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Encyclopedia > Weather
Part of the Nature series on
Weather
 
Seasons

Spring · Summer
Autumn · Winter This article is about the physical universe. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... Spring is one of the four temperate seasons. ... For other uses, see Summer (disambiguation). ... This article is about the temperate season. ... For other uses, see Winter (disambiguation). ...

Dry season
Wet season The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A wet season or rainy season is a season in which the average rainfall in a region is significantly increased. ...

Storms

Thunderstorm · Tornado
Tropical cyclone (Hurricane)
Extratropical cyclone
Winter storm · Blizzard
Ice storm For other uses, see Storm (disambiguation). ... A shelf cloud associated with a heavy or severe thunderstorm over Enschede, The Netherlands. ... This article is about the weather phenomenon. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... A fictitious synoptic chart of an extratropical cyclone affecting the UK & Ireland. ... A typical view of a winter storm. ... This article is about the winter storm condition. ... Ice storm could refer to: A type of winter storm characterized by freezing rain. ...

Precipitation

Fog · Drizzle · Rain
Freezing rain · Ice pellets
Hail · Snow · Graupel For other uses, see Fog (disambiguation). ... Drizzle is fairly steady, light precipitation. ... This article is about precipitation. ... Freezing Rain is a type of precipitation that begins as snow at higher altitude, falling from a cloud towards earth, melts completely on its way down while passing through a layer of air above freezing temperature, and then encounters a layer below freezing at lower level to become supercooled. ... Sleet can refer to at least two different forms of precipitation. ... This article is about the precipitation. ... For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ... Graupel can be any of the following types of solid-ice precipitation: hail - large chunks of ice such as from a strong or severe thunderstorm sleet - small pellets of raindrops that have frozen in mid-air, in winter or a thunderstorm snow pellets - when freezing fog forms 2-5mm balls...

Topics

Meteorology
Weather forecasting
Climate · Air pollution This page has a list of meteorology topics. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Modern weather predictions aid in timely evacuations and potentially save lives and property damage Human beings have attempted to predict the weather since time immemorial. ... Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ...

Weather Portal
 v  d  e 

The weather is a set of all the phenomena in a given atmosphere at a given time. It also includes interactions with the hydrosphere. The term usually refers to the activity of these phenomena over short periods (hours or days), as opposed to the term climate, which refers to the average atmospheric conditions over longer periods of time. When used without qualification, "weather" is understood to be the weather of Earth. Weathering is the decomposition of rocks, soils and their minerals through direct contact with the Earths atmosphere. ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... For other uses, see Phenomena (disambiguation). ... Atmospheres redirects here. ... This article is about the concept of time. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ...


Weather most often results from temperature differences from one place to another. On large scales, temperature differences occur because areas closer to the equator receive more energy per unit area from the Sun than do regions closer to the poles. On local scales, temperature differences can occur because different surfaces (such as oceans, forests, ice sheets, or man-made objects) have differing physical characteristics such as reflectivity, roughness, or moisture content. World map showing the equator in red For other uses, see Equator (disambiguation). ... Sol redirects here. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... This article is about a community of trees. ... This article is about water ice. ... For other uses, see Albedo (disambiguation). ...


Surface temperature differences in turn cause pressure differences. A hot surface heats the air above it and the air expands, lowering the air pressure. The resulting horizontal pressure gradient accelerates the air from high to low pressure, creating wind, and Earth's rotation then causes curvature of the flow via the Coriolis effect. The simple systems thus formed can then display emergent behaviour to produce more complex systems and thus other weather phenomena. Large scale examples include the Hadley cell while a smaller scale example would be coastal breezes. For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any given point in the Earths atmosphere. ... Pressure Gradient is the change in pressure over a distance. ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... In the inertial frame of reference (upper part of the picture), the black object moves in a straight line. ... A termite cathedral mound produced by a termite colony: a classic example of emergence in nature. ... A pressure system is a region of the Earths atmosphere where air pressure is unusually high or low. ... Vertical velocity at 500 hPa, July average. ... For other uses, see Sea Breeze. ...


The strong temperature contrast between polar and tropical air gives rise to the jet stream. Most weather systems in the mid-latitudes are caused by instabilities of the jet stream flow (see baroclinity). Weather systems in the tropics are caused by different processes, such as monsoons or organized thunderstorm systems. For other uses, see jet stream (disambiguation). ... Density lines and isobars cross in a baroclinic fluid (top). ... For other uses, see Monsoon (disambiguation). ...


