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Encyclopedia > Weapon

Weapon may refer to: Look up weapon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article lists military technology items, devices and methods. ... Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh (relief at Abu Simbel) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... from Swedish Wikipedia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (819x768, 141 KB)A front view of an M1A1 Abrams, from www. ...

War
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Weapons
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Attrition · Guerilla · Maneuver
Siege · Total war · Trench For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... Prehistoric warfare is war conducted in the era before writing, and before the establishments of large social entities like states. ... Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. ... Medieval warfare is the warfare of the Middle Ages. ... Gunpowder warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... Modern warfare involves the widespread use of highly advanced technology. ... Battlespace is the military theatre of operations, including air, ground, information, sea and space. ... Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare, including military airlift of cargo to further the national interests as was demonstrated in the Berlin Airlift. ... Information warfare is the use and management of information in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent. ... War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organisations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterised by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Space warfare is combat that takes place in outer space. ... It has been suggested that Mechanized warfare be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... // Electronic warfare (EW) is the use of the electromagnetic spectrum to effectively deny the use of this phenomena by an adversary, while optimizing its use by friendly forces. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, bicycles, or other means. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... The U.S. Department of Defense defines psychological warfare (PSYWAR) as: The planned use of propaganda and other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives. ... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... This article is about the military strategy. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... Maneuver warfare, is the term used by military theorist for a concept of warfare that advocates attempting to defeat an adversary by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption brought about by movement. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ...

Strategy

Economic · Grand · Operational This article is about real and historical warfare. ... Economic warfare is the term for economic policies followed as a part of military operations during wartime. ... Grand strategy is military strategy considered at the level of the movement and use of an entire nation state or empires resources. ... Operational warfare is, within warfare and military doctrine, the level of command which coordinates the minute details of tactics with the overarching goals of strategy. ...

Organization

Formations · Ranks · Units The armed forces of a state are its government-sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations used to further the objectives of the state. ... A formation is a high-level military organization, such as a Brigade, Division, Corps, Army or Army group. ... This article is about the use of the term rank. ... A military unit is an organisation within an armed force. ...

Logistics

Equipment · Materiel · Supply line Military logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. ... This article lists military technology items, devices and methods. ... Materiel (from the French for material) is the equipment and supplies in Military and commercial supply chain management. ... Military supply chain management is a cross-functional approach to procuring, producing and delivering products and services. ...

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The bayonet is used as both knife and spear.
The bayonet is used as both knife and spear.

A weapon is a tool used to injure, incapacitate, or kill an adversary.[1][2] Weapons may be used to attack and defend, and consequently also to threaten or protect. Metaphorically, anything used to damage (even psychologically) can be referred to as a weapon. A weapon can be as simple as a club or as complex as an intercontinental ballistic missile. This is a partial list of battles that have entries in Wikipedia. ... . ... This is a list of missions, operations, and projects. ... The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) A siege is a prolonged military assault and blockade on a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... See also list of military writers. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... This article lists and summarizes War Crimes committed since the Hague Conventions of 1907. ... There are a bewildering array of weapons, far more than would be useful in list form. ... This is a list of military writers, alphabetical by last name. ... Image File history File links Artwork by Rama Prussian bayonet, from a Public Domain photograph of English Wikipedia [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Bayonet ... Image File history File links Artwork by Rama Prussian bayonet, from a Public Domain photograph of English Wikipedia [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Bayonet ... For other uses, see bayonet (disambiguation). ... This article is about the tool. ... For other uses, see Spear (disambiguation) and Spears (disambiguation). ... A modern hammer is directly descended from ancient hand tools A tool or device is a piece of equipment which typically provides a mechanical advantage in accomplishing a physical task, or provides an ability that is not naturally available to the user of a tool. ... In military science, defense (or defence) is the art of preventing an enemy from conquering territory. ... For other uses, see Coercion (disambiguation). ... Psychological science redirects here. ... “Truncheon” redirects here. ... A Minuteman III ICBM test launch from Vandenberg AFB, California, United States. ...

