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Encyclopedia > Way of St. James
Route of Santiago de Compostela*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Scallop, St.James' shell, symbol of the Saint and the pilgrimage
State Party Flag of Spain Spain
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iv, vi
Reference 669
Region Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1993  (17th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

The Way of St. James or St. James' Way, often known by its Spanish name, el Camino de Santiago, is the pilgrimage to the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia in northwestern Spain, where legend has it that the remains of the apostle, Saint James the Great, are buried. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 563 pixelsFull resolution (2955 × 2080 pixel, file size: 659 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ... The Obradoiro façade of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela: an all-but-Gothic composition generated entirely of classical details Santiago de Compostela Cathedral is situated in Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, Spain. ... Location Location of Santiago de Compostela Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Santiago de Compostela (Galician) Spanish name Santiago de Compostela Postal code 15700 Website santiagodecompostela. ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... Saint James the Great (d. ...

Contents

A major Christian pilgrimage route

The Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela is the ultimate goal of the pilgrimage.
The Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela is the ultimate goal of the pilgrimage.

The Way of St James has existed for over a thousand years. It was one of the most important Christian pilgrimages during medieval times. It was considered one of three pilgrimages on which a plenary indulgence could be earned;[citation needed] the others are the Via Francigena to Rome and the pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Image File history File linksMetadata Spain_Santiago_de_Compostela_-_Cathedral. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Spain_Santiago_de_Compostela_-_Cathedral. ... The Obradoiro façade of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela: an all-but-Gothic composition generated entirely of classical details Santiago de Compostela Cathedral is situated in Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, Spain. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Look up Indulgence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Route of the Via Francigena The Via Francigena is an ancient road to Rome for those coming from France. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


Legend holds that St. James's remains were carried by boat from Jerusalem to northern Spain where they were buried on the site of what is now the city of Santiago de Compostela. There are some, however, who claim that the bodily remains at Santiago belong to Priscillian, the fourth-century Galician leader of an ascetic Christian sect, Priscillianism, who was one of the first Christian heretics to be executed. Priscillian of Avila (died 385) was a Spanish theologian and the founder of a party which advocated strong asceticism. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Priscillian of Avila (died 385) was a Spanish theologian and the founder of a party which advocated strong asceticism. ... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ...


There is not a single route; the Way can take one of any number of pilgrimage routes to Santiago de Compostela. However a few of the routes are considered main ones. Santiago is such an important pilgrimage destination because it is considered the burial site of the apostle, James the Great. During the Middle Ages, the route was highly travelled. However, the Black Plague, the Protestant Reformation and political unrest in 16th- century Europe resulted in its decline. By the 1980s, only a few pilgrims arrived in Santiago annually. However, since then, the route has attracted a growing number of modern-day pilgrims from around the globe. The route was declared the first European Cultural Route by the Council of Europe in October 1987; it was also named one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites in 1993. This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ... Location Location of Santiago de Compostela Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Santiago de Compostela (Galician) Spanish name Santiago de Compostela Postal code 15700 Website santiagodecompostela. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article concerns the epidemic of the mid-14th century. ... Reformation redirects here. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... A European Cultural Route is a title awarded to cultural routes recognised as significant throughout Europe by the Council of Europe. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


History of St James's Way

Monument to pilgrims, in the town of Burgos, Spain.
Monument to pilgrims, in the town of Burgos, Spain.

The pilgrimage to Santiago has never ceased from the time of the discovery of St. James' remains, though there have been years of fewer pilgrims, particularly during European wars. During the war of American Independence, John Adams was ordered by Congress to go to Paris to obtain funds for the cause. His ship started leaking and he disembarked with his two sons in Finisterre in 1779, where he proceeded to follow the Way of St. James in the opposite direction, in order to get to Paris overland. He did not stop to visit Santiago, and came to regret this during the course of his journey. In his autobiography, he gives an accurate description of the customs and lodgings afforded to St. James pilgrims in the 18th century, and mentions the legend as it was then told to travellers: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x1024, 771 KB) A statue of a pilgrim in front of the cathedral in Burgos. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x1024, 771 KB) A statue of a pilgrim in front of the cathedral in Burgos. ... The cathedral Our Lady of Burgos. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... Look up Congress in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Finisterre is an album by the British pop band Saint Etienne. ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...

