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Encyclopedia > Wayang

Wayang is an Indonesian/Malay word for theater. When the term is used to refer to kinds of puppet theater, sometimes the puppet itself is referred to as wayang. "Bayang", the Javanese word for shadow or imagination, also connotes "spirit." Performances of shadow puppet theater are accompanied by gamelan in Java, and by "gender wayang" in Bali. The Malay language, also known locally as bahasa Melayu, is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people who reside in the Malay Peninsula, southern Thailand, the Philippines, Singapore, central eastern Sumatra, the Riau islands, and parts of the coast of Borneo. ... For other usages see Theatre (disambiguation) Theater (American English) or Theatre (British English and widespread usage among theatre professionals in the US) is that branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle &#8212... The Javanese language is the spoken language of the people in the central and eastern part of the island of Java, in Indonesia. ... Gamelan - Indonesian Embassy in Canberra A gamelan is a kind of musical ensemble of Indonesian origin typically featuring a variety of instruments such as metallophones, xylophones, drums, and gongs; bamboo flutes, bowed and plucked strings, and vocalists may also be included. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Bali is an Indonesian island located at , the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands, lying between Java to the west and Lombok to the east. ...


UNESCO designated Wayang Kulit, a shadow puppet theater and the best known of the Indonesian wayang, as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity on 7 November 2003. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Map showing the Masterpieces of Oral and Intangible Heritage by country designation as of 2005: red (countries with 4 designations), orange (3), yellow (2) and green (1). ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

History of Wayang

Wayang shadow-puppet (Bali, early 20th century)
Wayang shadow-puppet (Bali, early 20th century)

Wayang is a generic term denoting traditional theatre in Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore. There is no evidence that wayang existed before Hinduism came to southeast Asia sometime in the first century CE. However, there very well may have been indigenous storytelling traditions that had a profound impact on the development of the traditional puppet theatre. The first record of a wayang performance is from an inscription dated 930 CE which says "si Galigi mawayang," or "Sir Galigi played wayang". From that time till today it seems certain features of traditional puppet theatre have remained. Galigi was an itinerant performer who was requested to perform for a special royal occasion. At that event we know he performed a story about the hero Bima from the Mahabharata. Download high resolution version (781x1054, 204 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (781x1054, 204 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Bali is an Indonesian island located at , the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands, lying between Java to the west and Lombok to the east. ... Hinduism (known as in some modern Indian languages[1]) is a religion that originated on the Indian subcontinent. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The (Devanagari: ) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the . ...


Hinduism arrived in Indonesia from India even before the Christian era, and was slowly adopted as the local belief system. Sanskrit became the literary and court language of Java and later of Bali. The Hindus changed the Wayang (as did the Muslims, later) to spread their religion, mostly by stories from the Mahabharata or the Ramayana. Later this mixture of religion and wayang play was praised as harmony between Hinduism and traditional Indonesian culture. On Java, the western part of Sumatra and some smaller islands traditionalists continued to play the old stories for some time, but the influence of Hinduism prevailed and the traditional stories either fell into oblivion or were integrated into the Hinduistic plays. Dionysius Exiguus invented Anno Domini years to date Easter. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is an old Indo-Aryan language from the Indian Subcontinent, the classical literary language of the Hindus of India[1], a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Bali is an Indonesian island located at , the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands, lying between Java to the west and Lombok to the east. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The (Devanagari: ) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the . ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ...


The figures of the wayang are also present in the paintings of that time for example the roof murals of the courtroom in Klungkung, Bali. They are still present in traditional Balinese painting today. Klungkung (Semarapura) is a town on the east coast of Bali, Indonesia. ...


When Islam began spreading in Indonesia, the display of God or gods in human form was prohibited, and thus this style of painting and shadow play was suppressed. King Raden Patah of Demak, Java wanted to see the wayang in its traditional form, but failed to obtain permission from the Muslim religious leaders. As an alternative, the religious leaders converted the wayang golek into wayang purwa made from leather, and displayed only the shadow instead of the figures itself. Instead of the forbidden figures only their shadow picture was displayed, the birth of the wayang kulit. Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... This list of deities aims at giving information about deities in the different religions, cultures and mythologies of the world. ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ...


