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Encyclopedia > We (novel)
We

Cover of the Penguin Classics translation of We
Author Yevgeny Zamyatin
Original title Мы
Translator Clarence Brown
Cover artist Georgii Petrusov, Caricature of Aleksander Rodchenko (1933–1934)
Country Soviet Union
Language Russian
Genre(s) Dystopian novel Science fiction
Publisher Penguin Books
Publication date 1920–1921 (written); 1988 (pub'd in USSR); 1993 (Penguin ed.)
Published in English 1924
Media type Print (Hardcover and Paperback)
Pages 226
ISBN ISBN 0-14-018585-2

We (Russian: Мы)[1] is a dystopian novel by Yevgeny Zamyatin completed in 1921.[2] It was written in response to the author's personal experiences with the Russian revolutions of 1905 and 1917, his life in the Newcastle suburb of Jesmond and work in the Tyne shipyards at nearby Wallsend during the First World War. It was on Tyneside that he observed the rationalisation of labour on a large scale. Image File history File links WeCover. ... Yevgeny Zamyatin by Boris Kustodiev (1923) Yevgeny Ivanovich Zamyatin (Евге́ний Ива́нович Замя́тин sometimes translated into English as Eugene Zamyatin) (February 1, 1884 – March 10, 1937) was a Russian author, most famous for his novel We, a story of dystopian future which influenced George Orwells Nineteen Eighty-Four and Aldous Huxleys Brave... Image:1924 Alexander Rodchenko in industrial suit by Mikhail Kaufman. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... Utopian fiction is the creation of an ideal world as the setting for a novel. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... Hardcover books A hardcover (or hardback or hardbound) is a book bound with rigid protective covers (typically of cardboard covered with cloth, heavy paper, or sometimes leather). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... ISBN redirects here. ... This article is about the philosophical concept and literary form. ... Yevgeny Zamyatin by Boris Kustodiev (1923) Yevgeny Ivanovich Zamyatin (Евге́ний Ива́нович Замя́тин sometimes translated into English as Eugene Zamyatin) (February 1, 1884 – March 10, 1937) was a Russian author, most famous for his novel We, a story of dystopian future which influenced George Orwells Nineteen Eighty-Four and Aldous Huxleys Brave... For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... This article is about a city in the United Kingdom. ... , Jesmond is a residential suburb and electoral ward just north of the centre of Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom. ... The Tyne looking west and upstream from the Newcastle bank towards the Gateshead Millennium Bridge The Tyne Bridge across the River Tyne between Newcastle and Gateshead. ... , Wallsend is a town on the north bank of the River Tyne in north Tyneside, Tyne and Wear, England. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... In economics, rationalisation is an attempt to change a pre-existing ad-hoc workflow into one that is based on a set of published rules. ... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is a measure of the work done by human beings and is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ...

Contents

Plot summary

The story is told by the protagonist, "D-503", in his diary, which details both his work as a mathematician and his misadventures with a resistance group called the Mephi, who take their name from Mephistopheles. For other uses, see Mephistopheles (disambiguation). ...


D-503 lives in the One State,[3] an urban nation constructed almost entirely of glass, where everything is organized according to primitive mathematics. Sleep times are measured out for each day and each individual is given a certain number of other people to have intercourse with based on a system of (pink) coupons and scheduling. People move around according to special marches in-step with each other and wear special suits so there is hardly any way to differentiate between different people save by their given numbers. Males have odd numbers, prefixed by consonants, females even numbers with preceding vowels.


D-503 spends most of his time with O-90 and R-13, referring to their relationship as a “triangle.” He eventually falls in love with E-330 and the problems begin. He starts a diary as a testament to the happiness that the One State has discovered. He hopes to present it to the extraterrestrial civilizations with the spaceship he designed and oversaw the building of, the Integral, will visit. This ends up being all a part of the Great Benefactor’s plan so he could collect as many Mephi followers as possible.


