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Encyclopedia > Watermill
Watermill of Braine-le-Château, Belgium (12th century)
Watermill of Braine-le-Château, Belgium (12th century)

A watermill is a structure that uses a water wheel or turbine to drive a mechanical process such as flour or lumber production, or metal shaping (rolling, grinding or wire drawing). A watermill that generates electricity is usually called a hydroelectric plant. Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1423 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1423 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Maison du Bailli, Braine-Le-Chateau, ca. ... An overshot water wheel standing 42 feet high powers the Old Mill at Berry College in Rome, Georgia A water wheel (also waterwheel, Norse mill, Persian wheel or noria) is a hydropower system; a system for extracting power from a flow of water. ... Kaplan turbine and electrical generator cut-away view. ... Look up flour in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Lumber or Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction... A rolling mill is a machine or factory for shaping metal by passing it between rollers. ... Draw plate front Draw plate back Draw plate top edge Draw plates are used to draw wire to make it thinner. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... Undershot water wheels on the Orontes River in Hama, Syria Saint Anthony Falls Hydropower is the capture of the energy of moving water for some useful purpose. ...

Contents

History

India

Water power may have originated in 4th century BC India. According to Terry S. Reynolds, "Joseph Needham noted in 1965 that certain ancient Indian texts from around 350 BC mentioned a cakkavattaka (turning wheel) which commentaries explained as arahatta-ghatĩ-yanta (machine with wheel-pots attached)", on which basis Needham "suggested that the machine in question was a noria and that it was the first water powered prime mover." However Reynolds also writes that "the term used in Indian texts is ambiguous and does not clearly indicate a water-powered device. In fact, as Thorkild Schiøler has noted, it is far more likely that these passages refer to some type of tread- or hand-operated water-lifting device, instead of a water-powered water-lifting wheel."[1] The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (December 9, 1900 – March 24, 1995) was a British biochemist and pre-eminent authority on the history of Chinese science. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 355 BC 354 BC 353 BC 352 BC 351 BC - 350 BC - 349 BC 348 BC 347... An overshot water wheel standing 42 feet high powers the Old Mill at Berry College in Rome, Georgia A water wheel (also waterwheel, Norse mill, Persian wheel or noria) is a hydropower system; a system for extracting power from a flow of water. ...


Irrigation water for crops was provided by using water raising wheels, some driven by the force of the current in the river from which the water was being raised. This kind of water raising device was used in ancient India.[2] Ancient India may refer to: the ancient History of India, which generally includes the ancient history of the whole Indian subcontinent the legendary Kingdoms of Ancient India in Sanskrit literature the Iron Age Mahajanapadas the Middle kingdoms of India of Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages Category: ...


Around 1150, the astronomer Bhaskara Achārya observed water-raising wheels and imagined such a wheel lifting enough water to replenish the stream driving it, effectively, a perpetual motion machine.[3] Bhāskara (1114-1185), also called Bhāskara II and Bhāskarācārya (Bhaskara the teacher) was an Indian mathematician. ... This article or section should include material from Parallel Path See also Perpetuum mobile as a musical term Perpetual motion machines (the Latin term perpetuum mobile is not uncommon) are a class of hypothetical machines which would produce useful energy in a way science cannot explain (yet). ...


The construction of water works and aspects of water technology in India is described in Arabic and Persian works. During medieval times, the diffusion of Indian and Persian irrigation technologies gave rise to an advanced irrigation system which bought about economic growth and also helped in the growth of material culture.[4] Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Look up Persian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Greece and Rome

The ancient Greeks and Romans are known to have used the technology. In the 1st century BC, the Greek epigrammatist Antipater of Thessalonica made the first clear reference to the waterwheel. He praised it for its use in grinding grain and the reduction of human labour:[5] Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek-speaking world in ancient times. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... Antipater of Thessalonica was the author of upwards of a hundred epigrams in the Greek Anthology. ...