The wayang klitik figures are painted, flat woodcarvings (a maximum of 5 to 15 mm thick -- barely half an inch) with movable arms. The head is solidly attached to the body. With these, it is possible to do puppet plays either by day or by night. This type of wayang is relatively rare.


Wayang today is both the most ancient and most popular form of puppet theatre in the world. Hundreds of people will stay up all night long to watch the superstar performers, dalang, who command extravagant fees and are international celebrities. Some of the most famous dalang in recent history are Ki Nartosabdho, Ki Anom Suroto, Ki Asep Sunarya, Ki Sugino, and Ki Manteb.


Wayang kulit

Wayang kulit as seen by the audience
Wayang kulit as seen by the audience

Wayang kulit, shadow puppets are prevalent in Java and Bali, are without a doubt the best known of the Indonesian wayang. Kulit means skin and refers to the leather construction of the puppets that are carefully chiseled with very fine tools and supported with carefully shaped buffalo horn handles and control rods. ImageMetadata File history File links WayangKulit_Scene_Zoom. ... ImageMetadata File history File links WayangKulit_Scene_Zoom. ... A shadow puppet is a puppet intended for performance at night or in a darkened interior space. ...


The stories are usually drawn from the Ramayana, the Mahabharata or the Serat Menak. The island of Lombok has developed its own style of Serat Menak called Wayang Sasak. Gunung Rinjani from Gili Trawangan Lombok (1990 pop. ...


There is a family of characters in Javanese wayang called Punakawan; sometimes referred to as "clown-servants" because they usually are associated with the story's hero and also provide humorous and philosophical interludes. Semar is the father of Gareng (oldest son), Petruk, and Bagong (youngest son). These characters did not originate in the Hindu epics, but were added later, possibly to introduce mystical aspects of Islam into the Hindu-Javanese stories. They provide something akin to a political cabaret, dealing with gossip and contemporary affairs. Cabaret is a form of entertainment featuring comedy, song, dance, and theatre, distinguished mainly by the performance venue — a restaurant or nightclub with a stage for performances and the audience sitting around the tables (often dining or drinking) watching the performance. ...


The puppets figures themselves vary from place to place. In Central Java the city of Surakarta (Solo) is most famous and is the most commonly imitated syle of puppets. Regional styles of shadow puppets can also be found in West Java, Banyumas, Cirebon, Semarang, and East Java. Bali produces more compact and naturalistic figures, and Lombok has figures representing real people. Often modern-world objects as bicycles, automobiles, airplanes and ships will be added for comic effect, but for the most part the traditional puppet designs have changed little in the last 300 years. Central Java (Indonesian: Jawa Tengah) is a province of Indonesia. ... Surakarta (its formal name; locally it is referred to as Solo) is an Indonesian city of approximately 500,000 people located in Central Java. ... Map showing West Java in Indonesia West Java (Jawa Barat) is a province of Indonesia, located on the island of Java. ... Banyumas is an area, also known as the Banyumasan region, located in the western part of Central Java, in Indonesia. ... Cirebon (formerly Cheribon) is a city on north coast of the Indonesian island of Java. ... Semarang is a city on the north coast of the island of Java, Indonesia. ... East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur) is a province of Indonesia. ...


Historically, the performance consisted of shadows cast on a cotton screen cast an oil lamp. Today, the source of light in Java is most often a halogen electric light. Some modern forms of wayang such as Wayang Sandosa created in the art academy at Surakarta (STSI) has employed spotlights, colored lights and other innovations. Antique bronze oil lamp with Christian symbol (replica) An oil lamp is a device used for lighting or for preserving a flame that is fueled by animal, vegetable or mineral oil. ... Lighting instruments are used in stage lighting to illuminate theatrical productions, rock concerts and other performances taking place in a large auditorium or staduim. ...