As the novel progresses, D-503’s infatuation with E-330, a rebellious woman in league with Mephi, starts to take over his life. He starts to lose his initial dedication to the One State, and his ability to differentiate between reality and dreams starts to fade. He is permitted to take off work at one point to overcome his illness, but cannot seem to shake the strange and alien sensations he is experiencing.


By the end of his story, he has almost been driven to madness by inner conflicts between himself and his society, or imagination and mathematic truths. In addition, other members of the One State have fallen prey to higher math and various forms of chaos begin to occur. The “Green Wall” that separates their world from the outside is destroyed, birds begin to populate the glass city, people start having intercourse with the blinds up without using coupons, and the Great Benefactor has to create a special field to keep out the Mephis and their followers.


At the end, D-503 is arrested and brought in for the Great Operation (possibly a prefrontal lobotomy), where his imagination is removed and he no longer loves, falling back into his previous existence. Psychosurgery is the practice of performing surgery on the brain to treat or alleviate severe mental disease. ...


Major themes

Dystopian society

The dystopian society depicted in We is called the One State, a glass city led by the Benefactor (in some translations also known as The Well Doer) and surrounded by a giant Green Wall to separate the citizens from nature. Citizens are all given names based on a combination of letters and numbers. All citizens are known as "cyphers". (Note: One of the dictionary definitions of the word cypher is "non-entity".)


The story takes place after the Two Hundred Years War, a war that wiped out all but "0.2 of the earth's population".[4] The 200 Years War was a war over a rare substance never mentioned in the book, as all knowledge of the war comes from biblical metaphors; the objective of the war was a rare substance called "bread" as the "Christians gladiated over it"—as in countries fighting conventional wars. However, it is also revealed that the war only ended after the use of superweapons, after which came a time when grass grew over old streets and buildings crumbled.


Efficiency and mathematics

All human activities are reduced to mathematical equations, or at least attempted to. For sexual intercourse, numbers (people) receive a booklet of pink coupons which they fill out with the other number they'd like to use on a certain day. Intercourse is the only time shades are allowed to be lowered. It's believed pink coupons eliminate envy.


Every single moment in one's life is directed by "The Table," a precursor to Nineteen Eighty-Four's telescreen. It is in every single residence, and directs their every waking instant. With it, every person eats the same way at the same time, wakes at the exact same time, goes to sleep at the exact same time, and works at the exact same time. The only exception are two required "Free Hours" in which a Number might go out and stroll down a street, or work, or write a diary or the like. According to D-503, he is proud to think that someday there will be a society in which the Free Hours have been eliminated, and every single moment is catalogued and choreographed. This article is about the Orwell novel. ...


Totalitarianism,Communism, and Empire

The Benefactor is the equivalent of Big Brother, but unlike his Orwellian equivalent, the Benefactor is actually confirmed to exist when D-503 has an encounter with him. An "election" is held every year on Unanimity Day, but the outcome is always known beforehand, with the Benefactor unanimously being re-elected each year. Big Brother as portrayed in the BBCs 1954 production of Nineteen Eighty-Four. ...