Contents

History

A weapon is an object that is used to increase the destructive range or power of a human. From the earliest traces of mankind up to our modern civilization, weapons have been a facet of human development. Weapons development has accelerated along with other areas of technology in more modern times. In ancient times, from the dawn of humanity through the Classical civilizations of Greece and Rome, weapons were primarily extensions of an individual's strength, essentially making up for the human body's lack of natural weapons such as claws. These weapons allowed the bearer to be substantially more lethal than a similar human without such a weapon. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


The Medieval period, including the Middle Ages, marked a period of distinct advancement in weaponry. Due to some of the unique influences of the period, weapons revolved around two major areas. First was that of knights. These horsemen required new weapons, as well as promoting development of weapons to defeat them. Second was that of castles. The building of castles on a large scale necessitated new weapons to help defend and attack them. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


The Renaissance marked the beginning of the implementation of combustion based devices in warfare. The most long-lasting effect of this was the introduction of cannon and firearms to the battlefield, where they are still at the core of modern weaponry. However, many other machines of war were experimented with. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...


From the American Revolution through the beginning of the 20th century, human-powered weapons were finally excluded from the battlefield for the most part. Sometimes referred to as the "Age of Rifles", this period was characterized by the development of firearms for infantry and cannons for support, as well as the beginnings of mechanized weapons such as the machine gun. John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen...

Ancient Chinese cannon displayed in the Tower of London.
Ancient Chinese cannon displayed in the Tower of London.

World War I marked the entry of fully industrialized warfare, and weapons were developed quickly to meet wartime needs. Many new technologies were developed, particularly in the development of military aircraft and vehicles. World War II however, perhaps marked the most frantic period of weapons development in the history of humanity. Massive numbers of new designs and concepts were fielded, and all existing technologies were improved between 1939 and 1945. Ultimately, the most powerful of all invented weapons was the nuclear bomb. Image File history File linksMetadata Tower_of_London_interior. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Tower_of_London_interior. ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ...


After World War II, with the onset of the Cold War, the constant technological development of new weapons was institutionalized, as participants engaged in a constant race to develop weapons and counter-weapons. This constant state of weapons development continues into the modern era, and remains a constant draw on the resources of most nations. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

Ancient weapons

The basic tasks a weapon must perform have not changed since ancient times. Most weapons do one or more of the following:

  1. Concentrate pressure: the sharp end of a broken stone or pointed stick will apply more force per unit area, and do more harm, than the blunt end. A material's hardness determines its ability to apply or resist pressure.
  2. Store energy: an object accumulates kinetic energy as a person accelerates it, and releases this energy in a much shorter time frame upon impact, thus magnifying a person's power.
  3. Project force: a thrown rock or long stick allows a person to affect an adversary from a distance.
  4. Position or Placement: can utilize any of the following three main tasks; Concentrate pressure, Store energy or Project force. A positioned or placed weapon can inflict injury or death without being physically handled by a user. Examples of weapons that suit the three main tasks are for example are; caltrops that will concentrate pressure as they are stepped or fallen upon. There are also a variety of mechanical traps might either project force or store energy into a projectile, such as a crossbow or bow. For example let's say a trip wire is used with a crossbow, as an object (animal for example) applies pressure to a trip wire it sends a signal to the crossbow releasing the stored energy from the bowstring into crossbow bolt, which in turn, fires the projectile at the object (animal for example).

As shown by the preceding examples, even simple items such as rocks and sticks can often serve these functions better than the human body. The usefulness of such tools made their development of paramount importance for a humanity consisting of small, thinly spread, hunter-gatherer communities. The first known traces of weapons are from the stone age with flint knives, handaxes and heads for large darts. There is no evidence for handaxes being thrown, but very good evidence for them having been used to butcher animals. Instead, darts seem to have been a powerful projectile weapon: anthropologists have thrown reconstructed darts through several inches of oak using atlatls. The broad, leaf-shaped heads penetrate deeply, and easily cut arteries. This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... In materials science, hardness is the characteristic of a solid material expressing its resistance to permanent deformation. ... In physics, power (symbol: P) is the rate at which work is performed or energy is transferred. ... For other uses, see Force (disambiguation). ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... For other uses, see Force (disambiguation). ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... Flint tools were made by stone age peoples worldwide. ... This article is about the tool. ... Axe For other uses, see Axe (disambiguation). ... Darts are missile weapons, designed to fly such that a sharp, often weighted point will strike first. ... A projectile is any object sent through space by the application of a force. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... An atlatl (from Nahuatl ahtlatl ; in English pronounced [1] or [2]) or spear-thrower is a tool that uses leverage to achieve greater velocity in spear-throwing, and includes a bearing surface which allows the user to temporarily store energy during the throw. ... Section of an artery For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ...

