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Encyclopedia > Weapons of mass destruction
Weapons of mass destruction
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Radiological weapons Image File history File links WMD_world_map. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... A radiological weapon (or radiological dispersion device, RDD) is any weapon that is designed to spread radioactive material with the intent to kill, and cause disruption upon a city or nation. ...

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. Alternate cover Special Edition Cover Weapons of Mass Destruction is an album by rapper Xzibit, released December 14, 2004. ...


Weapon of mass destruction (WMD) are weapons which can kill large numbers of human beings, animals and plants. The term covers several weapon types, including nuclear, biological, chemical (NBC) and, increasingly, radiological weapons. There is controversy over when the term was first used, either in 1937 (in reference to the mass destruction of Guernica, Spain, by aerial bombardment) or in 1945 (with reference to nuclear weapons). Following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and progressing through the Cold War, the term came to refer more to non-conventional weapons. The phrase entered widespread usage in relation to the U.S.-led 2003 invasion of Iraq. Terms used in a military context include atomic, biological, and chemical warfare (ABC warfare), nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) after the invention of the hydrogen bomb, and chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN), recognizing the threat of subcritical radiological weapons. Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... The word Animals when used alone has several possible meanings in the English language. ... u fuck in ua ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ... A radiological weapon (or radiological dispersion device, RDD) is any weapon that is designed to spread radioactive material with the intent to kill, and cause disruption upon a city or nation. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The bombing of Guernica was an aerial attack on April 26, 1937, during the Spanish Civil War by planes of the German Luftwaffe Condor Legion and subordinate Italian Fascists from the Corpo Truppe Volontarie expeditionary force organized as Aviazione Legionaria. ... This article is about explosive devices. ... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... A conventional weapon is a weapon that does not incorporate chemical, biological or nuclear payloads. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Multinational Force Iraq. ... The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into weapons of mass destruction. ... This article is about nuclear technology. ...


Due to the indiscriminate impacts caused by WMD, the fear of WMD has shaped political policies and campaigns, fostered social movements, and has been the central theme of many films. Support for different levels of WMD development and control varies nationally and internationally. Yet understanding of the nature of the threats is not high, in part because of imprecise usage of the term by politicians and the media.

Contents

Historic use of the term WMD

Origin

The first reported usage of the term was by Rev. Cosmo Lang, Archbishop of Canterbury, part of his 1937 Christmas sermon broadcast on national radio. In an address titled "Christian Responsibility," Lang said:

"Who can think at this present time without a sickening of the heart of the appalling slaughter, the suffering, the manifold misery brought by war to Spain and to China? Who can think without horror of what another widespread war would mean, waged as it would be with all the new weapons of mass destruction?"[1]

At that time, there were no nuclear weapons; biological weapons were already being researched by Japan[2], (see Unit 731), and chemical weapons had seen wide use. Body disposal at Unit 731 Unit 731 was a covert biological warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) and World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried...


William Safire writes that the term probably originates from the Russian oruziye massovovo porazheniya. He credits James Goodby (of the Brookings Institution) with tracing what he considers the earliest known English-language use soon after the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (although it is not quite verbatim): a communique from a November 15, 1945 meeting of Harry Truman, Clement Attlee and Mackenzie King (probably drafted by Vannevar Bush — or so Bush claimed in 1970) referred to "weapons adaptable to mass destruction". That exact phrase, says Safire, was also used by Bernard Baruch in 1946 (in a speech at the United Nations probably written by Herbert Bayard Swope). [3] The same phrase found its way into the UN resolution to create the Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)), which used the wording "…atomic weapons and of all other weapons adaptable to mass destruction". William L. Safire (born December 17, 1929) is an American author, semi-retired columnist, and former journalist and presidential speechwriter. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... For the victim of Mt. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ... Not to be confused with William Lyon Mackenzie, Mackenzie Kings grandfather. ... Vannevar Bush (March 11, 1890 – June 30, 1974) was an American engineer and science administrator, known for his political role in the development of the atomic bomb, and the idea of the memex—seen as a pioneering concept for the World Wide Web. ... Image:Bernard Baruch. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Herbert Bayard Swope (1882 - 1958) was a U.S. editor and journalist. ... The United Nations Atomic Energy Commission (UNAEC) was founded in 1946. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ...


An exact use of this term was given in a lecture "Atomic Energy as a Contemporary Problem" by J. Robert Oppenheimer. The lecture was delivered to the Foreign Service and the State Department, on September 17th, 1947. The lecture is reprinted in "The Open Mind" (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1955). "It is a very far reaching control which would eliminate the rivalry between nations in this field, which would prevent the surreptitious arming of one nation against another, which would provide some cushion of time before atomic attack, and presumably therefore before any attack with weapons of mass destruction, and which would go a long way toward removing atomic energy at least as a source of conflict between the powers."


An early use of the exact phrase in an international treaty was in the Outer Space Treaty of 1967, however no definition was provided. This does not cite any references or sources. ... // The Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies also known as the Outer Space Treaty (the Treaty), was opened for signature in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union (the three...


The Cold War and the War against Terrorism

The term "WMD" had fallen out of use since the early Cold War era, when it was primarily a reference to nuclear weapons. At the time, the US stockpiles of thermonuclear weapons were regarded as a necessary deterrent against an all-out strike from the Soviet Union (see Mutual Assured Destruction). Hence the less dysphemistic military term strategic weapons fell into favor with US policy-makers who approved of, or at least condoned, the amassed American nuclear arsenal. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Mutual assured destruction (MAD) is a doctrine of military strategy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. ...