The handwork involved in making a wayang kulit figure that is suitable for a performance takes several weeks, with the artists working together in groups. They start from master models (typically on paper) which are traced out onto kulit (skin or parchment), providing the figures with an outline and with indications of any holes that will need to be cut (such as for the mouth or eyes). The figures are then smoothed, usually with a glass bottle, and primed. The structure is inspected and eventually the details are worked through. A further smoothing follows before individual painting, which is undertaken by yet another craftsman. Finally, the movable parts (upper arms, lower arms with hands and the associated sticks for manipulation) mounted on the body, which has a central staff by which it is held. A crew makes up to ten figures at a time, typically completing that number over the course of a week. German parchmenter, 1568 Parchment is a material for the pages of a book or codex, made from fine calf skin, sheep skin or goat skin. ...


The painting of less expensive puppets is handled expediently with a spray technique, using templates, and with a different person handling each color. Less expensive puppets, often sold to children during performances, are sometimes made on cardboard instead of leather.


Wayang topeng or wayang gedog or wayang wong

An act in the wayang wong performance.
An act in the wayang wong performance.

Wayang wong is a type of theatrical performance with themes from the kingdom of Jenggala, in which the players wear masks known as wayang topeng or wayang gedog. The word "gedog" comes from "kedok", which, like "topeng" means "mask". The main theme is the story of Raden Panji and Candra. This is a love story about princess Candra Kirana of Kediri and Raden Panji Asmarabangun, the crown prince of Jenggala. Candra Kirana was the incarnation of Dewi Ratih (goddess of love) and Panji was an incarnation of Kamajaya (god of love). Kirana's story was given the title "Smaradahana" ("The fire of love"). At the end of the complicated story they finally can marry and bring forth a son, named Raja Putra. Panji Asmarabangun ruled Jenggala under the official names "Sri Kameswara", "Prabu Suryowiseso", and "Hino Kertapati". Originally, wayang wong was performed only as an aristocratic entertainment in four palaces of Yogyakarta and Surakarta. In the course of time, it spread to become a popular and folk form as well. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1063 pixel, file size: 293 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wayang Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1063 pixel, file size: 293 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wayang Metadata This... Kediri was a Hindu kingdom based in East Java from 1045 to 1221. ... The Special Region of Yogyakarta (Indonesian: Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, or DIY), is a province of Indonesia on the island of Java. ... Surakarta (its formal name; locally it is referred to as Solo) is an Indonesian city of approximately 500,000 people located in Central Java. ...


Wayang wong has fixed patterns of movement and costume:


For male performers:

  • Alus: very slow, elegant and smooth movement. For example, the dance of Arjuna, Puntadewa and all other slimly built Kshatriyas. There are two types of movement, lanyap and luruh.
  • Gagah:
    • Kambeng: a more athletic dance, used for the roles of Bima, Antareja, and Gatotjaca.
    • Bapang: gagah and kasar for the warriors of Kaurawa.
    • Kalang kinantang: falls somewhere between alus and gagah, danced by tall, slim dancers in the roles of Kresno or Suteja.
  • Kasar: a coarse style, used in portraying ogres and demons.
  • Gecul: ponokawan and cantrik
    • Kambeng dengklik: for ape warriors, such as Hanuman.
    • Kalang kinantang dengklik: for ape warriors, such as Sugriwa and Subali.

For female performers: Krishna to Arjuna: Behold My mystic opulence! Arjuna (Sanskrit: अर्जुन, arjuna) is one of the heroes of the Hindu epic Mahabharata. ... For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is the title of the princely military order in the Vedic society. ... A motif depicting Bheema in the battle ready posture. ... The Ogre from Hop o My Thumb illustrated by Gustave Doré An ogre (feminine: ogress) is a large and hideous humanoid monster. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Daemon (mythology). ... Families Hylobatidae Hominidae Apes are the members of the Hominoidea superfamily of primates, which includes humans. ... For the Tamil movie by same name see Anjaneya, Movie This article is about a Divine Entity in Hinduism. ... Families Hylobatidae Hominidae Apes are the members of the Hominoidea superfamily of primates, which includes humans. ... In Hinduism, Sugriva was the younger brother of Vali. ...