Hold back your hand from the mill, you grinding girls; even if the cockcrow heralds the dawn, sleep on. For Demeter has imposed the labours of your hands on the nymphs, who leaping down upon the topmost part of the wheel, rotate its axle; with encircling cogs,[6] it turns the hollow weight of the Nisyrian millstones. If we learn to feast toil-free on the fruits of the earth, we taste again the golden age. Ceres (Demeter), allegory of August: detail of a fresco by Cosimo Tura, Palazzo Schifanoia, Ferrara, 1469-70 In Greek mythology Dêmêtêr (Greek: , mother-earth or possibly distribution-mother from the noun of the Indo-European mother-earth *dheghom *mater) is the goddess of grain and agriculture, the... In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of female nature entities, either bound to a particular location or landform or joining the retinue of a god or goddess. ... Satellite image of Nisyros island, an active volcano Nisyros (Greek: Νίσυρος; also transliterated Nissiros; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a volcanic Greek island located in the Aegean Sea. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

However, Lewis has argued that the water wheel, probably at least the vertical kind, was included in post portions of the Philo of Byzantium, who wrote in the 3rd century BC, and parts of whose work survives in Arabic and Latin translations, including that of Vitruvius. An early exapmle is mentioned in Strabo's Geography near the palace at Cabira of Mithradates VI Eupator, King of Pontus from 120 BC to 71 BC and 67 BC to 66 BC. The fulling mill and mills for pounding grain (to dehusk it) seem also to have been used in the Roman Empire.[7] Philo of Byzantium, a Greek writer on mechanics, (born about 280 BCE) flourished during the latter half of the 2nd century B.C. (according to some, a century earlier). ... The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. // The Pyramid of the Moon, one of several monuments built in Teotihuacán Early 3rd century BC or later - Theater, Epidauros is built. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born ca. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Cabira (Greek: τὰ Κάβειρα), a place in Pontus, at the base of the range of Paryadres, about 150 stadia south of Eupatoria or Magnopolis, which was at the junction of the Iris and the Lycus. ... Mithridates VI of Pontus, (132 BC- 63 BC), called Eupator Dionysius, was the king of Pontus in Asia Minor and one of Romes most formidable and successful enemies. ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 125 BC 124 BC 123 BC 122 BC 121 BC - 120 BC - 119 BC 118 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 76 BC 75 BC 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC - 71 BC - 70 BC 69 BC 68... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64... Events Roman Republic Consuls: Manius Aemilius Lepidus and Lucius Volcacius Tullus Catiline accused of conspiring against the Roman Republic with Autronius and the younger Sulla. ... Fulling is a step in clothmaking which involves the cleansing of cloth (particularly wool) to get rid of oils, dirt, and other impurities. ...


The Romans used both fixed and floating water wheels and introduced water power to other countries of the Roman Empire. So-called 'Greek Mills' used water wheels with a horizontal wheel (and vertical shaft). A "Roman Mill" features a vertical wheel (on a horizontal shaft). Greek style mills are the older and simpler of the two designs, but only operate well with high water velocities and with small diameter millstones. Roman style mills are more complicated as they require gears to transmit the power from a shaft with a horizontal axis to one with a vertical axis. An example of a Roman era watermill would be the early 4th century site at Barbegal (q.v.) in southern France, where 16 overshot waterwheels were used to power an enormous flour mill. There was also a mill on the Janiculum (q.v.) hill at Rome. Nevertheless Roman mills were few in number. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... The Barbegal aqueduct and mill is a Roman water-mill complex mills near the town of Arles, France. ... Look up flour in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Janiculum (Gianicolo in Italian) is a hill in western Rome. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5...


China

The watermill was also known in China during the Han dynasty (202 BC - 220 AD) in order to pound grain (to dehusk it) as well as to power piston bellows of a blast furnace in forging cast iron. Han Dynasty commanderies and kingdoms, AD 2 Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 AD - 24 AD... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 3rd century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 207 BC 206 BC 205 BC 204 BC 203 BC - 202 BC - 201 BC 200 BC 199 BC 198 BC 197 BC Events October... Events Han Xiandi abdicates his throne to Cao Pi, symbolizing the end of the Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in China. ... Look up AD, ad-, and ad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hand bellows The bellows is a device for delivering pressured air in a controlled quantity to a controlled location. ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ...