Bronze age weaponry.
Bronze age weaponry.

Some weapons are probably much older than the dart, although little early evidence for them exists. These include the sling and the spear. Even though these weapons are quite simple, they were a major military weapon at least until Roman times; a unit of fast-moving skirmishers could be equipped with them at very little cost. Lack of early evidence is understandable, as slings are prone to decay, and it would be difficult to prove that a particular stone has been used as ammunition. Similarly, there is less incentive to put a Solid stone point onto a spear than a dart. A weighted spear point is a liability rather than an asset, and the greater momentum imparted by stabbing makes sharpness less critical than toughness, so that points of bone, antler, or even fire-hardened wood can make more effective spear points. Once metal became available, its toughness made spears and pikes the core of most infantry forces. Image File history File links Bronze_age_weapons_Romania. ... Image File history File links Bronze_age_weapons_Romania. ... Home-made sling. ... For other uses, see Spear (disambiguation) and Spears (disambiguation). ... Skirmishers are infantry soldiers who are stationed ahead or to the sides of a larger body of friendly troops. ... A modern recreation of a mid-17th century company of pikemen. ...


Some of the earliest evidence for arrows are from ca. 20,000 BC in the Levant (the so-called 'Geometric Kebaran' period), made with several very small sharp pieces of stone embedded in an arrowshaft. Here again, far earlier examples may have been subject to decay: for instance, some cultures make weighted arrow points by cutting a hollow reed diagonally and filling the end segment with clay. An arrow is a pointed projectile that is shot with a bow. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ...


Archery and swords have been crucial for warfare. Archery, because of the large amount of energy that can be easily stored and released using a bow, and short swords because of their lethality in close combat. Far greater energy can be stored in a composite bow than a wooden bow of the same weight due to clever mechanical design and choice of materials, but militarily such weapons were mostly limited to use in dry climates. Traditional designs are held together by animal glue (chemically similar to gelatin); moisture would weaken the glue and damage bows of this design. The long bow makes up for less exotic materials with its larger size. In another tradeoff, short swords can be optimized for either thrusting or cutting; the former focuses on pressure, the latter on energy. The gladius hispaniensis could slip through openings in armor, and Roman doctrine held that a stab wound as shallow as one inch could be lethal. The hatchet-like Greek kopis, by contrast, seems built to dismember, but its point-heavy balance might make it clumsy against comprehensive armor. Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the projectile weapon bow. ... A composite bow is a bow made from disparate materials laminated together, usually applied under tension. ... For the art collective, see Gelitin. ... The longbow (or English longbow, or Welsh longbow, see below) was a type of bow about 6 feet long used in the Middle Ages both for hunting and as a weapon of war. ... This article is about the sword. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... An illustration showing a kopis with a hook-like hilt. ...


The most effective defense to traditional weapons was a fortress. The doctrines to support fortresses in the age of edged weapons may have greatly influenced medieval and noble history. Medieval siege weapons were used in countervailing doctrines, but the stave-sling and even the bow often had superior range, making them unsafe to use. Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent city walls and other fortifications in siege warfare. ...


When traveling through time one must bring there own weapons.


Combustion-powered weapons

The Maxim gun and its derivative the Vickers (shown here) remained in British military service for 79 consecutive years.
The Maxim gun and its derivative the Vickers (shown here) remained in British military service for 79 consecutive years.