I have always regretted that We could not find time to make a Pilgrimage to Saint Iago de Compostella. We were informed, ... that the Original of this Shrine and Temple of St. Iago was this. A certain Shepherd saw a bright Light there in the night. Afterwards it was revealed to an Archbishop that St. James was buried there. This laid the Foundation of a Church, and they have built an Altar on the Spot where the Shepherd saw the Light. In the time of the Moors, the People made a Vow, that if the Moors should be driven from this Country, they would give a certain portion of the Income of their Lands to Saint James. The Moors were defeated and expelled and it was reported and believed, that Saint James was in the Battle and fought with a drawn Sword at the head of the Spanish Troops, on Horseback. The People, believing that they owed the Victory to the Saint, very chearfully fulfilled their Vows by paying the Tribute. ...Upon the Supposition that this is the place of the Sepulture of Saint James, there are great numbers of Pilgrims, who visit it, every Year, from France, Spain, Italy and other parts of Europe, many of them on foot.

—Adams Family Papers: An Electronic Archive. Massachusetts Historical Society, [1]

Pre-Christian history of the route

Prior to its existence as a Christian pilgrimage, the route is believed to have had significance for the ancient pagan peoples of the Iberian peninsula also, among them the Celts, and later the pre-Christian Romans who conquered Spain.[2] The site of Santiago de Compostela itself may have been a Roman shrine[citation needed] or trade route.[3] Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Celts, normally pronounced //, is a modern term used to describe any of the European peoples who spoke, or speak, a Celtic language. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Location Location of Santiago de Compostela Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Santiago de Compostela (Galician) Spanish name Santiago de Compostela Postal code 15700 Website santiagodecompostela. ... A trade route is the sequence of pathways and stopping places used for the commercial transport of cargo. ...


To this day, many pilgrims continue from Santiago de Compostela to the Atlantic coast of Galicia, to finish their journeys at Spain's westernmost point Cape Finisterre (Galician: Fisterra). Although Cape Finisterre is not the westernmost point of mainland Europe (Cabo da Roca in Portugal is further west) the fact that the Romans called it Finisterrae (literally the end of the world, or Land's End in Latin) indicates that they viewed it as such. Location Location of Santiago de Compostela Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Santiago de Compostela (Galician) Spanish name Santiago de Compostela Postal code 15700 Website santiagodecompostela. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... Position of Cape Finisterre on the Iberian Peninsula Cape Finisterre, in Spanish Cabo Finisterre, literally Cape Lands End, is a rock-bound peninsula in the north-west of Spain. ... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Position of Cape Finisterre on the Iberian Peninsula Cape Finisterre, in Spanish Cabo Finisterre, literally Cape Lands End, is a rock-bound peninsula in the north-west of Spain. ... The lighthouse on Cabo da Roca Cabo da Roca (Cape Roca) is a cape that forms the westernmost point of mainland Portugal. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


Pagan influences can still be seen along the Way; indeed, some of the modern-day pilgrims declare themselves more attracted to the pagan legends associated with the Way than to the Christian ones. One legend holds that walking the route was a pagan fertility ritual; this is one explanation for the scallop shell being a symbol of the pilgrimage.[citation needed] An alternative interpretation is that the scallop, which resembles the setting sun, was the focus of pre-Christian Celtic rituals of the area. That is to say, the pre-Christian origin of the Way of St. James was a Celtic death journey, westwards towards the setting sun, terminating at the End of the World (Finisterra) on the "Coast of Death" (Costa de Morta) and the "Sea of Darkness" (that is, the Abyss of Death, the Mare Tenebrosum, Latin for the Atlantic Ocean, itself named after the Dying Civilization of Atlantis).[4][3] Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... Genera See text. ...


The significance of the scallop symbol

St. James pilgrim accesories
St. James pilgrim accesories
St. James is sometimes depicted as St. James the Moor Slayer, as well as 'St. James' the Pilgrim.
St. James is sometimes depicted as St. James the Moor Slayer, as well as 'St. James' the Pilgrim.
See also: Shell of Saint James

The scallop shell, typically found on the shores in Galicia, has long been the symbol of the Camino de Santiago. Over the centuries the scallop shell has taken on mythical, metaphorical and practical meaning. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Download high resolution version (765x733, 100 KB)Statue of Saint James the Great as the Moor slayer. ... Download high resolution version (765x733, 100 KB)Statue of Saint James the Great as the Moor slayer. ...


