule or law) of least astonishment (or surprise) states that, when two elements of an interface conflict or are ambiguous, the behaviour should be that which will least surprise the human user or programmer at the time the...


When a user enters a query into a search engine (typically by using key words), the engine examines its index and provides a listing of best-matching web pages according to its criteria, usually with a short summary containing the document's title and sometimes parts of the text. Most search engines support the use of the boolean operators AND, OR and NOT to further specify the search query. Some search engines provide an advanced feature called proximity search which allows users to define the distance between keywords. A web search query is a query that a user enters into web search engine to satisfy his or her information needs. ... A keyword in an Internet search is one of the words used to find matching web pages. ... An inverted index is an index structure storing a mapping from words to their locations in a document or a set of documents, giving full text search. ... In mathematics and computer science, Boolean algebras, or Boolean lattices, are algebraic structures which capture the essence of the logical operations AND, OR and NOT as well as the corresponding set theoretic operations intersection, union and complement. ... A web search query is a query that a user enters into web search engine to satisfy his or her information needs. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The usefulness of a search engine depends on the relevance of the result set it gives back. While there may be millions of webpages that include a particular word or phrase, some pages may be more relevant, popular, or authoritative than others. Most search engines employ methods to rank the results to provide the "best" results first. How a search engine decides which pages are the best matches, and what order the results should be shown in, varies widely from one engine to another. The methods also change over time as Internet usage changes and new techniques evolve. In computer science, particularly searching, relevance is a score assigned to a search result, representing how well the result meets the information need of the user who issued the search query. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Most Web search engines are commercial ventures supported by advertising revenue and, as a result, some employ the controversial practice of allowing advertisers to pay money to have their listings ranked higher in search results. Those search engines which do not accept money for their search engine results make money by running search related ads alongside the regular search engine results. The search engines make money every time someone clicks on one of these ads. // Advert redirects here. ...


The vast majority of search engines are run by private companies using proprietary algorithms and closed databases, though some are open source.[citation needed] This is a list of search engines. ...


Geospatially-enabled Web search engines

A recent enhancement to search engine technology is the addition of geocoding and geoparsing to the processing of the ingested documents being indexed, to enable searching within a specified locality (or region). Geoparsing attempts to match any found references to locations and places to a geospatial frame of reference, such as a street address, gazetteer locations, or to an area (such as a polygonal boundary for a municipality).[citation needed] Through this geoparsing process, latitudes and longitudes are assigned to the found places, and these latitudes and longitudes are indexed for later spatial query and retrieval. This can enhance the search process tremendously by allowing a user to search for documents within a given map extent, or conversely, plot the location of documents matching a given keyword to analyze incidence and clustering, or any combination of the two. See the list of search engines for examples of companies which offer this feature. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... This is the article about web searching. ... This is the article about web searching. ... For other uses, see Geocoding (disambiguation). ... Geoparsing is the process of assigning geographic asses (e. ... A gazetteer is a geographical dictionary, an important reference for information about places and place-names (see: toponomy), used in conjunction with an atlas. ... A polygon (from the Greek poly, for many, and gonos, for angle) is a closed planar path composed of a finite number of sequential straight line segments. ... Latitude, denoted φ, gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the Equator. ... Map of Earth showing curved lines of longitude Longitude, sometimes denoted λ, describes the location of a place on Earth east or west of a north-south line called the Prime Meridian. ... A database index is a data structure that improves the speed of operations in a table. ... A geodatabase is a database designed to store, query, and manipulate geographic information and spatial data. ... In optics one considers angles of incidence. ... Clustering can refer to Computer clustering - (in Computer science) the connection of many low-cost computers using special hardware and software such that they can be used as one larger computer. ... This is a list of search engines. ...