In the text known as the Xin Lun written by Huan Tan about 20 AD (during the usurpation of Wang Mang), it states that the legendary mythological king known as Fu Xi was the one responsible for the pestle and mortar, or tilt-hammer device (see trip hammer). Although the author speaks of the mythological Fu Xi, a passage of his writing suggests that the waterwheel was in widespread use by the 1st century AD in China (Wade-Giles spelling): There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Wang Mang (王莽, pinyin: Wáng Măng) (45 BC–October 6, 23), courtesy name Jujun (巨君), was a Han Dynasty official who seized the throne from the Liu family and founded Xin (or Hsin) Dynasty (新朝, meaning new dynasty), ruling AD 8–23. ... Fu Hsi (伏羲; pinyin fú xī; Pao-hsi), was the mythical First Emperor of China. ... A triphammer is a massive power hammer, usually raised by a cam and then released to fall under the force of gravity. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ...

Fu Hsi invented the pestle and mortar, which is so useful, and later on it was cleverly improved in such a way that the whole weight of the body could be used for treading on the tilt-hammer (tui), thus increasing the efficiency ten times. Afterwards the power of animals—donkeys, mules, oxen, and horses—was applied by means of machinery, and water-power too used for pounding, so that the benefit was increased a hundredfold.[8]

In 31 AD, a Chinese engineer named Du Shi (Wade-Giles: Tu Shih) "invented the first water-powered bellows. This was a complicated machine containing gears, axles, and levers that was powered by a waterwheel".[9] In essence, Du Shi's invention aided the forging of cast iron smelted from the blast furnace. Du Shi's invention was continued by Chinese living in subsequent dynastic periods of China, although the bellows of his device were improved upon in later periods (from leather bellows to wooden-fan bellows).[10] Early Chinese mills had horizontal wheels. Events Aelius Sejanus named co-Consul to the Emperor Tiberius Naevius Sutorius Macro becomes the leader of the Praetorian Guard after Sejanus is executed. ... Du Shi (Wade-Giles: Tu Shih, active 1st century AD) was a governmental Prefect of Nanyang in 31 AD and a mechanical engineer of the Eastern Han Dynasty in ancient China. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ...


Medieval Europe

In a 2005 survey the scholar Adam Lucas identified the following first appearances of various industrial mill types in Western Europe. Noticeable is the preeminent role of France in the introduction of new innovative uses of waterpower. However, he has drawn attention to the dearth of studies of the subject in several other countries. However he points to a lack of studies in other regions.

First Appearance of Various Industrial Mills in Medieval Europe, AD 770-1443 [11]
Type of mill Date Country
Malt mill 770 France
Fulling mill 1080 France
Tanning mill ca. 1134 France
Forge mill ca. 1200 England, France
Tool-sharpening mill 1203 France
Hemp mill 1209 France
Bellows 1269, 1283 Slovakia, France
Sawmill ca. 1300 France
Ore-crushing mill 1317 Germany
Blast furnace 1384 France
Cutting and slitting mill 1443 France

Operation of a watermill

Roblin's Mill, a watermill, at Black Creek Pioneer Village in Toronto
Roblin's Mill, a watermill, at Black Creek Pioneer Village in Toronto
Watermills in Bosnia
Watermills in Bosnia