The movements know as nggruda or ngenceng encot in the classical, high style of dance consist of nine basic movements (joged pokok) and twelve other movements (joged gubahan and joged wirogo) and are used in portraying Bedoyo and Srimpi. The bedhaya (also written as bedoyo, beḍaya, and various other transliterations) is a sacred ritualized dance of Java, Indonesia, associated with the royal palaces of Yogyakarta and Surakarta. ...


Today, the wayang wong, following the Gagrak style of Surakarta, is danced by women. They follow the alus movements associated with a Kshatriya, resembling Arjuna. Following the Gagkra style from Yogyakarta a male dancer uses these same Alus movements to depict Kshatriya noblemen. Costumes and props distinguish kings, Kshatriyas, monks, princesses, princes and generals. There are about 45 distinct character types.


Wayang Golek or Rod Puppets

Wayang golek are wooden doll puppets that are operated from below by rods connected to the hands and a central control rod that runs through the body to the head. The simple construction of the puppets belies their versatility, expressiveness and aptitude for imitating human dance. Little is known for certain about the history of wayang golek, but scholars have speculated that it that most likely originated in China and arrived in Java sometime in the 17th century. Some of the oldest traditons of wayang golek are from the north coast of Java in what is called the pasisir region. This is home to some of the the oldest Muslim kingdoms in Java and it is likely the wayang golek grew in popularity through telling the wayang menak stories of Amir Hamza, the uncle of Muhammad. These stories are still widely performed in Kabumen, Tegal, and Jepara as wayang golek menak, and in Cirebon, wayang golek cepak. Legendary origins of wayang golek attribute their invention to the Muslim saint Wali Sunan Kudus, who used the medium to prosletize Muslim values. In the 18th century the tradition moved into the mountains of West Java where it eventually was used to tell stories of the Ramayana and the Mahabarata in a tradtion now called wayang golek purwa, which can be found in Bandung, Bogor and Jakarta. Wayang golek purwa has become the most popular form of wayang golek today and the most famous puppeteer family is the Sunarya family which has produced several generations of stellar performers. A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... Cirebon (formerly Cheribon) is a city on north coast of the Indonesian island of Java. ... Sunan Kudus (or Jafar Shadiq, d. ...


Wayang karucil or wayang klitik

Wayang klitik figures occupy a middle ground between the figures of wayang golek and wayang kulit. They are constructed similarly to wayang kulit figures, but from thin pieces of wood instead of leather, and, like wayang kulit figures, are used as shadow puppets. A further similarity is that they are the same smaller size as wayang kulit figures. However, wood is more subject to breakage than leather. During battle scenes, wayang klitik figures often sustain considerable damage, much to the amusement of the public, but in a country in which before 1970 there were no adequate glues available, breakage generally meant an expensive, newly made figure. On this basis the wayang klitik figures, which are to appear in plays where they have to endure battle scenes, have leather arms. The name of these figures is onomotopaeic, from the sound klitik-klitik, that these figures make when worked by the dalang. 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ...


Wayang klitik figures come originally from eastern Java, where one still finds workshops turning them out. They are less costly to produce than wayang kulit figures. East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur) is a province of Indonesia. ...


The origin of the stories involved in these puppet plays comes from the kingdoms of eastern Java: Jenggala, Kediri and Majapahit. From Jenggala and Kediri come the stories of Raden Panji and Cindelaras, which tells of the adventures of a pair of village youngsters with their fighting cocks. The Damarwulan presents the stories of a hero (Damarwulan) from Majapahit. Damarwulan is a clever chap, who with courage, aptitude, intelligence and the assistance of his young lover Anjasmara, makes a surprise attack on the neighboring kingdom and brings down Minakjinggo, an Adipati (viceroy) of Blambangan and mighty enemy of Majapahit's beautiful queen Sri Ratu Kencanawungu. As a reward, Damarwulan is married to Kencanawungu and becomes king of Majapahit; he also takes Lady Anjasmara as a second wife. This story is full of love affairs and battles and is very popular with the public. The dalang is liable to incorporate the latest local gossip and quarrels and work them into the play as comedy. Kediri was a Hindu kingdom based in East Java from 1045 to 1221. ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Regency of Banyuwangi is located at the easternmost end of the Indonesian island of Java, and it is a very strategic area for one who wants to go to Bali. ...