Firearms are qualitatively different from earlier weapons because they store energy in a combustible propellant such as gunpowder, rather than in a weight or spring. This energy is released quite rapidly, and can be restored without much effort by the user, so that even early firearms such as the arquebus were much more powerful than human-powered weapons. They became increasingly important and effective during the 16th century to 19th century, with progressive improvements in ignition mechanisms followed by revolutionary changes in ammunition handling and propellant. During the U.S. Civil War various technologies including the machine gun and ironclad warship emerged that would be recognizable and useful military weapons today, particularly in lower-technology conflicts. In the 19th century warship propulsion changed from sail power to fossil fuel-powered steam engines. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... An early Maxim gun in operation with the Royal Navy 1895 . ... Firearms redirects here. ... A propellant is a material that is used to move an object by applying a motive force. ... Smokeless powder Gunpowder is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot gas which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ... Japanese arquebus of the Edo era (teppō) Example of an arquebus The arquebus (sometimes spelled harquebus, harkbus[1] or hackbut; from Dutch haakbus, meaning hook gun[2]) was a primitive firearm used in the 15th to 17th centuries. ... In physics, power (symbol: P) is the rate at which work is performed or energy is transferred. ... The lock of a firearm is the system used to ignite the propellant. ... Ammunition, often referred to as ammo, is a generic term meaning (the assembly of) a projectile and its propellant. ... The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the northern states, popularly referred to as the U.S., the Union, the North, or the Yankees; and the seceding southern states, commonly referred to as the Confederate States of America, the CSA, the Confederacy... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... Ironclad (and broadside ironclad) redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A gaff-rigged cutter flying a mainsail, staysail and genoa jib For other uses, see Sail (disambiguation). ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ...


The age of edged weapons ended abruptly just before World War I with rifled artillery, such as howitzers which are able to destroy any masonry fortress. This single invention caused a revolution in military affairs and doctrines that continues to this day. See Technology during World War I for a detailed discussion. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... 19th century 12 pounder (5 kg) mountain howitzer displayed by the National Park Service at Fort Laramie in Wyoming, USA A howitzer is a type of artillery piece that is characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small explosive charges to propel projectiles at trajectories with... The machine gun was one of the decisive technologies during World War I. Picture: British Vickers machine gun crew on the Western Front. ...


An important feature of industrial age warfare was technological escalation - an innovation could, and would, be rapidly matched by copying it, and often with yet another innovation to counter it. The technological escalation during World War I was profound, producing armed aircraft and tanks. Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ... Technological escalation describes the fact that whenever two parties are in competition, each side tends to employ continuing technological improvements to defeat the other. ... The machine gun was one of the decisive technologies during World War I. Picture: British Vickers machine gun crew on the Western Front. ... Flying machine redirects here. ...


This continued in the period between the end of that war and the next, with continuous improvements of all weapons by all major powers. Many modern military weapons, particularly ground-based ones, are relatively minor improvements on those of World War II. See military technology during World War II for a detailed discussion. Technological escalation during World War II was more profound than any other period in human history. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... German Enigma encryption machine Military technology during World War II played a crucial role in determining the outcome of the war. ...

India's Agni-II, a ballistic missile. (Photo: Antônio Milena/ABr)
India's Agni-II, a ballistic missile. (Photo: Antônio Milena/ABr)

The most notable development in weaponry since World War II has been the combination and further development of two weapons first used in it—nuclear weapons and the ballistic missile, leading to its ultimate configuration: the ICBM. The mutual possession of these by the United States and the Soviet Union ensured that either nation could inflict terrible damage on the other; so terrible, in fact, that neither nation was willing to instigate direct, all-out war with the other (a phenomenon known as Mutually Assured Destruction). The indiscriminate nature of the destruction has made nuclear-tipped missiles essentially useless for the smaller wars fought since. However computer-guided weaponry of all kinds, from precision-guided munitions (or "smart bombs") to computer-aimed tank rounds, has greatly increased weaponry's accuracy. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2870x1854, 958 KB) An Indian Agni-II intermediate range ballistic missile on a road-mobile launcher, displayed at the Republic Day Parade on New Delhis Rajpath, January 26, 2004. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2870x1854, 958 KB) An Indian Agni-II intermediate range ballistic missile on a road-mobile launcher, displayed at the Republic Day Parade on New Delhis Rajpath, January 26, 2004. ... The Agni II is a rail-mobile, two-stage, nuclear-capable missile with a solid propulsion engine. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Diagram of V-2, the first ballistic missile. ... A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ... Mutually assured destruction (MAD) is the doctrine of military strategy in which a full scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. ... BOLT-117 laser guided bomb Precision-guided munitions (smart munitions or smart bombs) are self-guiding weapons intended to maximize damage to the target while minimizing collateral damage. Because the damage effects of an explosive weapon scale as a power law with distance, quite modest improvements in accuracy (and hence...