Typically, water is diverted from a river or impoundment or mill pond to a turbine or water wheel, along a channel or pipe (variously known as a flume, head race, mill race, leat, leet,[12] lade (Scots) or penstock). The force of the water's movement drives the blades of a wheel or turbine, which in turn rotates an axle that drives the mill's other machinery. Water leaving the wheel or turbine is drained through a tail race, but this channel may also be the head race of yet another wheel, turbine or mill. The passage of water is controlled by sluice gates that allow maintenance and some measure of flood control; large mill complexes may have dozens of sluices controlling complicated interconnected races that feed multiple buildings and industrial processes. Download high resolution version (450x673, 43 KB)Roblins Mill at Black Creek Pioneer Village, Toronto This picture is a personal snapshot. ... Download high resolution version (450x673, 43 KB)Roblins Mill at Black Creek Pioneer Village, Toronto This picture is a personal snapshot. ... Black Creek Pioneer Village is an historic site in Toronto, Ontario, just west of York University and southeast of the Jane and Finch intersection. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 1031 KB) Summary Several watermills run by river pliva. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 1031 KB) Summary Several watermills run by river pliva. ... This bridge across the Danube River links Hungary with Slovakia. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This flume diverts water from the White River in Washington to generate electricity A flume is a waterwork with open water table, that leads water from a diversion dam or weir completely aside a natural flow, often an elevated box structure (typically wood) that follows the natural contours of the... A channel of a stream, esp. ... A leat (occasionally and archaically spelt lete) is a name, particularly common in the south-west of England for a man-made watercourse, or a makeshift aqueduct. ... Penstocks at the Grand Coulee Dams third powerhouse. ... Sluice gates near Henley, on the River Thames A small wooden sluice in Magome, Japan, used to power a waterwheel. ... Picture of flooding in Amphoe Sena, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. ...

The interior of a functional water mill
The interior of a functional water mill

Watermills can be divided into two kinds, one with a horizontal waterwheel on a vertical axle, and the other with a vertical wheel on a horizontal axle. The oldest of these were horizontal mills in which the force of the water, striking a simple paddle wheel set horizontally in line with the flow turned a runner stone balanced on the rynd which is atop a shaft leading directly up from the wheel. The bedstone does not turn. The problem with this type of mill arose from the lack of gearing; the speed of the water directly set the maximum speed of the runner stone which, in turn, set the rate of milling. Image File history File linksMetadata WatermillWealdandDownland. ... Image File history File linksMetadata WatermillWealdandDownland. ... An overshot water wheel standing 42 feet high powers the Old Mill at Berry College in Rome, Georgia A water wheel (also waterwheel, Norse mill, Persian wheel or noria) is a hydropower system; a system for extracting power from a flow of water. ... A runner stone is the upper-most of a pair of working millstones. ... A Rynd (also Rind or millrynd) is a cross-shaped iron support for the runner stone in a pair of millstones. ... Bedstone is a tiny village and parish (population 85) in the county of Shropshire, England, close to the border with Wales. ...


Most watermills in Britain and the United States of America had a vertical waterwheel, one of three kinds: undershot, overshot and breast-shot. This produced rotary motion around a horizontal axis, which could be used (with cams) to lift hammers in a forge, fulling stocks in a fulling mill and so on. However, in corn mills rotation about a vertical axis was required to drive its stones. The horizontal rotation was converted into the vertical rotation by means of gearing, which also enabled the runner stones to turn faster than the waterwheel. The usual arrangement in British and American corn mills has been for the waterwheel to turn a horizontal shaft on which is also mounted a large pit wheel. This meshes with the wallower, mounted on a vertical shaft, which turns the (larger) great spur wheel (mounted on the same shaft). This large face wheel, set with pegs, in turn, turned a smaller wheel (such as a lantern gear) known as a stone nut, which was attached to the shaft that drove the runner stone. The number of runner stones that could be turned depended directly upon the supply of water available. In many mills the great spur wheel turned only one stone, but there might be several mills under one roof. As waterwheel technology improved mills became more efficient, and by the 19th century, it was common for the great spur wheel to drive several stone nuts, so that a single water wheel could drive as many as four stones.[13] Each step in the process increased the gear ratio which increased the maximum speed of the runner stone. Adjusting the sluice gate and thus the flow of the water past the main wheel allowed the miller to compensate for seasonal variations in the water supply. Finer speed adjustment was made during the milling process by tentering, that is, adjusting the gap between the stones according to the water flow, the type of grain being milled, and the grade of flour required. Iron tapped from the blast furnace is pig iron, and contains significant amounts of carbon and silicon. ... A Fulling mill was a variety of water mill used for fulling cloth. ... Gristmill with water wheel, Skyline Drive, VA, 1938 A gristmill is a building where grain is ground into flour. ... In machinery, a face wheel, lap, or crown wheel (transmission wheel) is a wheel whose disk face is adapted for grinding and polishing. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sluice gates at Teddington, on the River Thames Combination of sluice gates and canal lock under bridge Grave A small wooden sluice in Magome, Japan, used to power a waterwheel. ...