There are different accounts of the mythical origin of the symbol. Which account is taken depends on who is telling the story. Two version of the most common myth are:


James the Greater, the brother of John, was killed in Jerusalem for his convictions about his brother. James had spent some time preaching on the Iberian Peninsula.

  1. (version 1) After James' death, his disciples shipped his body to the Iberian Peninsula to be buried in what is now Santiago. Off the coast of Spain a heavy storm hit the ship, and the body was lost to the ocean. After some time, however, the body washed ashore undamaged, covered in scallops.
  2. (version 2) After James' death his body was mysteriously transported by a ship with no crew back to the Iberian Peninsula to be buried in what is now Santiago. As James' ship approached land, a wedding was taking place on the shore. The young bridegroom was on horseback, and on seeing the ship approaching, his horse got spooked, and the horse and rider plunged into the sea. Through miraculous intervention, the horse and rider emerged from the water alive, covered in seashells.[citation needed]

Besides being the mythical symbol, the scallop shell also acts as a metaphor. The grooves in the shell, which come together at a single point, represent the various routes pilgrims traveled, eventually arriving at a single destination: the tomb of Saint James in Santiago de Compostela. The scallop shell is also a metaphor for the pilgrim. As the waves of the ocean wash scallop shells up on the shores of Galicia, God's hand also guided the pilgrims to Santiago.[citation needed]


The scallop shell served practical purposes for pilgrims on the Camino de Santiago as well. The shell was the right size for gathering water to drink or for eating out of as a makeshift bowl. Also, because the scallop shell is native to the shores of Galicia, the shell functioned as proof of completion. By having a scallop shell, a pilgrim could almost certainly prove that he or she had finished the pilgrimage and had actually seen the "end of the world" which at that point in history was the Western coast of Spain.[citation needed]


The reference to St. James rescuing a "knight covered in scallops" is therefore a reference to St. James healing, or resurrecting, a dying (setting sun) knight. Note also that the knight obviously would have had to be "under the waters of death" for quite some time for shellfish to have grown over him. Similarly, the notion of the "Sea of Darkness" (Atlantic Ocean) disgorging St. James' body, so that his relics are (allegedly) buried at Santiago de Compostella on the coast, is itself a metaphor for "rising up out of Death", that is, resurrection.[citation needed]

See also: Pilgrim's hat

The pilgrim's staff is a walking stick used by pilgrim's to the shrine of Santiago de Compostela in Spain.[5] Generally, the stick has a hook on it so that something may be hung from it. The walking stick sometimes has a cross piece on it. [6] Location Location of Santiago de Compostela Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Santiago de Compostela (Galician) Spanish name Santiago de Compostela Postal code 15700 Website santiagodecompostela. ...

See also: Pilgrim's staff

The pilgrims staff is a walking stick used by pilgrims to the shrine of Santiago de Compostella is Spain. ...

The route during the Medieval period

Saint James the Great with his pilgrim's staff. The hat is typical, but he often wears his emblem, the scallop shell on the front brim of the hat or elsewhere on his clothes (it may have been lost because of the deterioration of the painting)
Saint James the Great with his pilgrim's staff. The hat is typical, but he often wears his emblem, the scallop shell on the front brim of the hat or elsewhere on his clothes (it may have been lost because of the deterioration of the painting)

The earliest records of visits paid to the shrine dedicated to St. James at Santiago de Compostela date from the 8th century, in the time of the Kingdom of Asturias. The pilgrimage to the shrine became the most renowned medieval pilgrimage, and it became customary for those who returned from Compostela to carry back with them a Galician scallop shell as proof of their completion of the journey. This practice was gradually extended to other pilgrimages.[citation needed] Saint James the Great (d. ... Location Location of Santiago de Compostela Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Santiago de Compostela (Galician) Spanish name Santiago de Compostela Postal code 15700 Website santiagodecompostela. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Flag Motto: Hoc Signo Tuetur Pius, Hoc Signo Vincitur Inimicus (English: With this sign thou shalt defend the pious, with this sign thou shalt defeat the enemy) Capital Cangas de Onis, San Martín, Pravia, Oviedo Language(s) Asturian, Latin Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King  - 718-737 Pelayo of... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Genera See text. ...


The earliest recorded pilgrims from beyond the Pyrenees visited the shrine in the middle of the 10th century, but it seems that it was not until a century later that large numbers of pilgrims from abroad were regularly journeying there. The earliest records of pilgrims that arrived from England belong to the period between 1092 and 1105. However, by the early 12th century the pilgrimage had become a highly organized affair. Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Events May 9 - Lincoln Cathedral is consecrated. ... Events Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor deposed by his son, Henry V Tamna kingdom annexed by Korean Goryeo Dynasty. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...