The Integral, the One State's space ship, has been designed by D-503 to bring efficiency of the One State to the rest of the universe. This is often seen as analogous to ideals of Global Communist State held by early Marxists, but it can be more broadly read as a critique of all modernizing, industrial societies' tendency toward empire and colonization under the guise of civilizational development for "primitive peoples." While the Soviet state promoted the Revolution with almost evangelical zeal in Zamyatin's time, capitalist nation-states carried out their mission to serve as "Trustees" for colonized subjects with equal fervor. The common dominator between Communist and Liberal apologies for expansion was their shared vision of progress through efficiency and technology, and, more fundamentally, a materialist view that reduces the world to physical laws and processes that can be understood and manipulated for utilitarian purposes. This was a world view that Zamyatin despised, and We dramatizes the conflict between nature/spirit and artifice/order. It was the sacrifice of imagination and human spirit to the ordered, numbered universe of progressive ideologies that inspired Zamyatin to write many of his essays, and if there is a hopeful note in the plot of We it is that imagination and spirit could be recovered and would win out in the end over the tyranny of order and efficiency. The role of the poet/writer, as Zamyatin saw it, was to be the heretical voice that always insisted on imagination, especially when established institutions seek conformity and concerted effort toward a defined goal (e.g. the promotion of the Communist party abroad or the maximization of the productive energies of the population). Zamyatin was disturbed by the way in which the Party viewed literature as a useful tool for realizing its goals, and he witnessed particularly troubling compromises from fellow writers who increasingly towed the party line through institutions like the Russian Association of Proletarian Writers (RAPP) or the Writers Union, from which he resigned in 1929.[5] References to official efforts co-opt literary talent cannot be missed in We. The story begins with D-503 deciding to answer the One State's call for all with literary talent to "compose tracts, odes, manifestos, poems, or other works extolling the beauty and grandeur of the One State."[6] These contributions would be loaded on the Integral as its first cargo, promoting efficiency and un-freedom to the populations of the universe beyond who may still be living in a benighted state of freedom. Later in the novel, D-503, before he becomes diseased with a soul, records his "Reflections on Poetry" in which he praises the "majestic" Institute of State Poets and Writers.[7] This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ...


Literary significance and influences

We is a futuristic dystopian satire, generally considered to be the grandfather of the genre. It takes the totalitarian and conformative aspects of modern industrial society to an extreme conclusion, depicting a state that believes that free will is the cause of unhappiness, and that citizens' lives should be controlled with mathematical precision based on the system of industrial efficiency created by Frederick Winslow Taylor. Among many other literary innovations, Zamyatin's futuristic vision includes houses, and indeed everything else, made of glass or other transparent materials, so that everyone is constantly visible. Zamyatin was very critical of communism in Russia and his work was repeatedly banned. This article is about the philosophical concept and literary form. ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ... The concept of Totalitarianism is a typology or ideal-type used by some political scientists to encapsulate the characteristics of a number of twentieth century regimes that mobilized entire populations in support of the state or an ideology. ... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ... Frederick Winslow Taylor Frederick Winslow Taylor (March 20, 1856 to March 21, 1915) was an American mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. ... Panopticon blueprint by Jeremy Bentham, 1791 The Panopticon is a type of prison building designed by English philosopher Jeremy Bentham in the late eighteenth century. ...


George Orwell believed that Aldous Huxley's Brave New World (1932) "must be partly derived from" We.[8] However, in a 1962 letter, Huxley says that he wrote Brave New World long before he had heard of We.[9] Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 [1] [2] – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist. ... Aldous Leonard Huxley (July 26, 1894 – November 22, 1963) was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. ... For other uses, see Brave New World (disambiguation). ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Ayn Rand's Anthem (1938) reads largely like We rewritten to conform to her philosophy.[10] Ayn Rand (IPA: , February 2 [O.S. January 20] 1905 – March 6, 1982), born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum (Russian: ), was a Russian-born American novelist and philosopher,[1] known for creating a philosophy she named Objectivism and for writing the novels We the Living, The Fountainhead, Atlas Shrugged and the... Anthem is a dystopian, science-fiction novella by philosopher Ayn Rand, first published in 1938. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the philosophy of Ayn Rand. ...


George Orwell began Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949) some eight months after he read We in a French translation and wrote a review of it.[11] Orwell is reported as "saying that he was taking it as the model for his next novel."[12] Brown writes that for Orwell and certain others, We "appears to have been the crucial literary experience."[13] Shane states that "…Zamjatin's influence on Orwell is beyond dispute…".[14]Russell, in an overview of the criticism of We, concludes that "1984 shares so many features with We that there can be no doubt about its general debt to it", however there is a minority of critics who view the similarities between We and 1984 as "entirely superficial". Further, Russell finds "that Orwell's novel is both bleaker and more topical than Zamyatin's, lacking entirely that ironic humour that pervades the Russian work."[15] Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 [1] [2] – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist. ... This article is about the Orwell novel. ...