In 1990 and during the 1991 Gulf War, WMD was resurrected and used prolifically by The Clinton Administration, namely Madeleine Albright,[citation needed] by other western politicians and the media, despite having a fairly antique aura. They referred more specifically to the chemical weapons that were in Iraq under Hussein’s regime. "Weapons of mass destruction" replaced "strategic weapons" in the common American lexicon. After 9/11, it would be the anthrax attacks, and the multitude of hypothetical smallpox terrorist attack scenarios in the media that would shape the prevalent image of a weapon of mass destruction into a device of bioterrorism. This usage reached a crescendo with the 2002 Iraq disarmament crisis and the alleged existence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq that became the primary justification for the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Because of its prolific use, the American Dialect Society voted WMD the word of the year in 2002 [4], and in 2003 Lake Superior State University added WMD to its list of terms banished for "Mis-use, Over-use and General Uselessness"[5]. For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... President Clintons Cabinet, circa 1993 The Presidency of Bill Clinton, also known as the Clinton Administration, was the executive branch of the federal government of the United States from 1993 to 2001 while Bill Clinton served as President of the United States. ... Madeleine Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová, IPA: , on May 15, 1937) was the first woman to become United States Secretary of State. ... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... The 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States, also known as Amerithrax from its FBI case name, occurred over the course of several weeks beginning on September 18, 2001. ... For the use of biological agents in warfare, see Biological warfare. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The term Yellowcake Forgery refers to falsified classified documents initially uncovered by Italian intelligence which possibly depicted an attempt by Iraqs Saddam Hussein regime to purchase yellowcake uranium from the country of Niger, in defiance of United Nations sanctions. ... The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... According to its web site, the American Dialect Society, founded in 1889, is dedicated to the study of the English language in North America, and of other languages, or dialects of other languages, influencing it or influenced by it. ... According to its web site, the American Dialect Society, founded in 1889, is dedicated to the study of the English language in North America, and of other languages, or dialects of other languages, influencing it or influenced by it. ...


The most widely used definition is that of nuclear, biological or chemical weapons (NBC) although there is no treaty or customary international law that contains an authoritative definition. Instead, international law has been used with respect to the specific categories of weapons within WMD, and not to WMD as a whole. The acronym NBC is used with regards to battlefield protection systems for armored vehicles, because all 3 involve insidious toxins that can be carried through the air and can be protected against with vehicle air filtration systems. However, there is an argument that nuclear weapons do not belong in the same category as chemical, biological, or "dirty-bomb" radiological weapons, which have limited destructive potential (and close to none, as far as property is concerned), whereas nuclear weapons are immensely destructive and could be said to belong in a class by themselves. This does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


The NBC definition has also been used in official US documents, by the US President [6] [7] the US Central Intelligence Agency [8], the US Department of Defense[9] [10], and the US General Accounting Office [11]. Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... General Accounting Office headquarters, Washington, D.C. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is the non-partisan audit, evaluation, and investigative arm of Congress, and an agency in the Legislative Branch of the United States Government. ...


Other documents expand the definition of WMD to include radiological or conventional weapons. The US military refers to WMD as: A conventional weapon is a weapon that does not incorporate chemical, biological or nuclear payloads. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ...

Weapons that are capable of a high order of destruction and/or of being used in such a manner as to destroy large numbers of people. Weapons of mass destruction can be high explosives or nuclear, biological, chemical, and radiological weapons, but exclude the means of transporting or propelling the weapon where such means is a separable and divisible part of the weapon.[12]

The significance of the words separable and divisible part of the weapon is that missiles such as the Pershing II and the SCUD are considered weapons of mass destruction, while aircraft capable of carrying bombloads are not.


While in US civil defense, the category is now Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive (CBRNE), which defines WMD as: The old United States civil defense logo. ...

(1) Any explosive, incendiary, poison gas, bomb, grenade, or rocket having a propellant charge of more than four ounces [113 g], missile having an explosive or incendiary charge of more than one-quarter ounce [7 g], or mine or device similar to the above. (2) Poison gas. (3) Any weapon involving a disease organism. (4) Any weapon that is designed to release radiation at a level dangerous to human life. This definition derives from US law, 18 U.S.C. Section 2332a and the referenced 18 USC 921. Indictments and convictions for possession and use of WMD such as truck bombs, pipe bombs, shoe bombs, cactus needles coated with botulin toxin, etc. have been obtained under 18 USC 2332a.

The US FBI also considers conventional weapons (i.e. bombs) as WMD: "A weapon crosses the WMD threshold when the consequences of its release overwhelm local responders". Gustavo Bell Lemus, the Vice President of Colombia, at the 2001 United Nations Conference on the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects, quoted the Millennium Report of the UN Secretary-General to the General Assembly, in which Kofi Annan said that small arms could be described as WMD because the fatalities they cause "dwarf that of all other weapons systems - and in most years greatly exceed the toll of the atomic bombs that devastated Hiroshima and Nagasaki"[13]. This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... hey hey you no i rock at soccer cuz no i made the school team!! yay me aka katelyn ♥ Incendiary devices or incendiary bombs are bombs designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using materials such as napalm, thermite, chlorine trifluoride, or white phosphorus. ... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ... Grenade may refer to: The well-known hand grenade commonly used by soldiers. ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ... A propellant is a material that is used to move an object by applying a motive force. ... For other uses, see Missile (disambiguation). ... “Minefield” redirects here. ... The radiation warning symbol (trefoil). ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... Nagasaki ) ( ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ...