Because the Earth's axis is tilted relative to its orbital plane, sunlight is incident at different angles at different times of the year. In June the Northern Hemisphere is tilted towards the sun, so at any given Northern Hemisphere latitude sunlight falls more directly on that spot than in December (see Effect of sun angle on climate). This effect causes seasons. Over thousands to hundreds of thousands of years, changes in Earth's orbital parameters affect the amount and distribution of solar energy received by the Earth and influence long-term climate (see Milankovitch cycles). An animation showing the rotation of the Earth. ... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... Figure 1 This is a diagram of the seasons. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Milankovitch cycles are the collective effect of changes in the Earths movements upon its climate, named after Serbian civil engineer and mathematician Milutin Milanković. The eccentricity, axial tilt, and precession of the Earths orbit vary in several patterns, resulting in 100,000 year ice age cycles of the...

Contents

Terrestrial weather

Thunderstorm, Garajau, Madeira
Thunderstorm, Garajau, Madeira

On Earth, common weather phenomena include such things as wind, cloud, rain, snow, fog and dust storms. Less common events include natural disasters such as tornadoes, hurricanes and ice storms. Almost all familiar weather phenomena occur in the troposphere (the lower part of the atmosphere). Weather does occur in the stratosphere and can affect weather lower down in the troposphere, but the exact mechanisms are poorly understood.[1] A stratocumulus cloud belongs to a class characterized by large dark, rounded masses, usually in groups, lines, or waves, the individual elements being larger than those in altocumuli, and the whole being at a lower altitude, usually below 2,400 m (8,000 ft). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,280 × 960 pixels, file size: 139 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,280 × 960 pixels, file size: 139 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For other uses, see Madeira (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... A meteorological phenomenon is a weather event which can be explained by the principles of meteorology. ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cloud (disambiguation). ... This article is about precipitation. ... For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fog (disambiguation). ... “Sandstorm” redirects here. ... This article is about the natural disasters caused by natural hazards. ... This article is about the weather phenomenon. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... A typical view of a winter storm. ... Atmosphere diagram showing the mesosphere and other layers. ... This article is about the stratosphere layer; for the hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada, see Stratosphere Las Vegas. ...


The atmosphere is a chaotic system, so small changes to one part of the system can grow to have large effects on the system as a whole. This makes it difficult to accurately predict weather more than a few days in advance, though weather forecasters are continually working to extend this limit through the scientific study of weather, meteorology. It is theoretically impossible to make useful day-to-day predictions more than about two weeks ahead, imposing an upper limit to potential for improved prediction skill.[1] Chaos theory says that the slightest variation in the motion of the ground can grow with time. This idea is sometimes called the butterfly effect, from the idea that the motions caused by the flapping wings of a butterfly eventually could produce marked changes in the state of the atmosphere. Because of this sensitivity to small changes it will never be possible to make perfect forecasts, although there still is much potential for improvement. Air redirects here. ... For other uses, see Chaos Theory (disambiguation). ... Modern weather predictions aid in timely evacuations and potentially save lives and property damage Human beings have attempted to predict the weather since time immemorial. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Point attractors in 2D phase space. ...


The sun and oceans can also affect the weather of land. If the sun heats up ocean waters for a period of time, water can evaporate. Once evaporated into the air, the moisture can spread throughout nearby land, thus making it cooler. Sol redirects here. ... Ocean (Okeanos, a Greek god of sea and water; Greek ωκεανός) covers almost three quarters (71%) of the surface of the Earth. ...


Shaping the planet

Weather is one of the fundamental processes that shape the Earth. The process of weathering breaks down rocks and soils into smaller fragments and then into their constituent substances. These are then free to take part in chemical reactions that can affect the surface further (e.g., acid rain) or are reformed into other rocks and soils. Weather also plays a major role in erosion of the surface. Weathering is the decomposition of rocks, soils and their minerals through direct contact with the Earths atmosphere. ... The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ...


Human history

Badly flooded New Orleans, Louisiana after strong category three Hurricane Katrina.
Badly flooded New Orleans, Louisiana after strong category three Hurricane Katrina.