Dalgarven Mill, Ayrshire, Scotland
Dalgarven Mill, Ayrshire, Scotland

The overshot wheel was a later innovation in waterwheels and was around two and a half times more efficient than the undershot.[14] The undershot wheel, in which the main water wheel is simply set into the flow of the mill race, suffers from an inherent inefficiency stemming from the fact that the wheel itself, entering the water behind the main thrust of the flow driving the wheel, followed by the lift of the wheel out of the water ahead of the main thrust, actually impedes its own operation. The overshot wheel solves this problem by bringing the water flow to the top of the wheel. The water fills buckets built into the wheel, rather than the simple paddle wheel design of undershot wheels. As the buckets fill, the weight of the water starts to turn the wheel. The water spills out of the bucket on the down side into a spillway leading back to river. Since the wheel itself is set above the spillway, the water never impedes the speed of the wheel. The impulse of the water on the wheel is also harnessed in addition to the weight of the water once in the buckets. Overshot wheels require the construction of a dam on the river above the mill and a more elaborate millpond, sluice gate, mill race and spillway or tailrace.[15] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Dalgarven Mill is near Kilwinning, North Ayrshire The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

A Breastshot waterwheel at Dalgarven Mill
A Breastshot waterwheel at Dalgarven Mill

Toward the end of the 19th century, the invention of the Pelton wheel encouraged some mill owners to replace over- and undershot wheels with penstocks and Pelton wheel turbines. By the early 20th century, availability of cheap electrical energy made the water mill obsolete; although in North America, some smaller rural mills continued to operate commercially into the 1960s. A few historic mills (for example, at the Wayside Inn) still operate for demonstration purposes to this day. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Dalgarven Mill is near Kilwinning, North Ayrshire The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pelton wheel from Walchensee, Germany hydro power station. ... Penstocks are intake valves to control the flow of water in water supply, hydroelectric power and sewerage systems. ... WWII era ship propulsion turbine A turbine is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a fluid flow. ... The Wayside Inn The Wayside Inn is an historic landmark inn located in Sudbury, Massachusetts in the USA. The Wayside Inn is still in operation, offering a high-quality restaurant, historically accurate guest rooms, and hosting for small receptions. ...


A unique type of water mill is the tide mill. This mill might be of any kind, undershot, overshot or horizontal but it does not employ a river for its power source. Instead a mole or causeway is built across the mouth of a small bay. At low tide, gates in the mole are opened allowing the bay to fill with the incoming tide. At high tide the gates are closed, trapping the water inside. At a certain point a sluice gate in the mole can be opened allowing the draining water to drive a mill wheel or wheels. This is particularly effective in places where the tidal differential is very great, such as the Bay of Fundy in Canada where the tides can rise fifty feet, or the now derelict village of Tide Mills in the UK. A tide mill is a specialist type of water mill driven by tidal rise and fall. ... The Bay of Fundy (French: ) is a bay located on the Atlantic coast of North America, on the northeast end of the Gulf of Maine between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the U.S. state of Maine. ... Plaque of Tide Mills Time-Line The derelict mill race sluice, from the mill pond side The derelict mill race sluice, from the seaward side Tide Mills is a derelict village in East Sussex, England. ...