Chemical weapons expert Gert G. Harigel considers only nuclear weapons true weapons of mass destruction, because "only nuclear weapons are completely indiscriminate by their explosive power, heat radiation and radioactivity, and only they should therefore be called a weapon of mass destruction". He prefers to call chemical and biological weapons "weapons of terror" when aimed against civilians and "weapons of intimidation" for soldiers. Testimony of one such soldier expresses the same viewpoint[14]. For a period of several months in the winter of 2002-2003, US Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz frequently used the term "weapons of mass terror," apparently also recognizing the distinction between the psychological and the physical effects of many things currently falling into the WMD category.


An additional condition often implicitly applied to WMD is that the use of the weapons must be strategic. In other words, they would be designed to "have consequences far outweighing the size and effectiveness of the weapons themselves" [15]. The strategic nature of WMD also defines their function in the military doctrine of total war as targeting the means a country would use to support and supply its war effort, specifically its population, industry, and natural resources. Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ...


The Washington Post reported on 3/30/2006: "Jurors asked the judge in the death penalty trial of Zacarias Moussaoui today to define the term "weapons of mass destruction" and were told it includes airplanes used as missiles". Moussaoui was indicted and tried for the use of airplanes as WMD under 18 USC 2332a (see above).


WMD use and control

See also: Arms control

The development and use of WMD is governed by international conventions and treaties, although not all countries have signed and ratified them: Arms control is an umbrella term for restrictions upon the development, production, stockpiling, proliferation, and usage of weapons, especially weapons of mass destruction. ... It has been suggested that Protocol (treaty) be merged into this article or section. ...

In 1996 the International Court of Justice provided an advisory opinion regarding the use and threat of use of nuclear weapons. The statement is an authoritative legal pronouncement but not legally binding. It stated that any threat of the use of force, or the use of force, by means of nuclear weapons that is contrary to Article 2, paragraph 4 of the United Nations Charter or that fails to meet all the requirements of Article 51 would be unlawful. The Treaty Banning poop, in Outer Space, and Under Water, often abbreviated as the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT), Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), or Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (NTBT), although the former also refers to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), is a treaty intended to obtain an agreement... // The Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies also known as the Outer Space Treaty (the Treaty), was opened for signature in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union (the three... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... The Seabed Arms Control Treaty (or Seabed Treaty) is a multilateral agreement between the United States, Soviet Union, United Kingdom, and 84 other countries banning the emplacement of nuclear weapons or weapons of mass destruction on the ocean floor beyond a 12-mile (22. ... Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Opened for signature September 10, 1996[1] in New York Entered into force Not yet in force Conditions for entry into force The treaty will enter into force 180 days after it is ratified by all of the following 44 (Annex 2) countries: Algeria, Argentina... The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (usually referred to as just Biological Weapons Convention, abbreviation: BWC) was the first multilateral disarmament treaty banning the production of an entire category of weapons (with exceptions for medical... Chemical Weapons Convention Opened for signature January 13, 1993 in Paris Entered into force April 29, 1997 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by 50 states and the convening of a Preparatory Commission Parties 181 (as of Oct. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... The Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice of 8 July 1996 provides one of the few authoritative judicial decisions concerning the legality under international law of the use (or the threatened use) of nuclear weapons. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Adopted by the UN Security Council on April 28, 2004, UN Resolution 1540 recognizes the threat posed to international peace and security by nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, as well as their means of delivery. It calls upon greater effort by nations to limit proliferation of such weapons. A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Weapons of mass destruction, especially nuclear weapons, are rarely used because their use is essentially an "invitation" for a WMD retaliation, which in turn could escalate into a war so destructive it could easily destroy huge segments of the world's population. During the Cold War, this understanding became known as mutually assured destruction and was largely the reason war never broke out between the WMD-armed United States and Soviet Union. Mutually assured destruction (MAD) is the doctrine of military strategy in which a full scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. ...


WMD use, possession and access

Nuclear weapons

The only country to have used a nuclear weapon in war is the United States. There are eight countries that have declared they possess nuclear weapons and are known to have tested a nuclear weapon, only five of which are members of the NPT. The eight include: People's Republic of China; France; India; Pakistan; Russia; the United Kingdom; the United States of America; and North Korea. Israel is considered by most analysts to have nuclear weapons numbering in the low hundreds as well, but maintains an official policy of nuclear ambiguity, neither denying nor confirming its nuclear status. Iran is suspected by western countries of seeking nuclear weapons, a claim that it denies. South Africa developed a small nuclear arsenal in the 1980s but disassembled them in the early 1990s, making it the only country to have fully given up an independently developed nuclear weapons arsenal. Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine inherited stockpiles of nuclear arms following the break-up of the Soviet Union, but relinquished them to the Russian Federation. Countries with access to nuclear weapons through nuclear sharing agreements include: Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Turkey. North Korea has claimed to have developed and tested nuclear devices; although outside sources have been unable to unequivocally support the state's claims, North Korea has officially been identified to have nuclear weapons. Image File history File links US_nuclear_warheads_1945-2002_graph. ... Image File history File links US_nuclear_warheads_1945-2002_graph. ... The United States was the first country in the world to successfully develop nuclear weapons, and is the only country to have used them in war against another nation. ... This is a list of countries with nuclear weapons. ... Nuclear sharing is a concept in NATOs policy of nuclear deterrence, which involves member countries without nuclear weapons of their own in the planning for the use of nuclear weapons by NATO, and in particular provides for the armed forces of these countries to be involved in delivering these...