Information warfare

In modern warfare, since all redoubts are traps, maneuver and coordination of forces is decisive, overshadowing particular weapons. The goal of every modern commander is therefore to "operate within the observation-decision-action cycle of the enemy." In this way, the modern commander can bring overwhelming force to bear on isolated groups of the enemy, and "tactically" overwhelm an enemy. This article is about persons held as enemy combatants. ...


Traditional military maneuvers tried to achieve this coordination with "fronts" made of lines of military assets. These were formerly the only way to prevent harm to friendly forces. Close-order marching and drill (a traditional military skill) was an early method to get relative superiority of coordination. Derivative methods (such as "leapfrogging units to advance a line") survived into combined arms warfare to coordinate aircraft, artillery, armor and infantry.


Computers are changing this. The most extreme example so far is the use of "swarm" tactics by the U.S. military in Iraq. The U.S. had instantaneous, reliably encrypted communications, perfect navigation using GPS and computer-mediated communications to aim precision weapons. Over fifty GPS satellites such as this NAVSTAR have been launched since 1978. ...


In swarm tactics, small units pass through possible enemy territory. When attacked they attempt to survive by calling down immediate overwhelming showers of precision-guided air-dropped munitions for armor, and cluster bombs for enemy troops. To consolidate such a region, nearby artillery begin bombardment, and ground units rush in on safe vectors through the bombardments, avoiding them by computer-mediated navigation aids. A US B-1 Lancer releasing its payload of cluster bombs Cluster Munitions or Cluster Bombs are air-dropped or ground-launched munitions that eject a number of smaller submunitions (bomblets). The most common types are intended to kill enemy personnel and destroy vehicles. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ...


Thus in modern warfare, satellite navigation systems, digital radios and computers give decisive advantages to ordinary military personnel armed with weapons that are otherwise unremarkable. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Global Navigation Satellite System. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article is about the machine. ...


Weapon types

There are essentially three facets to classifying weapon types: who uses it, how it works, and what it targets.


Who uses it essentially determines how it can be employed:

  • Personal weapons (or Small Arms) are designed to be used by a single person.
  • Crew served weapons are larger than personal weapons, requiring more than one crew member to operate correctly.
  • Fortification weapons are designed to be mounted in a permanent installation, or used primarily within a fortification.
  • Mountain weapons are designed for use by mountain forces or those operating in difficult terrain and harsh climates.
  • Vehicle weapons are designed to be mounted on any type of military vehicle.
  • Railway weapons are designed to be mounted on railway cars, including armored trains.
  • Aircraft weapons are designed to be carried on and used by some type of aircraft, helicopter, or other aerial vehicle.
  • Naval weapons are designed to be mounted on ships and submarines.
  • Space weapons are designed to be used in or launched from space.

How it works refers to the construction of the weapon and how it operates: A personal weapon is a weapon that can be carried and employed by a single person, although their use may be restricted to specialist members of attack or defense teams. ... Small arms captured in Fallujah, Iraq by the US Marine Corps in 2004 The term small arms generally describes any number of smaller infantry weapons, such as firearms that an individual soldier can carry. ... Crew-served weapons are operated by a crew of soldiers. ... For other uses, see Crew (disambiguation). ... Mountain guns are artillery pieces designed for use during mountain combat. ... ... A railway gun (also called railroad gun, and formerly called a railgun durring World War I and World War II) is a large artillery piece, designed to be placed on rail tracks. ... This is an incomplete list of aircraft weapons, past and present. ... Flying machine redirects here. ... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... Space weapons are weapons that (1) can attack and negate the capability of space systems in orbit (anti-satellite weapon); (2) can attack targets on the earth (ex. ...