Weather has played a large and sometimes direct part in human history. Aside from climatic changes that have caused the gradual drift of populations (for example the desertification of the Middle East, and the formation of land bridges during glacial periods), extreme weather events have caused smaller scale population movements and intruded directly in historical events. One such event is the saving of Japan from invasion by the Mongol fleet of Kublai Khan by the Kamikaze winds in 1281. A series of great storms throughout the 13th century caused the powerful English Cinque Ports to be silted up and hence lose their influence. More recently, Hurricane Katrina forced the temporary abandonment of the entire city of New Orleans, Louisiana in 2005. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2878x1850, 4497 KB) Summary From [1], an aerial view from a United States Navy helicopter showing floodwaters around the much of the New Orleans Central Business District in New Orleans. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2878x1850, 4497 KB) Summary From [1], an aerial view from a United States Navy helicopter showing floodwaters around the much of the New Orleans Central Business District in New Orleans. ... For the history of Earth which includes the time before human existence, see History of Earth. ... For the labor union vitiation procedure, see NLRB election procedures#Decertification elections. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... NOAA scientists observe severe weather using a mobile doppler radar and a helicopter (in the distance) Severe weather phenomena are weather conditions that are hazardous. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... Kamikaze (神風 kamikaze) is a Japanese word, usually translated as divine wind, beleived to be a gift from the gods. ... Flag of the Cinque Ports Formally, in Kent and Sussex there are five Head Ports making up the Confederation of the Cinque Ports, often pronounced as the anglicised sink ports, and meaning five ports (cinque in French means five and ports is to be connected to the Italian word porto... This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ... NOLA redirects here. ...


Though weather affects people in drastic ways, it can also affect the human race in simpler ways. It has been noted that the human immune system is affected in extreme heat or cold. Mood can also be affected by weather. For other uses, see Race. ... A mood is a relatively lasting affective state. ...


Forecasting

An example of a two-day weather forecast in the visual style that an American newspaper might use. The numbers are temperature in degrees Fahrenheit, daytime high to the left and nighttime low to the right.
An example of a two-day weather forecast in the visual style that an American newspaper might use. The numbers are temperature in degrees Fahrenheit, daytime high to the left and nighttime low to the right.

Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the atmosphere at a future time. Prior to the advent of scientific methods of weather forecasting, a large body of weather folklore developed to explain the weather. An example is the Groundhog Day celebration near the end of winter in parts of the United States and Canada, which forecasts whether spring is near or far depending on if the groundhog sees his shadow or not. Today, weather forecasts are made by collecting data that describe the current state of the atmosphere (particularly the temperature, humidity and wind) and using physically-based mathematical models to determine how the atmosphere is expected to change in the future. The chaotic nature of the atmosphere means that perfect forecasts are impossible, and that forecasts become less accurate as the range of the forecast increases. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... When you create an image to communicate an idea, you are using visual language. ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Modern weather predictions aid in timely evacuations and potentially save lives and property damage Human beings have attempted to predict the weather since time immemorial. ... Cumulus humilis indicates a good day ahead. ... For the movie of the same name, see Groundhog Day (film) Groundhog Day or Groundhogs Day is a traditional holiday celebrated in the United States and Canada on February 2. ... An example of 500 mb geopotential height prediction from a numerical weather prediction model Numerical weather prediction is the science of predicting the weather using mathematical models of the atmosphere. ... For other uses, see Chaos Theory (disambiguation). ... Point attractors in 2D phase space. ...


Weather modification and human impact

The wish to control the weather is evident throughout human history: from ancient rituals intended to bring rain for crops to the U.S. Military Operation Popeye, an attempt to disrupt supply lines by lengthening the North Vietnamese monsoon. The most successful attempts at influencing weather involve cloud seeding; they include the fog- and low stratus dispersion techniques employed by major airports, techniques used to increase winter precipitation over mountains, and techniques to suppress hail.[2] A tornado in central Oklahoma. ... Operation Popeye (Operation Intermediary / Operation Compatriot) was a US military cloud seeding project (running from March 20, 1967 until July 5, 1972) during the Vietnam war to extend the monsoon season over North Vietnam, specifically the Ho Chi Minh Trail. ... Military supply chain management is a cross-functional approach to procuring, producing and delivering products and services. ... For other uses, see Monsoon (disambiguation). ... Cessna 210 with cloud seeding equipment Cloud seeding, a form of weather modification, is the attempt to change the amount or type of precipitation that falls from clouds, by dispersing substances into the air that serve as cloud condensation or ice nuclei. ... For other uses, see Fog (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Stratus. ... For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the precipitation. ...