Wayang beber

The wayang beber has strong similarities to narratives in the form of illustrated ballads that were common at annual fairs in medieval and early modern Europe. They have also been subject to the same fate – they have nearly vanished. A few scrolls of images remain from those times, found today in museums. Performances, mostly in small auditoriums, take place according to the following pattern: This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ...


The dalang gives a sign, the gamelan orchestra (or a musician with a violin-like instrument) begins to play and the Dalang unrolls a picture related to the story. Then, speaking and singing, he narrates the story in more detail. In this manner, in the course of the evening he unrolls several pictures. The pictures are shown one at a time and are successively unrolled. Each picture represents a story or part of a story. The content of the story typically stems from the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Jenggala stories or profane stories from other villages and kingdoms. The violin is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. ...


Wayang Sadat

This newly developed form is used by teachers of Islam to show the principles of Muslim ethics and religion to the natives of Java and Bali. [1]


Wayang Wahyu

This form was created in the 1960s by Brother Timotheus L. Wignyosoebroto who wanted to impress the natives with the teachings of the Catholic Church. In the beginning, the puppets were often made of paper because it was less expensive than the traditional water buffalo hide. It became a popular as an alternative method of telling Bible stories.[2] The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ...


Notes

  1. ^  Poplawska 2004
  2. ^  Poplawska 2004

References

  • This article was initially translated from the German-language Wikipedia article.
  • Poplawska, Marzanna. Asian Theatre Journal. Fall 2004, Vol. 21 p. 194-202

Further reading

  • Keeler, W. (1987) Javanesse Shadow Plays, Javanese Selves Princetton, N.J. Princeton University Press.
  • Soedarsono (1984) Wayang Wong Yogyakarta. Gadjah Mada University Press

See also

  • Ketoprak

External links

Indonesia Portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wayang
  • Historical Development of Puppetry: Scenic Shades (includes informations about wayang beber, kulit, klitik and golek)
  • Wayang Orang (wayang wong) traditional dance, from Indonesia Tourism
  • Wayang Klitik: a permanent exhibit of Puppetry Arts Museum
  • Walter O. Koenig, Epic and Novel includes description, history and photographs of Wayang Golek
  • Wayang Kulit: The Art form of the Balinese Shadow Play by Lisa Gold
  • Wayang Puppet Theatre on the Indonesian site of UNESCO
  • The Wayang Golek Wooden Stick Puppets of Java, Indonesia (commercial site)
  • Wayang Kulit: Shadow Puppet Performances (commercial site)
  • An overview of the Shadow Puppets tradition (with many pictures) in a site to Discover Indonesia

Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Pelukis Wayang Kamasan - Rabu, 08 Februari 2006 (836 words)
Ia masih kuat untuk mentransfer cerita-cerita wayang dari pikirannya ke atas kain belacu.
Lalu, saya pun harus sembahyang dulu meminta kekuatan leluhur mengembalikan ingatan cerita wayang kelanjutan lukisan saya,” ceritanya serius.
Bahkan, ia menjamin mereka tidak bisa menceritakan lukisan wayang yang ditirunya.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Wayang (505 words)
Wayang topeng or wayang gedog or wayang wong
Wayang wong is a type of theatrical performance with themes from the kingdom of Jenggala, in which the players wear masks known as wayang topeng or wayang gedog.
Wayang golek or stick puppets can be used for the same plays as wayang kulit, either performed in the daytime or with some sufficient source of lighting to allow the audience to see the puppets.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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