United States politics

Fear of WMD, or of threats diminished by the possession of WMD, has long been used to catalyse public support for various WMD policies. They include mobilization of pro- and anti-WMD campaigners alike, and generation of popular political support. The term WMD may be used as a powerful buzzword[16], or to generate a culture of fear.[17]. It is also used ambiguously, particularly by not distinguishing among the different types of WMD.[18] Culture of fear is a term proposed in a variety of sociological theses, which argue that feelings of fear and anxiety predominate in contemporary public discourse and relationships, changing how we relate to one another as individuals and as democratic agents. ...


A television commercial called Daisy, promoting Democrat Lyndon Johnson's 1964 presidential candidacy, invoked the fear of a nuclear war and was an element in Johnson's subsequent election. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Daisy, sometimes known as Daisy Girl, or Peace Little Girl is perhaps the most famous campaign commercial of all time. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


More recently, the threat of potential WMD in Iraq was used by George W. Bush to generate public support for the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[19][20][21] Broad reference to Iraqi WMD in general was seen as an element of Bush's arguments.[22] As Paul Wolfowitz explained: "For bureaucratic reasons, we settled on one issue, weapons of mass destruction, because it was the one reason everyone could agree on."[23] To date, however, Coalition forces have found only trace amounts of chemical weaponry, consisting mainly of degraded artillery shells. On June 21, 2006, United States Senator Rick Santorum claimed that "We have found weapons of mass destruction in Iraq, chemical weapons." According to the Washington Post, he was referring to 500 such shells "that had been buried near the Iranian border, and then long forgotten, by Iraqi troops during their eight-year war with Iran, which ended in 1988." That night, "intelligence officials reaffirmed that the shells were old and were not the suspected weapons of mass destruction sought in Iraq after the 2003 invasion." The shells had been uncovered and reported on in 2004.[24] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Multinational Force Iraq. ... “Santorum” redirects here. ...


Media coverage of WMD

In 2004 the Center for International and Security Studies at Maryland (CISSM) released a report[25] examining the media’s coverage of WMD issues during three separate periods: India’s nuclear weapons tests in May 1998; the US announcement of evidence of a North Korean nuclear weapons program in October 2002; and revelations about Iran's nuclear program in May 2003. The CISSM report notes that poor coverage resulted less from political bias among the media than from tired journalistic conventions. The report’s major findings were that: Motto Satyameva Jayate (Sanskrit)  (Devanagari) Truth Alone Triumphs[1] Anthem Jana Gana Mana National Song[2] Vande Mataram Capital New Delhi Largest city Mumbai Official languages Union:3 Hindi and English States and others:4 Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... North Korea claims to possess nuclear weapons, and the CIA asserts that it has a substantial arsenal of chemical weapons. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... This article is about Irans civilian nuclear program. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

  1. Most media outlets represented WMD as a monolithic menace, failing to adequately distinguish between weapons programs and actual weapons or to address the real differences among chemical, biological, nuclear, and radiological weapons.
  2. Most journalists accepted the Bush administration’s formulation of the “War on Terror” as a campaign against WMD, in contrast to coverage during the Clinton era, when many journalists made careful distinctions between acts of terrorism and the acquisition and use of WMD.
  3. Many stories stenographically reported the incumbent administration’s perspective on WMD, giving too little critical examination of the way officials framed the events, issues, threats, and policy options.
  4. Too few stories proffered alternative perspectives to official line, a problem exacerbated by the journalistic prioritizing of breaking-news stories and the “inverted pyramid” style of storytelling.

In a separate study published in 2005[26], a group of researchers assessed the effects reports and retractions in the media had on people’s memory regarding the search for WMD in Iraq during the 2003 Iraq War. The study focused on populations in two coalition countries (Australia and USA) and one opposed to the war (Germany). Results showed that US citizens generally did not correct initial misconceptions regarding WMD, even following disconfirmation; Australian and German citizens were more responsive to retractions. Dependence on the initial source of information led to a substantial minority of Americans exhibiting false memory that WMD were indeed discovered, while they were not. This led to three conclusions: George W. Bush with Vice President Dick Cheney addressing the media at the U.S. State Department after a series of meetings discussing Americas foreign policy, August 14, 2006. ... This article is about U.S. actions, and those of other states, after September 11, 2001. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Journalism is a discipline of gathering, writing and reporting news, and more broadly it includes the process of editing and presenting the news articles. ... The inverted pyramid is a graphical metaphor that is most often used to illustrate how information should be arranged or presented within a text, in particular within a news story. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... Iraq and weapons of mass destruction concerns the Iraqi governments use, possession, and alleged intention of acquiring more types of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) during the presidency of Saddam Hussein. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with multinational force in Iraq. ... A false memory is a memory of an event that did not happen or is a distortion of an event, as determined by externally corroborated facts of the event. ...