  • Antimatter weapons (still theoretical) would combine matter and antimatter to cause a powerful explosion. However, antimatter is still hard to make and harder to store.
  • Archery related weapons operate by using a tensioned string to launch a projectile at some target.
  • Artillery are large firearms capable of launching heavy projectiles (normally explosive) over long distances.
  • Biological weapons spread biological agents, attacking humans (or livestock) by causing disease and infection.
  • Chemical weapons spread chemical agents, attacking humans by poisoning and causing reactions.
  • Energy weapons rely on concentrating forms of energy to attack, such as lasers, electrical shocks, and thermal or sonic attack.
  • Explosive weapons use a physical explosion to create blast concussion or spread shrapnel.
  • Firearms use a chemical charge to launch one or more projectiles down a rifled or smoothbore barrel.
  • Future weapons make use of futuristic high-tech weapon systems and advanced materials.
  • Improvised weapons are common objects that were not designed for combat purposes but are used as such in self defense or a violent crime.
  • Incendiary weapons rely on combustible materials and an ignition mechanism to cause damage by fire.
  • Non-lethal weapons are used to attack and subdue humans, but are designed to minimize the risk of killing the target.
  • Magnetic weapons is one that uses magnetic fields to accelerate and propel projectiles, or to focus charged particle beams.
  • Mêlée weapons operate as physical extensions of the user's body and directly impact their target.
  • Missiles are rockets which are guided to their target after launch. This is also a general term for projectile weapons.
  • Nuclear weapons use radioactive materials to create nuclear fission and/or nuclear fusion detonations above a target ("air-burst") or at ground-level.
  • Primitive weapons make little or no use of technological or industrial elements, instead being purely constructed of easily obtainable natural materials.
  • Ranged weapons cause a projectile to leave the user and (ideally) strike a target afterwards.
  • Rockets use chemical propellant to accelerate a projectile (usually with an explosive warhead) towards a target and are typically unguided once fired.
  • Suicide weapons are typically explosive in nature and exploit the willingness of their operator to not survive the attack to reach their target.

What it targets refers to what type of target the weapon is designed to attack: An antimatter weapon is a hypothetical device using antimatter as a power source, a propellant, or an explosive for a weapon. ... Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other disease_causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. ... Dressing the wounded during a gas attack by Austin O. Spare, 1918. ... An energy weapon can describe many types of real and fictional weapon which emit energy, rather than a physical projectile, and fire in one direction. ... An incendiary device is a device or weapon designed to create a fire. ... A firearm is a kinetic energy weapon that fires either a single or multiple projectiles propelled at high velocity by the gases produced by action of the rapid confined burning of a propellant. ... Future Weapons is a television program series first shown on April 19, 2006 on Discovery Channel. ... Improvised weapons are devices that were not designed to be used as weapons but can be put to that use. ... An incendiary device is a device or weapon designed to create a fire. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... A magnetic weapon is one that uses magnetic fields to accelerate and propel projectiles, or to focus charged particle beams. ... A mêlée weapon is any weapon that does not involve a projectile — that is, both the user and target of the weapon are in contact with it simultaneously in normal use. ... For other uses, see Missile (disambiguation). ... A projectile is any object sent through space by the application of a force. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... An induced nuclear fission event. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... A ranged weapon is any weapon that launches a projectile or that is a projectile itself. ... A projectile is any object sent through space by the application of a force. ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ... A suicide weapon is a weapon that is specially designed for a suicide attack. ...

  • Anti-aircraft weapons target enemy aircraft, helicopters, missiles and any other aerial vehicles in flight.
  • Anti-fortification weapons are designed to target enemy installations, including bunkers and fortifications. The American bunker buster bomb is designed to travel almost 10 metres underground before detonating, toppling underground installations.
  • Anti-personnel weapons are designed to attack people, either individually or in numbers.
  • Anti-radiation weapons target enemy sources of electronic radiation, particularly radar emitters.
  • Anti-ship weapons target enemy ships and vessels on water.
  • Anti-submarine weapons target enemy submarines and other underwater targets.
  • Anti-tank weapons are primarily used to defeat armored targets, but may be targeted against other less well armored targets.
  • Area denial weapons are designed to target territory, making it unsafe or unsuitable for enemy use or travel.
  • Hunting weapons are designed particularly for use against animals for hunting purposes.
  • Infantry support weapons are designed to attack various threats to infantry units, supporting the infantry's operations, including heavy machine guns, mortars and pinpoint airstrikes ordered by the infantry, often to strike heavily defended positions, such as enemy camps or extensively powerful machine-gun nests.