Kurt Vonnegut said that in writing Player Piano (1952) he "cheerfully ripped off the plot of Brave New World, whose plot had been cheerfully ripped off from Eugene Zamiatin's We."[16] Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. ... For more about the automated musical instrument, see player piano Player Piano is a novel by Kurt Vonnegut, published in 1952, about a near-future society that is almost totally mechanized and automated, eliminating the middle class. ... For other uses, see Brave New World (disambiguation). ... Yevgeny Zamyatin by Boris Kustodiev (1923) Yevgeny Ivanovich Zamyatin[1] (Russian: , IPA: ) (February 1, 1884 – March 10, 1937) was a Russian author, most famous for his 1921 novel We, a story of dystopian future which influenced George Orwells Nineteen Eighty-Four and Aldous Huxleys Brave New World. ...


In The Right Stuff (1979), Tom Wolfe describes We as a "marvelously morose novel of the future" featuring an "omnipotent spaceship" called the Integral whose 'designer is known only as "D-503, Builder of the Integral."' Wolfe goes on to use the Integral as a metaphor for the Soviet launch vehicle, the Soviet space program, or the Soviet Union.[17] The Right Stuff is a 1979 book (ISBN 0374250332) by Tom Wolfe, and a 1983 film adapted from the book. ... Tom Wolfe gives a speech at the White House. ... A Saturn V launch vehicle sends Apollo 15 on its way to the moon. ...


History

The novel was the first work banned by Glavlit, the new Soviet censorship bureau, in 1921, though the initial draft dates to 1919.[citation needed] In fact, a good deal of the basis of the novel is present in Zamyatin's novella 'Islanders', begun in Newcastle in 1916. Zamyatin's literary position deteriorated throughout the 1920s, and he was eventually allowed to emigrate to Paris in 1931, probably after the intercession of Maxim Gorky. Main Administration for Safeguarding State Secrets in the Press of the USSR Council of Ministers (Russian: ) was the official censorship and state secret protection organ in the Soviet Union. ... Censorship in the Soviet Union was pervasive and strictly enforced. ... Aleksei Maksimovich Peshkov (In Russian Алексей Максимович Пешков) (March 28 [O.S. March 16] 1868–June 18, 1936), better known as Maxim Gorky (Максим Горький), was a Soviet/Russian author, a founder of the socialist realism literary method and a political activist. ...


The novel was first published in English in 1924,[18] but its first publication in the Soviet Union had to wait until in 1988, [19] when glasnost resulted in it appearing alongside George Orwell's 1984. A year later We and Brave New World were published together in a combined edition.[20] //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 [1] [2] – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist. ... (Redirected from 1984 (novel)) Nineteen Eighty-Four (sometimes 1984) is a darkly satirical political novel by George Orwell. ... For other uses, see Brave New World (disambiguation). ...


Allusions and references

Many of the names and numbers in We are allusions to personal experiences of Zamyatin or to culture and literature. For example, "Auditorium 112" refers to cell number 112, where Zamyatin was twice imprisoned[21] and the name of S-4711 is a reference to the Eau de Cologne number 4711.[22] Original Eau de Cologne Bottle of Original Eau de Cologne Bottle of Eau de Cologne Trojnoj Eau de Cologne (French for water of Cologne, Kölnisch Wasser in German) is a type of light perfume that originated in Cologne, Germany and is defined by its typical concentration of about 2... 4711 is the Eau de Cologne brand of Mäurer & Wirtz and is produced in Cologne, Germany. ...


Zamyatin, who worked as a naval architect,[23] refers to the specifications of the icebreaker Saint Alexander Nevsky.[24] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Naval Architecture. ... For other uses, see Icebreaker (disambiguation). ... Monument in Saint Petersburg Saint Alexander Nevsky listen ( ♫) (Александр Ярославич Невский in Russian; transliteration: Aleksandr Yaroslavich Nevskiy) (May 30, 1220?–November 14, 1263) was a Russian statesman and Grand Prince of Novgorod and Vladimir (from 1252). ...