  1. The repetition of tentative news stories, even if they are subsequently disconfirmed, can assist in the creation of false memories in a substantial proportion of people.
  2. Once information is published, its subsequent correction does not alter people's beliefs unless they are suspicious about the motives underlying the events the news stories are about.
  3. When people ignore corrections, they do so irrespective of how certain they are that the corrections occurred.

A poll conducted between June and September of 2003 asked people whether they thought WMD had been discovered in Iraq since the war ended. They were also asked which media sources they relied upon. Those who obtained their news primarily from Fox News were three times as likely to believe that evidence confirming WMD had been discovered in Iraq than those who relied on PBS and NPR for their news, and one third more likely than those who primarily watched CBS.

Media source Respondents believing evidence of WMD had been found in Iraq since the war ended
Fox 33%
CBS 23%
NBC 20%
CNN 20%
ABC 19%
Print media 17%
PBS-NPR 11%

Based on a series of polls taken from June-September 2003[27]. Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... This article is about the broadcast network. ... This article is about the television network. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) operates television and radio networks in the United States and is also shown on basic cable in Canada. ... Print media includes newspapers, magazines, and the like. ... “PBS” redirects here. ... “NPR” redirects here. ...


In 2005 the Washington Post reported that US troops had raided a suspected chemical weapons factory [28]. In 2006 Fox News reported the claims of two Republican lawmakers that WMDs had been found in Iraq[29], based upon unclassified portions of a report by the National Ground Intelligence Center. Quoting from the report Senator Rick Santorum said "Since 2003, coalition forces have recovered approximately 500 weapons munitions which contain degraded mustard or sarin nerve agent". Many news agencies, including Fox News, reported the conclusions of the CIA that, based upon the investigation of the Iraq Survey Group, WMDs had been found in Iraq[30][31]. The National Ground Intelligence Center is part of the U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command. ... “Santorum” redirects here. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... The Iraq Survey Group (ISG) was a fact-finding mission sent by the multinational force in Iraq after the 2003 Invasion of Iraq to find weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programs developed by Iraq under the regime of former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein. ...


Public perceptions of WMD

Awareness and opinions of WMD have varied during the course of their history. Their threat is a source of unease, security and pride to different people. The anti-WMD movement is embodied most in nuclear disarmament, and led to the formation of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament logo In British politics, the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament has been at the forefront of the peace movement in the United Kingdom and claims to be Europes largest single-issue peace campaign. ...


In 1998 University of New Mexico's Institute for Public Policy released their third report[32] on US perceptions - including the general public, politicians and scientists - of nuclear weapons since the break up of the Soviet Union. Risks of nuclear conflict (particularly with China), proliferation, and terrorism were seen as substantial. While maintenance of a nuclear US arsenal was considered above average in importance, there was widespread support for a reduction in the stockpile, and very little support for developing and testing new nuclear weapons.


Also in 1998, but after the UNM survey was conducted, nuclear weapons became an issue in India's election of March[33], in relation to political tensions with neighboring Pakistan. Prior to the election the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) announced it would “declare India a nuclear weapon state” after coming to power. BJP won the elections, and on May 14, three days after India tested nuclear weapons for the second time, a public opinion poll reported that a majority of Indians favored the country’s nuclear build-up.


On April 15, 2004, the Program on International Policy Attitudes (PIPA) reported[34] that US citizens showed high levels of concern regarding WMD, and that preventing the spread of nuclear weapons should be a very important US foreign policy goal, accomplished through multilateral arms control rather than the use of military threats. A majority also believed the US should be more forthcoming with its biological research and its NPT commitment of nuclear arms reduction, and incorrectly thought the US was a party to various non-proliferation treaties. The Program on International Policy Attitudes (PIPA) is an institution devoted to research on the public opinion of international politics. ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... Multilateralism is an international relations term that refers to multiple countries working in concert. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ...


A Russian opinion poll conducted on August 5, 2005 indicated half the population believes new nuclear powers (including DPRK) have the right to possess nuclear weapons[35]. 39% believes the Russian stockpile should be reduced, though not fully eliminated.


WMDs in the media

Weapons of mass destruction and their related impacts have been a mainstay for popular culture since the beginning of the Cold War, as both political commentary and humorous outlet.


Nuclear weapons have been a central theme of movies since The Day the Earth Stood Still (1951); two of the most famous are Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb (1964) and Fail-Safe (1964). Biological weapons have also featured, as in Twelve Monkeys (1995). Several James Bond films involve a madman in the earlier films most notably Ernst Stavro Blofeld of the fictional terrorist organization S.P.E.C.T.R.E. intending to use either nuclear or biological weapons against the world in the quest for world domination. This has been parodied in the Austin Powers series with Dr. Evil. In the film Team America North Korea and the terrorists have Weapons of Mass Destruction (Called WMDs). The Day the Earth Stood Still is a 1951 black-and-white science fiction film that tells the story of a humanoid alien who comes to Earth to warn its leaders not to take their conflicts into space, or they will face devastating consequences. ... For the hit 1987 single by Depeche Mode, see the album Music for the Masses Film poster for Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb is a 1964 satirical film directed by Stanley Kubrick. ... Fail-Safe is a 1964 film directed by Sidney Lumet, based on the 1962 novel by Eugene Burdick and Harvey Wheeler. ... Twelve Monkeys is a 1995 science fiction film written by David and Janet Peoples and directed by Terry Gilliam. ... “007” redirects here. ... Ernst Stavro Blofeld is a fictional character from the James Bond universe. ... S.P.E.C.T.R.E.s leader, Ernst Stavro Blofeld The SPecial Executive for Counter-intelligence, Terrorism, Revenge and Extortion (S.P.E.C.T.R.E.) is a fictional terrorist organization led by Ernst Stavro Blofeld. ... Alexander the Great Philip II of Spain Napoleon Bonaparte For other uses, see World domination (disambiguation). ... The Austin Powers series is a series of comedy films from 1997 to present that is written and produced by and starred Mike Myers as the title character, directed by Jay Roach and distributed by New Line Cinema. ... Dr. Evil is a fictional supervillain played by Mike Myers in the Austin Powers film series. ... Team America has several meanings: Team America: World Police is a 2004 movie created by Trey Parker and Matt Stone. ...