One of the great proponents of the pilgrimage in the 12th century was Calixtus II who started the Compostelan Holy Years.[7] The official guide in those times was the Codex Calixtinus. Published around 1140, the 5th book of the Codex is still considered the definitive source for many modern guidebooks. Four pilgrimage routes listed in the Codex originate in France and converge at Puente la Reina. From there, a well-defined route crosses northern Spain, linking Burgos, Carrión de los Condes, Sahagún, León, Astorga, and Compostela. (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Callixtus II, né Guido of Vienne (d. ... Detail from the Codex Calixtinus Folio 4r, showing Saint James the Great The Codex Calixtinus is a 12th century illuminated manuscript formerly attributed to Pope Callixtus II, though now believed to have been arranged by the French scholar Aymeric Picaud. ... Events Henry Jasomirgott was made count palatine of the Rhine. ... Puente La Reina (literally, Bridge [of] the queen; Basque: Gares) is a town and municipality located in the autonomous community of Navarra, in northern Spain. ... The cathedral Our Lady of Burgos. ... Coat of arms. ... Sahagún can refer to: A town and monastery in León, Spain. ... Cathedral of León The Palacio de los Guzmanes, the provincial parliament (Diputación) in the capital Old local council Wikimedia Commons has media related to: León The city of León, located at 42. ... Episcopal Palace of Astorga Astorga is a town in Spain, in the province of León. ...


The daily needs of pilgrims on their way to, and from, Compostela were met by a series of hospitals and hospices. These had royal protection and were a lucrative source of revenue. A new genre of ecclesiastical architecture, Romanesque, with its massive archways, was designed to cope with huge devout crowds. There was also the now- familiar paraphernalia of tourism, such as the selling of badges and souvenirs. Since the Christian symbol for James the Greater was the scallop shell, many pilgrims would wear this as a sign to anyone on the road that they were a pilgrim. This gave them privileges to sleep in churches and ask for free meals, but also warded off thieves who did not dare attack devoted pilgrims. For the town in the Republic of Ireland, see Hospital, County Limerick. ... Palliative care is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of the symptoms of a disease or slows its progress rather than providing a cure. ... South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... Tourist redirects here. ... For people and places called Saint James, see the diambiguation page. ...


The pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela was possible because of the protection and freedom provided by the Kingdom of France, where the majority of pilgrims originated. Enterprising French people (including Gascons and other peoples not under the French crown) settled in towns along the pilgrimage routes, where their names appear in the archives. The pilgrims were tended by people like Domingo de la Calzada who was later recognized as a saint himself. The borders of modern France closely align with those of the ancient territory of Gaul, inhabited by Celts known as Gauls. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Pilgrims would walk the Way of St. James, often for months, in order to arrive at the great church in the main square of Compostela to pay homage to St. James. So many pilgrims have laid their hands on the pillar just inside the doorway of the church that a groove has been worn in the stone.


Oddly, the popular Spanish name for the astronomical Milky Way is El Camino de Santiago. The Milky Way was said to be formed from the dust raised by travelling pilgrims in a common medieval legend.[8]. Compostela itself means 'field of stars'.[3] For other uses, see Milky Way (disambiguation). ...


The pilgrimage as penance

Saint-Guilhem-le-Désert
Saint-Guilhem-le-Désert

The Church employed a system of rituals to atone for temporal punishment due to sins known as penance. According to this system, pilgrimages were a suitable form of expiation for some temporal punishment, and they could be used as acts of penance for those who were guilty of certain crimes. As noted in the Catholic Encyclopedia, Image File history File links Size of this preview: 734 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1000 × 817 pixel, file size: 954 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Way of St. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 734 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1000 × 817 pixel, file size: 954 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Way of St. ... For other uses, see Penance (disambiguation). ... The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to today as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by The Encyclopedia Press. ...