Other water mills can be set beneath large bridges where the flow of water between the stanchions is faster. At one point London bridge had so many water wheels beneath it that bargemen complained that passage through the bridge was impaired.


A final, rather elegant, water wheel innovation places the wheel in a boat anchored in midstream. The flow of the river past the boat turns the wheel and drives the millstone.


"Run of the river" schemes do not divert water at all and usually involve undershot wheels, and some types of water wheel (usually overshot steel wheels) mount a toothed annular ring near the outer edge that drives machinery from a spur gear rather than taking power from the central axle. However, the basic mode of operation remains the same; gravity drives machinery through the motion of flowing water. A vertically mounted water wheel that is rotated by water striking paddles or blades at the bottom of the wheel is said to be undershot. ... A vertically mounted water wheel that is rotated by falling water striking paddles, blades or buckets near the top of the wheel is said to be overshot. ... The steel cable of a colliery winding tower. ... A starter ring gear, sometimes just called starter ring or even ring gear, is a steel ring with teeth that is fitted on the periphery of a flexplate or flywheel of an internal combustion engine, mostly for automotive applications. ... Spur gears found on a piece of farm equipment A gear is a wheel with teeth around its circumference, the purpose of the teeth being to mesh with similar teeth on another mechanical device -- possibly another gear wheel -- so that force can be transmitted between the two devices in a... An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... A machine is any mechanical or electrical device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of tasks. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...

  • 17th century water mill ( file info) — play in browser (beta)
    • The sounds of the mechanism grinding flour.
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Image File history File links Weald_and_Dowland_water_mill. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ...

Types of watermills

Gristmill with water wheel, Skyline Drive, VA, 1938 A gristmill is a building where grain is ground into flour. ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... Look up flour in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Fulling mill was a variety of water mill used for fulling cloth. ... A sawmill is a facility where logs are cut into boards. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Lumber or Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction... For other meanings of bark, see Bark (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Tree (disambiguation). ... This page is about making leather. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Lumber or Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction... A spoke is one of some number of rods radiating from the center of a wheel (the hub where the axle connects), connecting the hub with the round traction surface. ... Catherine IIs carved, painted and gilded Coronation Coach (Hermitage Museum) George VI and Queen Elizabeth in a landau with footmen and an outrider, Canada 1939 The classic definition of a carriage is a four-wheeled horse drawn private passenger vehicle with leaf springs (elliptical springs in the 19th century... This article needs to be wikified. ... A Watt steam engine. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Cotton ready for harvest. ... Carpet is a general term given to any loom-woven or felted textile and to grass floor coverings. ... The cotton mill is a type of factory that was created to house spinning and weaving machinery. ... It has been suggested that Textile be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Blackpowder. ... Black powder was the original gunpowder and practically the only known propellant and explosive until the middle of the 19th century. ... Smokeless powder Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of gunpowder-like propellants used in firearms which produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the older black powder which it replaced. ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... Iron tapped from the blast furnace is pig iron, and contains significant amounts of carbon and silicon. ... The Slitting Mill was a water-powered mill for slitting bars of iron into rods. ... Tinplate consists of sheet steel covered with a thin layer of tin. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A reverbatory furnace is a metallurgical or process furnace which characteristically isolates the material being processed from contact with the fuel, but not from contact with the combustion gases. ... Smeltmills were water-powered mills used to smelt lead or other metals. ... International Paper Companys Kraft paper mill in Georgetown, South Carolina. ...