The science fiction novel Dune discusses atomic weapons, and Dune Messiah employs one called a Stone Burner. In the Star Wars universe, the Death Star is a moveable, multi-use WMD (meaning that it, unlike most WMD missiles, can be used thousands of times.) Dune is a science fiction novel written by Frank Herbert and published in 1965. ... Dune Messiah is a science fiction novel by Frank Herbert, the second in a series of six novels. ... A stone burner is an atomic weapon or fusion bomb in the Dune fictional universe, the explosion and radiation of which could be precisely adjusted. ... This article is about the series. ... The Death Star is a fictional planet-destroying superweapon as well as an enormous mobile military garrison in the Star Wars universe. ...


In the Babylon 5 universe, WMDs have been used a number of times, most directly by the Earth Alliance (Earth-Minbari War, Nuclear), the Army of Light (the Shadow War, Nuclear), the Centauri (Narn-Centauri War, Planetary Bombardment with asteroids by mass drivers), as well as on their own planet on the Isle of Selini to rid themselves of the Shadows (Nuclear), and the Drakh (Biological Warfare against Earth). Babylon 5 is an epic American science fiction television series created, produced, and largely written by J. Michael Straczynski. ... The Earth-Minbari War is a fictional war that formed a major part of the back story of the science fiction television series, Babylon 5. ... The Shadow Wars refer to the great wars involving the Shadows in the television science fiction series Babylon 5. ... A mass driver for lunar launch (artists conception) A mass driver or electromagnetic catapult is a method of spacecraft propulsion that would use a linear motor to accelerate payloads up to high speeds. ... The Drakh are a race from the fictional Babylon 5 universe. ...


The 2005 series of Doctor Who contained a double episode about an alien invasion in London, which is a commentary about the rhetoric surrounding the Iraq war. In one scene, when discussing whether an attack on the aliens' space craft was warranted, politicians claimed it was necessary because the aliens had "massive weapons of destruction" which could be deployed "within forty-five seconds" — a stab esp. at Blair who had claimed that Iraq possessed Weapons of Mass Destruction that could be deployed within 45 minutes. Author Hugh Cook's 1992 fantasy novel The Witchlord and the Weaponmaster satirically mentioned that the avalanche, is a terrible weapon of mass destruction, outlawed by civilised countries in the conduct of war. For other uses, see Doctor Who (disambiguation). ... Hugh Cook (b. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... A Himalayan avalanche near Mount Everest. ...


During Season 4, Episode 1 (09/03/1997 Stardate: 51003.7) of Star Trek: Voyager, Captain Janeway (Kate Mulgrew) consults with Borg representative Seven of Nine (Jeri Ryan) on how to destroy Species 8472. Janeway calls Seven of Nine's "multikinetic neutronic mine. Five million isoton yield" a "Weapon of Mass Destruction." Following up on a statement from Tuvok (Tim Russ) that it would affect the entire Solar System destroying innocent worlds, Seven of Nine replies, "It would be efficient." The starship Voyager (NCC-74656), an Intrepid-class starship. ... Kathryn Janeway (Born: May 20, 2332 in Bloomington, Indiana), played by Kate Mulgrew, is a Starfleet officer in the fictional Star Trek universe. ... Kate Mulgrew (born April 29, 1955) is a Golden Globe-nominated American actor, most famous for her roles as Mary Ryan on Ryans Hope and Captain Kathryn Janeway on Star Trek: Voyager. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Species 8472 (a designation given by the Borg) are a fictional race in the science fiction television series Star Trek: Voyager, Species 8472 is an advanced race that inhabits the realm of fluidic space. ... Lieutenant Commander Tuvok, played by Tim Russ, is a character on the television series Star Trek: Voyager. ... Timothy Darrell Russ (born on June 22, 1956 in Washington, DC) is an American actor, film director, screenwriter, and musician. ...


In 2005, the Paranoia RPG published a collection of new Straight-style missions under the title "WMD". Each mission revolved around a central plot device with the initials WMD. At least one of the missions involved an actual device that might have been a WMD; but, in general they simply focussed on situations rife with a sense of stress, uncertainty and fear. Paranoia is a humorous role playing game set in a dystopian future similar to 1984, Brazil and Brave New World. ...