In the registers of the Inquisition at Carcassone… we find the four following places noted as being the centres of the greater pilgrimages to be imposed as penances for the graver crimes: the tomb of the Apostles at Rome, the shrine of St. James at Compostella [sic], St. Thomas' body at Canterbury, and the relics of the Three Kings at Cologne.[9]

There is still a tradition in Flanders of freeing one prisoner a year[10] under the condition that this prisoner walk to Santiago wearing a heavy backpack, accompanied by a guard. The French Catholic diocese of Carcassonne comprises the department of Aude. ... // On December 23, 1950, in his pre-Christmas radio broadcast to the world, Pope Pius XII announced the discovery of Saint Peters tomb. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... St. ... Canterbury is a cathedral city in east Kent in South East England and is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... The Shrine of the Three Kings in Cologne cathedral. ... Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ...


The modern-day pilgrimage

The modern symbol of the way
The modern symbol of the way

Today tens of thousands[11] of Christian pilgrims and other travellers set out each year from their front doorstep, or popular starting points across Europe, to make their way to Santiago de Compostela. Most travel by foot, some by bicycle, and a few travel as some of their medieval counterparts did, on horseback or by donkey (for example, the British author and humorist Tim Moore). In addition to people undertaking a religious pilgrimage, there are many travellers and hikers who walk the route for non-religious reasons: travel, sport, or simply the challenge of weeks of walking in a foreign land. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x782, 87 KB) {{Information| Description = Jakobsmuschelsymbol am ostbayerischen Jakobsweg bei Eschlkam Source = own work Date = 2006-05-20 Author = Waldschmidt Permission = Lizenz File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x782, 87 KB) {{Information| Description = Jakobsmuschelsymbol am ostbayerischen Jakobsweg bei Eschlkam Source = own work Date = 2006-05-20 Author = Waldschmidt Permission = Lizenz File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Monument to pilgrims in Burgos, Spain This article is on religious pilgrims. ... A type of touring bicycle Bicycle touring is a leisure travel activity which involves touring, exploring or sightseeing by bicycle. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... A humorist is an author who specializes in short, humorous articles or essays. ... For other uses, see Tim Moore. ...


Routes to Santiago

For more details on this topic, see Way of St. James (route descriptions).
A post marking the way
A post marking the way

Pilgrims on the Way of St. James walk for weeks or months to visit the city of Santiago de Compostela. They can follow many routes (any path to Santiago is a pilgrim's path) but the most popular route is the French Way or Camino Francés; the most common starting points are cities in Spain situated along this route. Historically, most of the pilgrims came from France, due to the Codex Calixtinus. For this reason, the Spanish consider the Pyrenees the starting point. Common starting points along the French border are Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port or Somport on the French side of the Pyrenees and Roncesvalles or Jaca on the Spanish side. The Way of St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1093 KB) Poste indicativo en el Camino de Santiago entre Biescas y Orós Alto (provincia de Huesca, España) Sign at the Way of St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1093 KB) Poste indicativo en el Camino de Santiago entre Biescas y Orós Alto (provincia de Huesca, España) Sign at the Way of St. ... Location Location of Santiago de Compostela Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Santiago de Compostela (Galician) Spanish name Santiago de Compostela Postal code 15700 Website santiagodecompostela. ... The Way of St. ... Detail from the Codex Calixtinus Folio 4r, showing Saint James the Great The Codex Calixtinus is a 12th century illuminated manuscript formerly attributed to Pope Callixtus II, though now believed to have been arranged by the French scholar Aymeric Picaud. ... Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port (literally meaning Saint John at the foot of the mountain pass in French) (Basque: Donibane Garazi) is a commune in the French département of Pyrénées-Atlantiques. ... Somport (known also as the Aspe Pass, the Canfranc Pass, and Col du Somport in French) is a mountain pass in the central Pyrenees lying at 1632 m. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... Roncesvalles (French: Roncevaux, Basque: Orreaga) is a small village of northern Spain (Navarre Cities), in the province of Navarre; situated on the small river Urrobi, at an altitude of 2,950 ft. ... Jaca is also another name for the jackfruit. ...