The numbers … of the chief characters in WE are taken directly from the specifications of Zamyatin’s favourite icebreaker, the Saint Alexander Nevsky, yard no. A/W 905, round tonnage 3300, where 0-90 and I-330 appropriately divide the hapless D-503… [25]

The characters Yu-10 and R-13 may be easily derived from the Swan Hunter yard numbers of three more of Zamyatin's major Tyne icebreakers: 1012; 1020 and 1021, or indeed the yard number of Sviatogor, A/W 904.[citation needed]


There are literary allusions to Dostoevsky, particularly Notes from Underground and The Brothers Karamazov, and to The Bible.[26] Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Russian: Фёдор Миха́йлович Достое́вский, IPA: , sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, or Dostoevski  ) (November 11 [O.S. October 30] 1821–February 9 [O.S. January 28] 1881) was a Russian novelist and writer of fiction whose works, including Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov, have had a profound and lasting effect... This article is about the short novel by Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... For other uses, see The Brothers Karamazov (disambiguation). ... The Bible (From Greek βιβλια—biblia, meaning books, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is the sacred scripture of Christianity. ...


Many comparisons to The Bible exist in We. There are similarities between Genesis Chapters 1-4 and We, where the One State is considered Paradise, D-503 is Adam, and I-330 is Eve. The snake in this piece is S-4711, who is described to have a bent and twisted form, with a "double-curved body". References to Mephistopheles (in the Mephi) are seen as allusions to Satan and his rebellion against Heaven in the Bible. The Mephi are rebels against what is considered to be a perfect society. The novel itself could also be considered a criticism of organised religion given this interpretation.[27] For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... Paradise, Jan Bruegel Paradise is an English word from Persian roots that is generally identified with the Garden of Eden or with Heaven. ... For other uses, see Adam (disambiguation). ... Michelangelos The Creation of Eve, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Eve from the side of Adam. ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ...


The novel refers to mathematical concepts such as the square root of -1 and infinity. D-503 mentions how the irrationality of square root -1 bothers him greatly. It is known that in math, this number is represented by the letter i. Zamyatin's point, probably in light of the increasingly dogmatic Soviet government of the time, would seem to be that is that it is impossible to remove all the rebels against a system and he even says this through (ironically) I-330: "There is no final revolution. Revolutions are infinite."[28]