In the Nextwave comic book the Beyond Corporation© is testing out "Unusual Weapons of Mass Destruction" within the US. The first such weapon is Fin Fang Foom. This is all documented in the Beyond Corporation©'s marketing plan. Nextwave is a comic book series published by Marvel Comics, that debuted in 2006 and was cancelled after issue #12,[1] which was published in February 2007. ... The Beyond Corporation© is a fictional multinational corporation that appears in the comic books published by Marvel Comics. ... Fin Fang Foom is a fictional character and an alien dragon that appears in the Marvel Universe. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Weapons of Mass Destruction is also the title of an album released by the rapper Xzibit in 2004. Also in 2004, Faithless released the album No Roots, containing the single "Mass Destruction", whose lyrics describe negative traits such as 'fear', 'racism', 'greed' and 'inaction' as 'weapons of mass destruction'[36]. Alternate cover Special Edition Cover Weapons of Mass Destruction is an album by rapper Xzibit, released December 14, 2004. ... Rapping is one of the elements of hip hop and the distinguishing feature of hip hop music; it is a form of rhyming lyrics spoken rhythmically over musical instruments, with a musical backdrop of sampling, scratching and mixing by DJs. ... Alvin Nathaniel Joiner (born September 18, 1974), better known by his stage name Xzibit, is an American rapper, actor, and television personality, who was born in Detroit, Michigan and was raised in Albuquerque, New Mexico by his father and stepmother. ... Faithless are a British band whose music is described by the band as a cross between hip-hop and dance. ... No Roots is a music album by Faithless, released in 2004. ...


Xzibit recently called a car featured on Pimp My Ride a WMD. Pimp My Ride is a TV show produced by MTV. Each episode consists of taking one car in poor condition and restoring it, as well as customizing it. ...


During the 2003 Iraq War, a parody[37] based on Internet Explorer's "404 Not Found" message was created, poking fun at the state of international affairs, and for a time was the #1 hit for the Google search "weapons of mass destruction". Similarly, at the annual Radio and Television Correspondents Dinner, February 24, 2004, George W. Bush joked about being unable to find WMD in Iraq, saying "Those weapons of mass destruction must be somewhere", while showing images of himself looking around the White House for something[38] [39]. Windows Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer, abbreviated MSIE), commonly abbreviated to IE, is a series of proprietary graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included as part of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems starting in 1995. ... Mozilla Firefox displaying an Apache HTTP Server 404 error page. ... A Google bomb (also referred to as a link bomb) is Internet slang for a certain kind of attempt to influence the ranking of a given page in results returned by the Google search engine, often with humorous or political intentions. ... This article is about the corporation. ...


In 2003 an easyJet advertising campaign attracted controversy with a billboard ad featuring a woman's breasts with the phrase "discover weapons of mass distraction". easyJet (LSE: EZJ) is a low cost airline officially known as easyJet Airline Company Limited, based at London Luton Airport. ...


In The Simpsons "Treehouse of Horror XVII", aliens Kang and Kodos, spoofing the Iraq War, claim that they had to invade, as Earth was working on "Weapons of Mass Disintegration". In fact, a cut line "This isn't any different from what Iraq's going to be." proves this fact.[citation needed] Simpsons redirects here. ... Treehouse of Horror XVII is, as the name indicates, the seventeenth Treehouse of Horror episode of The Simpsons. ...


The hit TV show 24 typically features a different WMD weapon in each season. The second, fourth and sixth seasons feature nuclear weapons. The third features a weaponized virus, the fifth, VX nerve gas, a chemical weapon of mass destruction. For other uses, see 24 (disambiguation). ...


In the episode Rekognize (List of Da Ali G Show (US) episodes) of Da Ali G Show, Ali mistakenly refers to them as "BLTs", going so far as to ask if there was mustard gas in the BLTs. The following is a list of episodes for the HBO original series, Da Ali G Show. ... Da Ali G Show was the name of two related satirical TV series starring British comedian Sacha Baron Cohen and featuring the character Ali G. The original (single season) series was made by Channel 4 in the UK, and the second (two season) series by Channel 4 in the UK...


Common hazard symbols

Name Symbol Unicode Image
Toxic sign U+2620 Skull and crossbones
Caution sign U+2621
Radioactive sign U+2622 Radioactivity
Non-ionizing radiation sign radiowave
Biohazard sign U+2623 Biohazard
Warning sign U+26A0 Warning
High voltage sign U+26A1 High voltage

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Skull_and_crossbones. ... Radioactivity may mean: Look up radioactivity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Radiation_warning_symbol. ... Non-ionizing radiation (or, esp. ... Image File history File links Radio_waves_hazard_symbol. ... The international biological hazard symbol Immediate disposal of used needles into a sharps container is standard procedure. ... Image File history File links Biohazard_symbol. ... A traffic warning sign is a type of traffic sign that indicates a hazard ahead on the road. ... Image File history File links Achtung. ... In electrical engineering High voltage refers to a voltage which is high. ... Image File history File links High_voltage_warning. ...

Radioactive weaponry/hazard symbol

The international radioactivity symbol (also known as trefoil) first appeared in 1946, at the University of California, Berkeley Radiation Laboratory. At the time, it was rendered as magenta, and was set on a blue background.[40] It is drawn with a central circle of radius R, the blades having an internal radius of 1.5R and an external radius of 5R, and separated from each other by 60°.[41] Image File history File links Radiation_warning_symbol. ... Architecture Architectural Trefoil (also a Christian symbol) Trefoil (from Latin trifolium, three-leaved plant, French trèfle, German Dreiblatt and Dreiblattbogen) is a term in Gothic architecture given to the ornamental foliation or cusping introduced in the heads of window-lights, tracery, panellings, etc. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... Magenta is a color made up of equal parts of red and blue light. ... For other uses, see Blue (disambiguation). ...