However, many pilgrims begin further afield, in one of the four French towns which are common and traditional starting points: Le Puy, Vézelay, Arles and Tours. Cluny, site of the celebrated medieval abbey, was another important rallying point for pilgrims, and, in 2002, it was integrated into the official European pilgrimage route linking Vézelay and Le Puy. Some pilgrims start from even further away, though their routes will often pass through one of the four French towns mentioned. Some Europeans begin their pilgrimage from the very doorstep of their homes just as their medieval counterparts did hundreds of years ago. Saint Michel dAiguilhe Chapel Le Puy-en-Velay (Lo Puèi de Velai in the Auvergnat dialect of the Occitan language, pronounced [lu/lÉ™ ˈpÅ“j dÉ™ ˈvÉ™laj]) is a commune of south-central France, préfecture (capital) of the Haute-Loire département. ... Vézelay is a commune in the Yonne département in the Bourgogne région of France. ... Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (Subprefecture) Arrondissement Arles Canton Chief town of 2 cantons: Arles-Est and Arles-Ouest Intercommunality Agglomeration community of Arles-Crau-Camargue-Montagnette Mayor Hervé Schiavetti (PS) (2001-2008) Statistics Altitude 0 m–57 m (avg. ... Tours is a city in France, the préfecture (capital city) of the Indre-et-Loire département, on the lower reaches of the river Loire, between Orléans and the Atlantic coast. ... Cluny nowadays The town of Cluny or Clugny lies in the modern-day département of Saône-et-Loire in the région of France, near Mâcon. ...


Pilgrims' accommodation

St. James's shell, a symbol of the route, on a wall in León, Spain
St. James's shell, a symbol of the route, on a wall in León, Spain

In Spain and southern France, pilgrim's hostels dot the common routes providing overnight accommodation for recognized pilgrims, those who hold a credencial. (See below.) In Spain this type of accommodation is called a refugio or an albergue, both of which are similar to youth hostels or hostelries in the French system of Gîtes d'étape; beds are in dormitories, and they usually cost between three and seven Euros per night, but a few operate on voluntary donations and are known as donativos. Pilgrims are usually limited to one night's accommodation. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (640x1024, 202 KB) Spain, Leon - shell as a marker of St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (640x1024, 202 KB) Spain, Leon - shell as a marker of St. ... The city of León (Llión in the Leonese language), located at 42. ... The Way of St. ... Youth hostel in Rome. ... A gîte, (masculine gender, pronounced ) is a French holiday home that is available for rent. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


These hostels may be run by the local parish, the local council, private owners, or pilgrims' associations. Occasionally these refugios are located in monasteries, such as the one in Samos, Spain, run by monks or the one in Santiago de Compostela. Samos is a town in the autonomous community of Galicia, Spain. ...


The Pilgrim's passport

St. James pilgrim passport stamps in Spain for the Camino Frances
St. James pilgrim passport stamps in Spain for the Camino Frances
St. James pilgrim passport stamps in France on the Via Turenensis (Tours route) for the Chemin de St. Jacques de Compostelle. The World Heritage Sites of the Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France lists the major French towns with stamps.
St. James pilgrim passport stamps in France on the Via Turenensis (Tours route) for the Chemin de St. Jacques de Compostelle. The World Heritage Sites of the Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France lists the major French towns with stamps.

Most pilgrims have a document called the credencial, which they have purchased for a few euros through a Spanish tourist agency or their local church, depending on their starting location. The credencial is a pass which allows (sometimes free) overnight accommodation in refugios. Also known as the "Pilgrim's passport", the credencial is stamped with the official St. James stamp of each town or refugio at which the pilgrim has stayed. It provides walking pilgrims with a record of where they ate or slept, but also serves as proof to the Pilgrim's office in Santiago that the journey is accomplished according to an official route. The credencial is available at refugios, tourist offices, some local parish houses, and outside Spain, through the national St. James organisation of that country. The stamped credencial is also necessary if the pilgrim wants to obtain a Compostela, a certificate of completion of the pilgrimage. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 501 pixelsFull resolution (2108 × 1320 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 501 pixelsFull resolution (2108 × 1320 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 504 pixelsFull resolution (2102 × 1325 pixel, file size: 941 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture of stamps in France in Way of St. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 504 pixelsFull resolution (2102 × 1325 pixel, file size: 941 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture of stamps in France in Way of St. ... In 1998, several sites in France were added to the UNESCO World Heritage Sites under the description: Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France. Below is a detailed list of these sites: Périgueux: cathedral Saint-Front - Aquitaine Saint-Avit-Sénieur: church - Aquitaine Le Buisson-de-Cadouin: former abbaye... -1...


Most often the stamp can be obtained in the refugio, Cathedral or local church. If the church is closed, the town hall or office of tourism can provide a stamp, as well as nearby youth hostels or private St. James addresses. Outside Spain, the stamp can be associated with somewhat of a ceremony, where the stamper and the pilgrim can share information. As the pilgrimage approaches Santiago however, the increased number of pilgrims cause many of the stamps in small towns to be self-service, while in the larger towns there are several options to obtain the necessary stamp.


