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Encyclopedia > Watergate scandal
The Watergate complex, where the break-in occurred.

Watergate is a general term for a series of political scandals during the presidency of Richard Nixon that began with five men being arrested after breaking and entering into the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate hotel complex in Washington, D.C. on June 17, 1972. The scandal reached to the top levels of American government, and the attempted cover-up of the break-in ultimately led to Nixon's dramatic resignation on August 9, 1974. Watergate can refer either to the Watergate scandal of the early 1970s or to the Watergate Hotel and complex in Washington, D.C., from which that scandal takes its name. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 1,200 pixels, file size: 415 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A photo of the Watergate Complex taken from a DC-9-80 inbound to Washington National Airport on January 8, 2006. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 1,200 pixels, file size: 415 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A photo of the Watergate Complex taken from a DC-9-80 inbound to Washington National Airport on January 8, 2006. ... The Watergate complex is an office-apartment-hotel complex built in 1967 in northwest Washington, D.C., best known for being the site of burglaries that led to the Watergate scandal and the resignation of President Richard Nixon. ... Nixon redirects here. ... The Democratic National Committee (DNC) is the principal organization governing the United States Democratic Party on a day to day basis. ... The Watergate complex is an office-apartment-hotel complex built in 1967 in northwest Washington, D.C., best known for being the site of burglaries that led to the Watergate scandal and the resignation of President Richard Nixon. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...


Investigations conducted by the FBI, Senate Watergate Committee, House Judiciary Committee and the press revealed that this burglary was just one of many illegal activities authorized and carried out by Nixon's staff and those loyal to him. They also revealed the immense scope of crimes and abuses, which included campaign fraud, political espionage and sabotage, illegal break-ins, improper tax audits, illegal wiretapping on a massive scale, and a secret slush fund laundered in Mexico to pay those who conducted these operations.[1] This secret fund was also used as hush money to buy silence of the seven men who were indicted for the June 17 break-in.[2][3] President Nixon and his staff conspired to cover up the break-in as early as six days after it occurred.[4] After enduring two years of mounting evidence against the President and his staff, which included former staff members testifying against them in a Senate investigation, it was revealed that Nixon had a tape recording system in his offices and that he had recorded many conversations.[5][6] Recordings from these tapes revealed that he had obstructed justice and attempted to cover up the break-in.[4][7] This recorded conversation later became known as the Smoking Gun. After a series of court battles, the United States Supreme Court unanimously ruled in the United States v. Nixon the President must hand over the tapes; he ultimately complied. F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... The Senate Watergate Committee was a special committee convened by the United States Senate to investigate the Watergate scandal after it was learned that the Watergate burglars had been directed to break into and wiretap the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee by CREEP, President Richard Nixons re-election... U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary, or (more commonly) the House Judiciary Committee, is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... For other uses, see Sabotage (disambiguation). ... Telephone tapping or Wire tapping/ Wiretapping (in US) describes the monitoring of telephone conversations by a third party, often by covert means. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Hush money is an informal term for financial incentives or rewards offered in exchange for not divulging information. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Watergate tapes, also known as the Nixon tapes, are a collection of conversations between President Nixon and various White House staff members, recorded on the White House taping system and White House dictabelts. ... The Watergate tapes, also known as the Nixon tapes, are a collection of conversations between President Nixon and various White House staff members, recorded on the White House taping system and White House dictabelts. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... Holding The Supreme Court does have the final voice in determining constitutional questions; no person, not even the President of the United States, is completely above law; and the president cannot use executive privilege as an excuse to withhold evidence that is demonstrably relevant in a criminal trial. ...


With certainty of an impeachment in the House of Representatives and of a conviction in the Senate, Nixon resigned ten days later, becoming the only U.S. President to have resigned from office.[8][9] Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States...