American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... A bunker buster is a bomb designed to penetrate hardened targets or targets buried deep underground. ... An anti-personnel weapon is one primarily used to injure or kill people. ... HARM on a US Navy F-18C Three ALARMs on an RAF Tornado GR4 An anti-radiation missile is a missile which is designed to detect and home in on the emissions of an enemy radar installation. ... A Hedgehog depth charge launcher. ... Anti-tank, or simply AT, refers to any method of combating military armored fighting vehicles, notably tanks. ... Area denial weapons are used to prevent an adversary from occupying or traversing an area of land. ... Winchester Model 1894 . ... The M2 machine gun with a tripod weighs 58 kg (128 lb). ... US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ... A military strike is a limited attack on a specified target. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, bicycles, or other means. ...

Weapons by era

Mêlée (the specific definition, not the rough one that includes polearms) Axe Masakari Sagaris Tomahawk Cestus Club Eku Gun (staff) (not the projectile weapon) Knife Kukri Mace Mere Meteor hammer Pugio Katar Sappara Sword Surujin Polearms Falx Hasta Javelin (also ranged) Soliferrum (ditto) Lathi (in a sense; it... Medieval weapons varied from simple tools to complex engines of emerging medieval warfare technology. ... The machine gun was one of the decisive technologies during World War I. Picture: British Vickers machine gun crew on the Western Front. ... German Enigma encryption machine Military technology during World War II played a crucial role in determining the outcome of the war. ... Note: The following text was moved from Category:Modern weapons and should be improved to meet article standards. ... This article lists military technology items, devices and methods. ...

See also

Preparing to fire the gun Schwerer Gustav and Dora were the names under which the German 80 cm K (E) railway guns were known. ... The arms industry is a massive global industry. ... The following is a partial list of martial arts weapons. ... There are a bewildering array of weapons, far more than would be useful in list form. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... Information warfare is the use and management of information in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent. ... Persuasion technology is technology that can be used for presenting or promoting a point of view. ... Soviet Propaganda Poster during World War II. The text reads Red Army Fighter, SAVE US! Chinese propaganda poster from the time of the Cultural Revolution. ... The U.S. Department of Defense defines psychological warfare (PSYWAR) as: The planned use of propaganda and other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives. ... Toy weapons are toys that mimic real weapons, but are designed to be fun for children to play with and less dangerous. ... Fictional technology is proposed or described in many different contexts for many different reasons: Exploratory engineering seeks to identify if a prospective technology can be designed in detail, and simulated, even if it cannot be built yet - this is often a prerequisite to venture capital funding, or investigation in weapons... Technological escalation describes the fact that whenever two parties are in competition, each side tends to employ continuing technological improvements to defeat the other. ... This article is about the video game. ... Network-centric warfare (NCW), now commonly called Network-centric operations (NCO), is a new military doctrine or theory of war pioneered by the United States Department of Defense. ... The U.S. Defense Information Systems Agency is one of the key agencies building the Global Information Grid The Global Information Grid (GIG) is defined as the globally interconnected, end-to-end set of information capabilities, associated processes, and personnel for collecting, processing, storing, disseminating, and managing information on demand... The Picatinny rail is a bracket used on some firearms in order to provide a standardized mounting for sniper scopes and other accessories. ... The United States Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center, (ARDEC) headquartered at the Picatinny Arsenal in New Jersey, is the US Armys primary research and development arm for armament and munitions systems. ...

References

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary. Second Edition 1989
  2. ^ Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary[1]

External links

tlh:nuHPrimitive weapons Anti-ship weapons Infantry support weapons Fortification weapons Vehicle weapons Naval weapons


  Results from FactBites:
 
Nuclear weapon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2503 words)
Some weapons are designed for special purposes; a neutron bomb is a nuclear weapon that yields a relatively small explosion but a relatively large amount of prompt radiation.
The detonation of a nuclear weapon is accompanied by a blast of neutron radiation.
Nuclear weapons have been at the heart of many national and international political disputes and have played a major part in popular culture since their dramatic public debut in the 1940s and have usually symbolized the ultimate ability of mankind to utilize the strength of nature for destruction.
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