See also

Undershot water wheels on the Orontes River in Hama, Syria Saint Anthony Falls Hydropower is the capture of the energy of moving water for some useful purpose. ... Micro Hydro is a term used for hydroelectric power installations that typically produce up to 100 kW of power. ... World renewable energy in 2005 (except 2004 data for items marked* or **). Enlarge image to read exclusions. ... The use of water power in Britain was at its peak just before the Industrial Revolution. ... An overshot water wheel standing 42 feet high powers the Old Mill at Berry College in Rome, Georgia A water wheel (also waterwheel, Norse mill, Persian wheel or noria) is a hydropower system; a system for extracting power from a flow of water. ... Mill stones are used in windmills and watermills for grinding wheat or other grains. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... The International Molinological Society (TIMS) has been active since 1965 and is the only organization dedicated to Mills on a worldwide scale. ... Sustainable living might best be defined as a lifestyle that could, hypothetically, be sustained unmodified for many generations without exhausting any natural resources. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Reynolds, p. 14.
  2. ^ Pacey, p. 10.
  3. ^ Pacey, pp. 36.
  4. ^ Iqtidar Husain Siddiqui, 'Water Works and Irrigation System in India during Pre-Mughal Times' Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient Vol. 29, No. 1 (Feb., 1986), pp. 52–77.
  5. ^ Lewis, p. vii.
  6. ^ The translation of this word is crucial to the interpretation of the passage. Traditionally, it has been translated as 'spoke' (e.g. Reynolds, p. 17), but Lewis (p. 66) points out that, while its primary meaning is 'ray' (as a sunbeam), its only concrete meaning is 'cog'. Since a horizontal-wheeled corn mill does not need gearing (and hence has no cogs), the mill must have been vertically-wheeled.
  7. ^ Lewis, passim.
  8. ^ Needham, p. 392.
  9. ^ Woods, p. 51.
  10. ^ Needham, p. 376.
  11. ^ Adam Robert Lucas, 'Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds. A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe', Technology and Culture, Vol. 46, (Jan. 2005), pp. 1-30 (17).
  12. ^ Webster's New Twentieth Century Dictionary of the English Language Unabridged (1952) states: leet, n. A leat; a flume. [Obs.].
  13. ^ Gauldie.
  14. ^ Gauldie.
  15. ^ Dictionary definition of "tailrace".

References

  • Gauldie, Enid (1981). The Scottish Miller 1700 - 1900. Pub. John Donald. ISBN 0-85976-067-7.
  • Lewis, M. J., Millstone and Hammer: the origins of water power, University of Hull Press 1997. ISBN 085958657X.
  • Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Part 2. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd.
  • Pacey, Arnold, Technology in World Civilization: A Thousand-year History, The MIT Press; Reprint edition (July 1, 1991). ISBN 0262660725.
  • Reynolds, Terry S. Stronger Than a Hundred Men: A History of the Vertical Water Wheel. (Johns Hopkins University Press 1983). ISBN 0801872480.
  • Woods, Michael and Mary (2000). Ancient Machines: From Wedges to Waterwheels. Minneapolis: Twenty-First Century Books.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Watermill
  • 17 Jun 2003, Deutsche Welle: The World's First Underwater Windmill Starts Turning
  • U.S. Mill Pictures and Information
  • Tidal power station
  • Mill database with over 10000 european mills
  • Watermills in Norfolk, England
  • Mills in Hampshire, England
  • Upwey Mill, Weymouth, Dorset
  • The International Molinological Society (TIMS)
  • The Society for the Preservation of Old Mills (SPOOM)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Watermill - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (987 words)
A watermill is a structure that uses a water wheel or turbine to drive a mechanical process such as flour or lumber production.
The technology behind the watermill is somewhat older than that of the windmill.
Typically, water is diverted from a river or impoundment or mill pond to a turbine or water wheel, along a channel or pipe (variously known as a flume, head race, mill race, leat, or leet).
Sussex Watermills : Sussex Mills Group (3493 words)
The building of the watermill is a brick substructure on which is supported a timber framed and weatherboarded superstructure with a half hipped roof covered with clay tiles.
This tall watermill had two wooden waterwheels, one overshot and one breastshot and each worked 2 pairs of stones, although the gearing arrangement was such that either set of stones could be worked by each waterwheel.
Cox's Watermill is located within the parish of Burwash and appears to have been built at the end of the 18th century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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