The compostela

The compostela is a certificate of accomplishment given to pilgrims on completing the Way. To earn the compostela one needs to walk a minimum of 100 km (cyclists must cycle at least 200 km). In practice for walkers, that means starting in the small city of Sarria, for it has good transportation connections via bus and rail to other places in Spain. Pilgrims arriving in Santiago de Compostela who have walked at least the last 100 km, or cycled 200 km to get there (as indicated on their credencial), are eligible for this compostela from the Pilgrim's Office in Santiago. Nickname: Motto: {{{motto}}} Official website: ? Location Situation of Sarria within Galicia Government Parroquias  ? Alcalde (Mayor)  ? (?) Geographical characteristics Area km² Land  ? km² Water  ? km² Population  ? Total (2005)  ? (INE) Density  ?/km² Latitude  ? Longitude  ? Time zone CET (UTC+1) Summer (DST) CET (UTC+2) Categories: | | | ... Location Location of Santiago de Compostela Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Santiago de Compostela (Galician) Spanish name Santiago de Compostela Postal code 15700 Website santiagodecompostela. ...

St. James pilgrim Compostela certificate

In medieval Catholicism, the compostela counted as an act of indulgence. The pilgrim was entitled to a partial indulgence, or, if the compostela was obtained in a Holy Year, a plenary indulgence. The full text of the certificate is in Latin and reads: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 434 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1322 × 1826 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 434 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1322 × 1826 pixel, file size: 1. ... Look up Indulgence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Jubilee (disambiguation) The concept of the Jubilee is a special year of remission of sins and universal pardon. ... In Catholic theology, an indulgence is the remission granted by the Church of the temporal punishment due to sins already forgiven by God. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...

CAPITULUM hujus Almae Apostolicae et Metropolitanae Ecclesiae Compostellanae sigilli Altaris Beati Jacobi Apostoli custos, ut omnibus Fidelibus et Perigrinis ex toto terrarum Orbe, devotionis affectu vel voti cosa, ad limina Apostoli Nostri Hispaniarum Patroni ac Tutelaris SANCTI JACOBI convenientibus, authenticas visitationis litteras expediat, omnibus et singulis praesentes inspecturis, notum facit : (Latin version of name of recipient)


Hoc sacratissimum Templum pietatis causa devote visitasse. In quorum fidem praesentes litteras, sigillo ejusdem Sanctae Ecclesiae munitas, ei confero.


Datum Compostellae die (day) mensis (month) anno Dni (year)


Canonicus Deputatus pro Peregrinis

The pilgrim passport is examined carefully for stamps and dates. If a key stamp is missing, or if the pilgrim does not claim a religious purpose for their pilgrimage, the compostela may be refused. The Pilgrim office of Santiago awards more than 100,000 compostelas per year to pilgrims from over 100 countries.


Pilgrim's Mass

A Pilgrim's Mass in the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela is held each day at noon for pilgrims. Pilgrims who received the Compostela the day before have their countries of origin and the starting point of their pilgrimage announced at the Mass. The Obradoiro façade of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela: an all-but-Gothic composition generated entirely of classical details Santiago de Compostela Cathedral is situated in Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, Spain. ...


The modern pilgrimage on television

Art critic and journalist Brian Sewell made the pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela for a television series The Naked Pilgrim for UK's Channel Five in 2003. Travelling by car along the French route, he visits many towns and cities on the way: stop offs include Paris, Chartres, Roncesvalles, Burgos, Leon and Frómista. Sewell, a lapsed Catholic, is moved by the stories of other pilgrims and by the sights he sees. The series climaxes with Sewell's emotional response to the Mass at Compostela. Brian Sewell (born 15 July 1931 in Kensington, London)[1] is an English art critic. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Chartres is a town and commune of France, préfecture (capital) of the Eure-et-Loir département. ... Roncesvalles (French: Roncevaux, Basque: Orreaga) is a small village of northern Spain (Navarre Cities), in the province of Navarre; situated on the small river Urrobi, at an altitude of 2,950 ft. ... The cathedral Our Lady of Burgos. ... Leon or Léon or León may refer to: // Léon, Landes, a commune of the Landes département, France Léon (viscounty), Brittany, France Léon (diocese), Brittany, France Greek: , two sites: a point on the south coast of Crete, now called Liondas. ...