See also

This list does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of films commonly regarded as dystopian. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The title Мы (IPA: [mɨ]) is the Russian first person plural personal pronoun. It is usually romanized as My by transliterating the Russian letter ы (Yery) as the English letter y. However, the romanization My is not a translation or a pronunciation and should not be confused with the English word my.
  2. ^ Brown, p. xi, citing Shane, gives 1921. Russell, p. 3, dates the first draft to 1919.
  3. ^ Ginsburg and Randall use "One State". Guerney uses "The One State"—each word is capitalized. Brown uses the single word "OneState", which he calls "ugly" (p. xxv). Zilboorg uses "United State".
    All of these are translations of the phrase Yedinoye Gosudarstvo (Russian: Единое Государство).
  4. ^ Fifth Entry (Ginsburg translation, p. 21).
  5. ^ Ginsburg translation, "Introduction," (New York: Eos, 1972)p. xviii
  6. ^ Ginsburg translation, "First Entry"
  7. ^ Ginsburg translation, "Twelfth Entry"
  8. ^ Orwell (1946).
  9. ^ Russell, p. 13.
  10. ^ Gimpelevich, Zina (1997). "‘We’ and ‘I’ in Zamyatin's We and Rand's Anthem". Germano-Slavica 10 (1): 13–23. 
  11. ^ Orwell (1946). Russell, p. 13.
  12. ^ Bowker (p. 340) paraphrasing Rayner Heppenstall.
    Bowker, Gordon (2003). Inside George Orwell: A Biography. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 031223841X. 
  13. ^ Brown trans., Introduction, p. xvi.
  14. ^ Shane, p. 140.
  15. ^ Russell, p. 13.
  16. ^ Playboy Magazine interview with Kurt Vonnegut, Jr., July 1973. [1]
  17. ^ Wolfe, Tom (2001). The Right Stuff. Bantam. ISBN 0553381350.  "D-503": p. 55, 236. "…it looked hopeless to try to catch up with the mighty Integral in anything that involved flights in earth orbit.": p. 215. Wolfe uses the Integral in several other passages.
  18. ^ In a translation by Zilboorg.
  19. ^ Brown translation, p. xiv. Tall notes that glasnost resulted in many other literary classics being published in the USSR during 1988-1989.
  20. ^ Tall, footnote 1.
  21. ^ Randall, p. xvii.
  22. ^ Ermolaev.
  23. ^ Shane, p 12.
  24. ^ Myers.
  25. ^ "All these icebreakers were constructed in England, in Newcastle and yards nearby; there are traces of my work in every one of them, especially the Alexander Nevsky—now the Lenin;I did the preliminary design, and after that none of the vessel's drawings arrived in the workshop without having been checked and signed:
    'Chief surveyor of Russian Icebreakers' Building E.Zamiatin." [The signature is written in English.] (Zamyatin ([1962]))
  26. ^ Gregg.
  27. ^ Gregg.
  28. ^ Ginsburg, Introduction, p. v. The Thirtieth Entry has a similar passage.

In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase with or without a determiner, such as you and they in English. ... For romanization of Russian on Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Romanization of Russian. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... Yery (Ы, ы) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up pronunciation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For any word written in a language with whose alphabet or alphabet equivalent has two cases, such as those using the Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, or Armenian alphabet, capitalization is the writing of that word with its first letter in majuscules (uppercase) and the remaining letters in minuscules (lowercase). ... John Rayner Heppenstall (27 July 1911 in Lockwood, Huddersfield, Yorkshire, England - 23 May 1981 in Deal, Kent, England) was a British novelist, poet, diarist, and a BBC radio producer. ... Playboy is an adult entertainment magazine, or pornography magazine, founded in 1953 by Hugh Hefner, which has grown into Playboy Enterprises, Inc. ... Tom Wolfe gives a speech at the White House. ...

References

Translations

  • Zamyatin, Yevgeny (1924). We, Gregory Zilboorg (trans.), New York: Dutton.  [2]
  • Zamjatin, Jevgenij Ivanovič (1927). My, Václav Koenig (trans.), Prague (Praha): Štorch-Marien.  (Czech) [3]
  • Zamâtin, Evgenij Ivanovic (1929). Nous autres, B. Cauvet-Duhamel (trans.), Paris: Gallimard.  (French) [4]
  • Zamjàtin, Evgenij (1955). Noi, Ettore Lo Gatto (trans.), Bergamo (Italy): Minerva Italica.  (Italian)
  • Zamyatin, Yevgeny (1972 repr. 1999). We, Mirra Ginsburg (trans.), New York: EOS HarperCollins. ISBN 0-380-63313-2. 
  • Zamyatin, Yevgeny (1972). We, Bernard Guilbert Guerney (trans.), UK: Penguin Books. 
  • Zamjàtin, Evgenij (1990). Noi, Ettore Lo Gatto (trans.), Milano (Italy): Feltrinelli. ISBN 88-07-80412-3.  (Italian)
  • Zamyatin, Evgeny (1991). We, Raduga Publishers (trans.), Moscow: Raduga. ISBN 5-05-004845-1. 
  • Zamyatin, Yevgeny (1993). We, Clarence Brown (trans.), New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-018585-2. 
  • Zamiatin, Eugene (2000). We, Gregory Zilboorg (trans.), USA: Transaction Large Print. ISBN 1-56000-477-0.  (author photo on cover)
  • Zamyatin, Yevgeny (2006). We, Natasha Randall (trans.), USA: Random House. ISBN 0-8129-7462-X. 