Biological weaponry/hazard symbol

Developed by Dow Chemical company in the 1960s for their containment products.[42] Image File history File links Biohazard_symbol. ...


According to Charles Baldwin, an environmental-health engineer who contributed to its development:

We wanted something that was memorable but meaningless, so we could educate people as to what it means.

(how to draw it[43])


The symbol used today as the biohazard sign is in fact a Japanese family crest or "mon." It can be found on page 195 of the book "Japanese Design Motifs: 4,260 Illustrations of Japanese Crests" translated by Fumie Adachi and published by Dover.


See also

Weapons of mass destruction Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... The 1957 photograph of Miss Atomic Bomb, a Las Vegas showgirl with a mushroom cloud dress, has often been used as representative of Cold War kitsch and a symbol of the effects of nuclear weapons on American popular culture. ... The ten threats identified by the High Level Threat Panel of the United Nations are: Poverty Infectuous Disease Environmental degradation Inter-State War Civil War Genocide Other Atrocities (e. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... For other uses, see Survivalism (disambiguation). ... Fear, uncertainty, and doubt (FUD) is a sales or marketing strategy of disseminating negative (and vague) information on a competitors product. ... Khamisiyah (Arabic: ) is the small city in southern Iraq located approximately 350km south east of Baghdad, 200km north-west of Kuwait City and 270km north of Al Qaysumah at lat 30. ...

References

  1. ^ "Archbishop's Appeal," Times (London), 28 December 1937, p. 9.
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ "Weapons of Mass Destruction", New York Times Magazine, April 19, 1998, p.22. Accessed online 24 February 2007.
  4. ^ [2]
  5. ^ [3]
  6. ^ [4]
  7. ^ [5]
  8. ^ [6]
  9. ^ [7]
  10. ^ [8]
  11. ^ [9]
  12. ^ http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/new_pubs/jp1_02.pdf
  13. ^ http://disarmament.un.org/cab/smallarms/statements/colombiaE.html
  14. ^ [10]
  15. ^ [11]
  16. ^ [12]
  17. ^ [13]
  18. ^ [14]
  19. ^ [15]
  20. ^ [16]
  21. ^ [17]
  22. ^ [18]
  23. ^ Qtd. in Associated Press, "Wolfowitz Comments Revive Doubts Over Iraq's WMD", USA Today, May 30, 2003, accessed May 8, 2007.
  24. ^ [19]
  25. ^ [20] by Prof. Susan Moeller
  26. ^ [21]
  27. ^ Misperceptions, the Media and the Iraq War, PIPA, October 2, 2003
  28. ^ "Iraq Chemical Stash Uncovered", Washington Post, 2005-08-13]. 
  29. ^ "Report: Hundreds of WMDs Found in Iraq", Fox News, 2006-06-22. 
  30. ^ "CIA's Final Report: No WMD Found in Iraq", MSNBC, 2005-04-25. 
  31. ^ "Iraq WMD Inspectors End Search, Find Nothing", Fox News, 2005-04-26. 
  32. ^ [22]
  33. ^ [23]
  34. ^ [24]
  35. ^ [25]
  36. ^ [26]
  37. ^ [27]
  38. ^ [28]
  39. ^ full transcript here
  40. ^ Origin of the Radiation Warning Symbol (Trefoil).
  41. ^ Biohazard and radioactive Symbol, design and proportions.
  42. ^ Biohazard Symbol History.
  43. ^ Biohazard and radioactive Symbol, design and proportions.
  • Chemical and Biological Weapons: Use in Warfare, Impact on Society and Environment, by Gert G. Harigel, 2001.
  • The Meaninglessness of Term Limits, by Gregg Easterbrook, New Republic, September 26, 2002.

is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... MSNBC, a combination of MSN and NBC, is a 24-hour cable news channel in the United States and Canada, and a news website. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ...

Further reading

Debate

Weapons of Mass Destruction was the 2001-2002 Debate Resolution (policy debate). In policy debate, a resolution or topic is a normative statement which the affirmative team affirms and the negative team negates. ...


"Resolved: The United States federal government should establish a foreign policy significantly limiting the use of weapons of mass destruction. (2001-2002)"


Definition and origin

The Monterey Institute of International Studies (its acronym is MIIS) is a graduate school in Monterey, California, which specializes in programs in international relations. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1788. ...

International law

Media

  • Media Coverage of Weapons of Mass Destruction, by Susan D. Moeller, Center for International and Security Studies at Maryland, 2004.
  • Memory for fact, fiction, and misinformation, by Stephan Lewandowsky, Werner G.K. Stritzke, Klaus Oberauer, and Michael Morales, Psychological Science, 16(3): 190-195, 2005.
  • BBC News article on easyJet ad campaign

Public perceptions

  • [29], The PIPA/Knowledge Networks Poll, April 15, 2004.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cannot find Weapons of Mass Destruction (219 words)
The weapons you are looking for are currently unavailable.
The country might be experiencing technical difficulties, or you may need to adjust your weapons inspectors mandate.
Bush went to Iraq to look for Weapons of Mass Destruction and all he found was this lousy T-shirt.
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