Whereas there is inconclusive evidence for these techniques' efficacy, there is extensive evidence that human activity such as agriculture and industry results in inadvertent weather modification:[3]

The effects of inadvertent weather modification may pose serious threats to many aspects of civilization, including ecosystems, natural resources, food and fiber production, economic development, and human health.[5]. The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ... Automobile exhaust Exhaust gas is flue gas which occurs as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline/petrol, diesel, fuel oil or coal. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... // The term nitrogen oxide typically refers to any binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or to a mixture of such compounds: Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen(II) oxide Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen(IV) oxide Nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen (I) oxide Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3), nitrogen(II, IV) oxide Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4), nitrogen... Atmospheres redirects here. ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Old Executive Office Building, Washington D.C. Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, China In architecture, construction, engineering and real estate development the word building may refer to one of the following: Any man-made structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or continuous occupancy, or An... Look up anthropogenic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An air quality measurement station in Edinburgh, Scotland The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a standardized indicator of the air quality in a given location. ... In Meteorology, ability is a measure of the nothingness at which an object or light can be seen. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Trends in natural disasters, Pascal Peduzzi (2004) Is climate change increasing the frequency of hazardous events? Environment Times UNEP/GRID-Arendal Extreme weather includes weather phenomena that are at the extremes of the historical distribution, especially severe or unseasonal weather. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... Flooding near Key West, Florida, United States from Hurricane Wilmas storm surge in October 2005 For other uses, see Flood (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Storm (disambiguation). ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... Economic development is the development of economic wealth of countries or regions for the well-being of their inhabitants. ...


Extremes

Early morning sunshine over Bratislava, Slovakia.
Early morning sunshine over Bratislava, Slovakia.
The same area, just three hours later, after heavy snowfall.
The same area, just three hours later, after heavy snowfall.

On earth, temperatures usually range between ±40 °C. However, the wide range of climates and latitudes offer extremes of temperature well outside this range. The coldest air temperature ever recorded on Earth is -89.2 °C (-127.8 °F), at Vostok Station, Antarctica on 21 July 1983. The hottest air temperature ever recorded was 57.7 °C (135.9 °F), at Al 'Aziziyah, Libya, on 13 September 1922. The highest recorded average annual temperature was 34.4 °C (94 °F) at Dallol, Ethiopia. The coldest recorded average annual temperature is -50.6 °C (-59 °F) at Vostok Station, Antarctica. The coldest average annual temperature in a permanently inhabited location is at Resolute, Nunavut, in Canada.[citation needed] This is a list of weather records, a list of the most extreme occurrences of weather phenomena for various categories. ... , Nickname: Beauty on the Danube Country  Slovakia Region Districts Rivers Elevation 134 m (440 ft) Coordinates , Highest point Devínska Kobyla  - elevation 514 m (1,686 ft) Lowest point Danube River  - elevation 126 m (413 ft) Area 367. ... Lake Vostok composite image (NASA) Vostok Station (Russian: ) is a Russian (formerly Soviet) research station located near the South Geomagnetic Pole, at the center of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Al Aziziyah is one of the municipalities of Libya, located in the north of the country. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dallol is a settlement in northern Ethiopia. ... Lake Vostok composite image (NASA) Vostok Station (Russian: ) is a Russian (formerly Soviet) research station located near the South Geomagnetic Pole, at the center of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. ... Resolute (Qausuittuq) is a small town on Cornwallis Island in Nunavut, Canada, along the shore of Resolute Bay and the Northwest Passage. ...


Extra-terrestrial weather

Jupiter's Great Red Spot
Jupiter's Great Red Spot

Studying how the weather works on other planets has been seen as helpful in understanding how it works on Earth.[6] Weather on other planets follows many of the same physical principles as weather on Earth, but occurs on different scales and in atmospheres having different chemical composition. The Cassini–Huygens mission to Titan discovered clouds formed from methane or ethane which deposit rain composed of liquid methane and other organic compounds. Earth's atmosphere includes about six latitudinal circulation zones, three in each hemisphere (see Hadley cell). In contrast Jupiter's banded appearance shows over a dozen such zones, Titan has a single cell covering its entire surface, and Venus appears to have no zones at all. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (895x848, 52 KB) The Great Red Spot as seen from Voyager 1 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Voyager 1 ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (895x848, 52 KB) The Great Red Spot as seen from Voyager 1 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Voyager 1 ... Cassini–Huygens is a joint NASA/ESA/ASI unmanned space mission intended to study Saturn and its moons. ... Titan (, from Ancient Greek Τῑτάν) or Saturn VI is the largest moon of Saturn and the only moon known to have a dense atmosphere. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... Vertical velocity at 500 hPa, July average. ... For other uses, see Venus (disambiguation). ...