Russian language editions

  • Zamiatin, Evgenii Ivanovich (1952). My. Niu-Iork: Izd-vo im. Chekhova.  [5]
The first complete Russian language edition of We was published in New York in 1952. (Brown, p. xiv, xxx)
Catalog card image from the National Library of Russia. (Russian)
  • Zamiatin, Evgenii Ivanovich (1988). Selections, sostaviteli T.V. Gromova, M.O. Chudakova, avtor stati M.O. Chudakova, kommentarii Evg. Barabanova, Moskva: Kniga. ISBN 5-212-00084-X.  (Russian) [6] [7]
We was first published in the USSR in this collection of Zamyatin's works. (Brown, p. xiv, xxx)
Catalog card image from the National Library of Russia showing ISBN 5-212-0084-X (sic). (Russian)
  • Zamyatin, Yevgeny; Andrew Barratt (1998). Zamyatin: We. Bristol Classical Press. ISBN 1853993786.  (also cited as Zamyatin: We, Duckworth, 2006) (Russian) (English)
Edited with Introduction and Notes by Andrew Barratt.
Plain Russian text (unstressed, without a vocabulary), but with English introduction, bibliography and notes.

Online works

For other uses, see MP3 (disambiguation). ...

Reviews

The Boston Globe (and Boston Sunday Globe) is the most widely circulated daily newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts and New England. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Books

  • Russell, Robert (2000). Zamiatin's We. Bristol Classical Press. ISBN 185399393X.  (also cited as Zamiatin's We, Duckworth, 2001) [8] (about the author)
  • Shane, Alex M. (1968). The life and works of Evgenij Zamjatin. University of California Press. 
  • Zamyatin, Yevgeny (1992). A Soviet Heretic: Essays, Mirra Ginsburg (editor and translator), Northwestern Univ Pr. ISBN 0810110911. 

Journal articles

  • Ermolaev, Herman (Oct. 1982). "Review of Three Russian Writers and the Irrational: Zamyatin, Pil'nyak, and Bulgakov by T. R. N. Edwards". Russian Review 41 (4): 531-532. 
  • Fischer, Peter A. (Autumn 1971). "Review of The Life and Works of Evgenij Zamjatin by Alex M. Shane". Slavic and East European Journal 15 (3): 388–390. 
  • Gregg, Richard A. (December 1965). "Two Adams and Eve in the Crystal Palace: Dostoevsky, the Bible, and We". Slavic Review 24 (4): 680–687. 
  • Layton, Susan (February 1978). "The critique of technocracy in early Soviet literature: The responses of Zamyatin and Mayakovsky". Dialectical Anthropology 3 (1): 1-20. 
  • McClintock, James I. (Autumn 1977). "United State Revisited: Pynchon and Zamiatin". Contemporary Literature 18 (4): 475-490. 
  • Struve, Gleb (Jul. 1968). "The Re-Emergence of Mikhail Bulgakov". Russian Review 27 (3): 338–343. 
  • Tall, Emily (Summer 1990). "Behind the Scenes: How Ulysses was Finally Published in the Soviet Union". Slavic Review 49 (2): 183–199. 
  • Zamyatin, Yevgeny ([1962]), "O moikh zhenakh, o ledokolakh i o Rossii", Mosty (Munich: Izd-vo Tsentralnogo obedineniia polit. emigrantov iz SSSR) IX: 25 (Russian)
English: My wives, icebreakers and Russia. Russian: О моих женах, о ледоколах и о России.
The original date and location of publication are unknown, although he mentions the 1928 rescue of the Nobile expedition by the Krasin, the renamed Svyatogor.
The article is reprinted in E. I. Zamiatin, 'O moikh zhenakh, o ledokolakh i o Rossii', Sochineniia (Munich, 1970–1988, four vols.) II, pp. 234–40. (Russian)

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