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Encyclopedia > Watermark
This "Crown & CA" (for "Crown Agent") watermark was standard for postage stamps of the British colonies from the 1880s to the 1920s.
This "Crown & CA" (for "Crown Agent") watermark was standard for postage stamps of the British colonies from the 1880s to the 1920s.

A watermark is a recognizable image or pattern in paper that appears lighter when viewed by transmitted light (or darker when viewed by reflected light, atop a dark background). A watermark is made by impressing a water-coated metal stamp or dandy roll onto the paper during manufacturing. Watermarks were first introduced in Bologna, Italy in 1282; they have been used by papermakers to identify their product, and also on postage stamps, currency, and other government documents to discourage counterfeiting. Look up watermark in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A blank sheet of paper Paper is a commodity of thin material produced by the amalgamation of fibers, typically vegetable fibers composed of cellulose, which are subsequently held together by hydrogen bonding. ... A blank sheet of paper Paper is a commodity of thin material produced by the amalgamation of fibers, typically vegetable fibers composed of cellulose, which are subsequently held together by hydrogen bonding. ... Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, Bulåggna in Emiliano-Romagnolo dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ... For other uses, see Counterfeit (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Technique

The dandy roll is a light roller covered by material similar to window screen that is embossed with a pattern. Faint lines are made by laid wires that run parallel to the axis of the dandy roll, and the bold lines are made by chain wires that run around the circumference to secure the laid wires to the roll from the outside. Because the chain wires are located on the outside of the laid wires, they have a greater influence on the impression in the pulp, hence their bolder appearance than the laid wire lines. The term screen has a number of meanings: A window screen is a wire mesh that covers a window opening to keep out insects even when the window is open. ...


This embossing is transferred to the pulp fibres, compressing and reducing their thickness in that area. Because the patterned portion of the page is thinner, it transmits more light through and therefore has a lighter appearance than the surrounding paper. If these lines are distinct and parallel, and/or there is a watermark, then the paper is termed laid paper. If the lines appear as a mesh or are indiscernible, and/or there is no watermark, then it is called wove paper. This method is called line drawing watermarks. International Paper Company Wood pulp is the most common material used to make paper. ... For the meaning of fiber in nutrition, see dietary fiber. ... A page is one side of a leaf of paper. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Another type of watermark is called the shaded watermark. A shaded watermark, first used in 1848, incorporates tonal depth and creates a greyscale image. Instead of using a wire covering for the dandy roll, the shaded watermark is created by areas of relief on the roll's own surface. A watermark is very useful in the examination of paper because it can be used for dating, identifying sizes, mill trademarks and locations, and the quality of a paper. Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into image (disambiguation). ... Questioned document examination (QDE) is known by many names including forensic document examination, document examination, diplomatics, handwriting examination, and sometimes handwriting analysis, although the latter name is not often used as it may be confused with graphology. ...


Watermarks vary greatly in their visibility; while some are obvious on casual inspection, others require some study to pick out. Various aids have been developed, such as watermark fluid that wets the paper without damaging it.


Encoding an identifying code into digitized music, video, picture, or other file is known as a digital watermark. // Music is an art form consisting of sound and silence expressed through time. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For images in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Images. ... Digital watermarking is a technique which allows to add hidden copyright or other verification messages to digital audio, video, or image signals and documents. ...


Watermarks on postage stamps

Elephant head watermark used on early stamps of India.
Elephant head watermark used on early stamps of India.

In philately, the watermark is a key feature of the stamp, and often constitutes the difference between a common and a rare stamp. The "classic" stamp watermark is a small crown or other national symbol, appearing either once on each stamp or a continuous pattern. Watermarks were nearly universal on stamps in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but generally fell out of use and are not commonly used on modern issues. Image File history File links Watermark_elephant_head. ... Image File history File links Watermark_elephant_head. ... Close examination of the Penny Red, left, reveals a 148 in the margin, indicating that it was printed with plate #148. ...


Some types of embossing, such as that used to make the "cross on oval" design on early stamps of Switzerland, resemble a watermark in that the paper is thinner, but can be distinguished by having sharper edges than is usual for a normal watermark. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


See also

New Zealand two pence stamp from between 1855 and 1872 shows an S and part of the R from the T.H.Saunders watermark Thomas Harry Saunders (19 September 1813, London - 5 February 1870, Dartford), usually called T. H. Saunders, was a British paper-maker known especially for his watermarks... Dirty paper coding (DPC) is a coding technique that pre-cancels a known interference where the known interference is a interference known at the transmitter before self-data transmission. ...

External links

Look up Watermark in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Photos of USPS watermarks
  • How Watermarks are used

  Results from FactBites:
 
Watermark - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (567 words)
Watermarks were first introduced in Bologna, Italy in 1282; they have been used by papermakers to identify their product, and also on postage stamps, currency, and other government documents to discourage counterfeiting.
In philately, the watermark is a key feature of the stamp, and often constitutes the difference between a common and a rare stamp.
Watermarks were nearly universal on stamps in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but generally fell out of use and are not commonly used on modern issues.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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