The pilgrimage as tourism

The Galician government seeks to make the Way into a popular tourist destination. When there is a Holy Compostellan Year (whenever July 25 falls on a Sunday; the next will be 2010) the Galician government's Xacobeo tourism campaign is unleashed once more. Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Tourist redirects here. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Way's name in other languages

The Way of St. James is most often referred to by the names used in the areas it passes:

  • Spanish: El Camino de Santiago or simply El Camino
  • Galician: O Camiño de Santiago or Ruta Xacobea
  • Basque: Donejakue Bidea
  • French: O Camiño de Santiago or le chemin de Saint Jacques''
  • Portuguese: O Caminho de Santiago

Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ...

Further reading

Pilgrim's guides and travelogues

The Confraternity of Saint James is a pilgrims association, educational charity and book publisher for the ancient and modern-day pilgrim route the Way of St. ...

Fiction and other literary works

Paulo Coelho (IPA: ) (born August 24, 1947) is a Brazilian lyricist and novelist. ... The Pilgrimage by Paulo Coelho kick started his career. ... Shirley MacLaine (born April 24, 1934) is an Academy Award-winning American film and theatre actress, well-known not only for her acting, but for her devotion to her belief in reincarnation and aliens. ... James Albert Michener (February 3, 1907? - October 16, 1997) was the American author of such books as Tales of the South Pacific (for which he won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1948), Hawaii, The Drifters, Centennial, The Source, The Fires of Spring, Chesapeake, Caribbean, Caravans, Alaska, Texas and Poland. ... James Micheners book Iberia is a detailed exploration of Spain at it existed in the mid 1960s. ... For other uses, see Tim Moore. ...

See also

In 1998, several sites in France were added to the UNESCO World Heritage Sites under the description: Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France. Below is a detailed list of these sites: Périgueux: cathedral Saint-Front - Aquitaine Saint-Avit-Sénieur: church - Aquitaine Le Buisson-de-Cadouin: former abbaye... The Confraternity of Saint James is a pilgrims association, educational charity and book publisher for the ancient and modern-day pilgrim route the Way of St. ... 17th century interpretation of saint James as the Moor-killer from the Peruvian school of Cuzco. ... Saint Dominic de la Calzada (or Dominic of the Causeway) (Spanish: ) (May 12, 1019 - 1109) was a Basque saint. ... The Cross of St. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

General information

  • The official site of the Santiago de Compostela cathedral
  • Compostela Group of Universities - a network of Universities preserving the historical and cultural heritage of the route

Camino Confraternities

Travel information

Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ...

Link collections

  • Xacowebs Collection of websites related to Way of St. James
  • International Bibliography
  • Account of two horse back journeys along the St James Way and the via Francigena

References

  1. ^ John Adams autobiography, part 3, Peace, 1779-1780, sheet 10 of 18. Harvard University Press, 1961 (August, 2007).
  2. ^ http://www.eurovia.tv/home/content/view/62/144/lang,en/
  3. ^ a b c http://dspace.dial.pipex.com/telegraph/04camino/04000001.htm
  4. ^ http://www.europe.org.uk/index/-/id/289/
  5. ^ Pilgrim's Way to Santiago curiosities Navarre tourism guide
  6. ^ Pilgrim's or Palmer's Staff, (fr. bourdon): this was used as a device in a coat of arms as early at least as Edward II.'s reign, as will be seen. The Staff and the Escallop shell(q.v.) were the badge of the pilgrim, and hence it is but natural it should find its way into the shields of those who had visited the Holy Land. The usual form of representation is figure 1, but is some the hook is wanting, and when this is the case it is scarcely distinguishable from a pastoral staff as borne by some of the monasteries: it is shown in figure 2. While, too, it is represented under different forms, it is blazoned as will be seen also, under different names, e.g. a pilgrim's crutch, a crutch-staff, &c., but there is no reason to suppose that the different names can be correlated with different figures. The crutch, perhaps, should be represented with the transverse piece on the top of the staff (like the letter T) instead of across it. heraldsnet.org
  7. ^ http://www.caminoguides.com/history.html
  8. ^ Visions of the Milky Way, Giovanni F. Bignami, Science 26 March 2004 303: 1979
  9. ^ Pilgrimages, New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia, retrieved Dec 1, 2006
  10. ^ Turismo de Bélgica. Huellas españolas en Flandes.
  11. ^ "The present-day pilgrimage", Confraternity of Saint James, July 26, 2006. 
Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ...

 
 

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