One of the most famous landmarks in the Solar System, Jupiter's Great Red Spot, is an anticyclonic storm known to have existed for at least 300 years. On other gas giants the lack of a surface allows the wind to reach enormous speeds: gusts of up to 400 metres per second (about 1440 km/h / 900 mi/h) have been measured on the planet Neptune. This has created a puzzle for planetary scientists. The weather is ultimately created by solar energy and the amount of energy received by Neptune is only about 1/900th of that received by Earth, yet the intensity of weather phenomena on Neptune is far greater than on Earth.[7] The strongest planetary winds discovered so far are on the extrasolar planet HD 189733 b, which is thought to have easterly winds moving at more than 9,600 kilometers per hour. This article is about the Solar System. ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ... A false-color image of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter from Voyager 1. ... In meteorology, an anticyclone (that is, opposite to a cyclone) is a weather phenomenon in which there is a descending movement of the air and a high pressure area over the part of the planets surface affected by it. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Neptune (disambiguation). ... Planetary science, also known as planetology or planetary astronomy, is the science of planets, or planetary systems, and the solar system. ... An extrasolar planet, or exoplanet, is a planet beyond the Solar System. ... HD 189733 b is a gas giant planet that is in very close orbit around the yellow dwarf star HD 189733 A. This planet was discovered in 2005 when astronomers observed the planet transiting across the face of the star. ...


Extra-planetary weather

Main article: Space weather

Weather is not limited to planetary bodies. A star's corona is constantly being lost to space, creating what is essentially a very thin atmosphere throughout the Solar System. The movement of mass ejected from the Sun is known as the solar wind. Image File history File links Polarlicht. ... Image File history File links Polarlicht. ... The Aurora Borealis, or Northern Lights, shines above Bear Lake Aurora Borealis as seen over Canada at 11,000m (36,000 feet) Red and green Aurora in Fairbanks, Alaska Aurora Borealis redirects here. ... Aurora australis observed by Discovery, May 1991. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... The plasma in the solar wind meeting the heliopause The solar wind is a stream of charged particles (i. ...


Inconsistencies in this wind and larger events on the surface of the star, such as coronal mass ejections, form a system that has features analogous to conventional weather systems (such as pressure and wind) and is generally known as space weather. The activity of this system can affect planetary atmospheres and occasionally surfaces. The interaction of the solar wind with the terrestrial atmosphere can produce spectacular aurorae, and can play havoc with electrically sensitive systems such as electricity grids and radio signals. A composite image showing two CMEs (at 2 oclock and 8 oclock), with the sun at center. ... Aurora australis observed by Discovery, May 1991. ... Atmosphere may refer to: a celestial body atmosphere, e. ... The Aurora Borealis, or Northern Lights, shines above Bear Lake Aurora Borealis as seen over Canada at 11,000m (36,000 feet) Red and green Aurora in Fairbanks, Alaska Aurora Borealis redirects here. ... Power line redirects here. ...


See also

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Atmospheric sciences [cat.]
Meteorology [cat.]
weather [cat.]
tropical cyclones [cat.]
Climatology [cat.]
climate [cat.]
climate change [cat.]

Portal Atmospheric Sciences
Portal Weather

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Atmospheric sciences is an umbrella term for the study of the atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... Climatology is the study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time,[1] and is a branch of the atmospheric sciences. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... For other uses, see Cloud (disambiguation). ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Aurora australis observed by Discovery, May 1991. ... Modern weather predictions aid in timely evacuations and potentially save lives and property damage Human beings have attempted to predict the weather since time immemorial. ... A technician examines a weather stations anemometer. ... A personal weather station is a set of weather measuring instruments operated by a private individual, club, association, or even business (where obtaining and distributing weather data is not a part of the entitys business operation). ...

References

This article is about the year. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Aerial view of Goddard Space Flight Center. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Space. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Ogimet - online data from meteorological stations of the world
  • Weather at About.com
  • Wunderground (Weather Underground) - online forecast and personal weather station network
  • RainRadar - Worldwide radar directory
This article is about the physical universe. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Geological time put in a diagram called a geological clock, showing the relative lengths of the eons of the Earths history. ... Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... Geological time scale. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Air redirects here. ... This article is about life in general. ... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ... For the definition, see Life. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... Simplified schematic of an islands flora - all its plant species, highlighted in boxes. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life of any particular region or time. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... The evolutionary history of life and the origin of life are fields of ongoing geological and biological research. ... For other uses, see Wilderness (disambiguation). ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ...

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