Social Web search

Further information: Social search

Social search engines are a type of vertical search engine found on many websites[citation needed]. A social search engine is a type of search engine that determines the relevance of search results by considering the interactions or contributions of users. ... A social search engine is a type of search engine that determines the relevance of search results by considering the interactions or contributions of users. ... Vertical search - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


See also

This is a list of search engines. ... A meta-search engine is a search engine that sends user requests to several other search engines and/or databases and aggregates the results into a single list or displays them according to their source. ... Search Engine Marketing, or SEM, is a form of Internet Marketing that seeks to promote websites by increasing their visibility in the Search Engine results pages (SERPs) and has a proven ROI (Return on Investment). ... A typical search results page Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of improving the volume and quality of traffic to a web site from search engines via natural (organic or algorithmic) search results for targeted keywords. ... The use of search engine technology as the main integration component in an information system. ... Search engine indexing entails how data is collected, parsed, and stored to facilitate fast and accurate retrieval. ... Web indexing (or Internet indexing) includes back-of-book-style indexes to individual websites or an Intranet, and the creation of keyword metadata to provide a more useful vocabulary for Internet or onsite search engines. ... A web search query is a query that a user enters into web search engine to satisfy his or her information needs. ... W3Cs Semantic Web logo The Semantic Web is an evolving extension of the World Wide Web in which web content can be expressed not only in natural language, but also in a format that can be read and used by software agents, thus permitting them to find, share and... In computing terms, a spelling checker (also spell checker) is a software program designed to verify the spelling of words in a file, helping a user ensure his/her spelling is correct. ...

Notes

The footnotes below are given in support of the statements above. Because some facts are proprietary secrets held by private companies and therefore not documented in journals, such facts are reasoned from facts that are public.

  • GBMW: Reports of 30-day punishment, re: Car maker BMW had its German website bmw.de delisted from Google, such as: Slashdot-BMW (05-Feb-2006).
  • INSIZ: Maximum size of webpages indexed by MSN/Google/Yahoo! ("100-kb limit"): Max Page-size (28-Apr-2006).
  1. ^ "Internet History - Search Engines" (from Search Engine Watch), Universiteit Leiden, Netherlands, September 2001, web: LeidenU-Archie.
  2. ^ Gandal, Neil (2001). "The dynamics of competition in the internet search engine market". International Journal of Industrial Organization 19 (7): 1103-1117. doi:10.1016/S0167-7187(01)00065-0. 
  3. ^ Nielsen NetRatings: August 2007 Search Share Puts Google On Top, Microsoft Holding Gains, SearchEngineLand, September 21, 2007
  4. ^ comScore: August 2007 Google Top Worldwide Search Engine; Baidu Beats Microsoft
  5. ^ MSN Money - BIDU. MSN Money. Retrieved on 2006-05-11.
  6. ^ MEDIA ADVISORY: Baidu Ranked Third Largest Worldwide Search Property by comScore in December 2007

Search Engine Watch is a website providing many reviews and tips about internet search engines. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • For a more detailed history of early search engines, see Search Engine Birthdays (from Search Engine Watch), Chris Sherman, September 2003.
  • Steve Lawrence; C. Lee Giles (1999). "Accessibility of information on the web". Nature 400: 107. doi:10.1038/21987. 
  • Levene, Mark (2005). An Introduction to Search Engines and Web Navigation. Pearson. 
  • Hock, Randolph (2007). The Extreme Searcher's Handbook.  ISBN 978-0-910965-76-7
  • Javed Mostafa (February 2005). "Seeking Better Web Searches". Scientific American Magazine. 
  • Ross, Nancy; Wolfram, Dietmar (2000). "End user searching on the Internet: An analysis of term pair topics submitted to the Excite search engine". Journal of the American Society for Information Science 51 (10): 949-958. 
  • Xie, M.; et al. (1998). "Quality dimensions of Internet search engines". Journal of Information Science 24 (5): 365-372. doi:10.1177/016555159802400509. 

Search Engine Watch is a website providing many reviews and tips about internet search engines. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Spamdexing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1503 words)
Spamdexing or search engine spamming is the practice of deliberately creating web pages which will be indexed by search engines in order to increase the chance of a website or page being placed close to the beginning of search engine results, or to influence the category to which the page is assigned.
Search engine spammers, on the other hand, are generally aware that the content that they promote is not very useful or relevant to the ordinary internet surfer.
Since some search engines base the importance of sites by the number of different sites linking to them, referer-log spam may be used to increase the search engine rankings of the spammer's sites, by getting the referer logs of many sites to link to them.
Webopedia: How Web Search Engines Work (980 words)
Search engines are the key to finding specific information on the vast expanse of the World Wide Web.
When people use the term search engine in relation to the Web, they are usually referring to the actual search forms that searches through databases of HTML documents, initially gathered by a robot.
There are basically three types of search engines: Those that are powered by robots (called crawlers; ants or spiders) and those that are powered by human submissions; and those that are a hybrid of the two.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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