Contents

Break-in

Watergate
(timeline)
Events

Pentagon Papers
Watergate burglaries
Watergate tapes
Saturday Night Massacre
United States v. Nixon
New York Times Co. v. United States Timeline of the Watergate scandal —regarding attempts by the sitting U.S. President to discredit an anti-war whistleblower of official capacity, and upon exposure of related improprieties, to use the powers of office to silence political and legal opposition. ... The Pentagon Papers is the colloquial term for United States-Vietnam Relations, 1945-1967: A Study Prepared by the Department of Defense, a 47 volume, 7,000-page, top-secret United States Department of Defense history of the United States political and military involvement in the Vietnam War from 1945... The Watergate burglaries, which took place on May 28 and June 17, 1972, have been cited in testimony, media accounts, and popular works on Watergate as the pivotal event that led ultimately to the Watergate Scandal. ... The Watergate tapes, also known as the Nixon tapes, are a collection of conversations between President Nixon and various White House staff members, recorded on the White House taping system and White House dictabelts. ... The Saturday night massacre (October 20, 1973) was the term given by political commentators to U.S. President Richard Nixons executive dismissal of independent special prosecutor Archibald Cox, and the forced resignations of Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus during the controversial and drawn-out... Holding The Supreme Court does have the final voice in determining constitutional questions; no person, not even the President of the United States, is completely above law; and the president cannot use executive privilege as an excuse to withhold evidence that is demonstrably relevant in a criminal trial. ... Holding In order to exercise prior restraint, the Government must show sufficient evidence that the publication would cause a “grave and irreparable” danger. ...

People

Ben Bagdikian
Carl Bernstein
Archibald Cox
John Dean
Deep Throat
Daniel Ellsberg
W. Mark Felt
E. Howard Hunt
Egil Krogh
G. Gordon Liddy
Angelo Lano
John N. Mitchell
Richard Nixon
John Sirica
Watergate Seven
Bob Woodward
Ben Haig Bagdikian (born 1920, Maraş, Ottoman Empire; now in Turkey) is an American educator and journalist of Armenian descent. ... Carl Bernstein (left) and Bob Woodward (right)This image is pending deletion. ... Archibald Cox, Jr. ... For other uses, see John Dean (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Deep Throat (disambiguation). ... Daniel and Patricia Marx Ellsberg - 2006 Jacob Appelbaum Daniel Ellsberg (born April 7, 1931) is a former American military analyst employed by the RAND Corporation who precipitated a national uproar in 1971 when he released the Pentagon Papers, the U.S. militarys account of activities during the Vietnam War... William Mark Felt, Sr. ... -1... Egil Krogh (far right) during Elvis Presleys visit with Nixon on December 21, 1970. ... George Gordon Battle Liddy (born November 30, 1930) was the chief operative for U.S. President Richard Nixons White House Plumbers unit. ... Angelo J. Lano was an American field agent for the Federal Bureau of Investigation in Washington DC, notable for his work heading the investigation of, and appearing as a witness for, the Watergate scandal surrounding President Richard M Nixon. ... John Newton Mitchell (September 15, 1913 – November 9, 1988) was the first United States Attorney General ever to be convicted of illegal activities and imprisoned. ... Nixon redirects here. ... Judge John Joseph Sirica (March 19, 1904 – August 14, 1992) was the Chief Judge for the United States District Court for the District of Columbia. ... The Watergate Seven were advisors and aides to United States President Richard M. Nixon who were indicted by a grand jury on March 1, 1974. ... Bob Woodward signs his book State of Denial after a talk in March 2007. ...

Groups

CREEP
White House Plumbers
Senate Watergate Committee The Committee to Re-elect the President, often abbreviated to CRP or CREEP, was a Nixon White House fundraising organization. ... The White House Plumbers or simply The Plumbers is the popular name given to the covert Nixon White House Special Investigations Unit established July 24, 1971. ... The Senate Watergate Committee was a special committee convened by the United States Senate to investigate the Watergate first break-in and the ensuing Watergate scandal after it was learned that the Watergate burglars had been directed to break into and wiretap the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee by...


List of people
connected with Watergate

Main article: Watergate burglaries

On June 17, 1972, Frank Wills, a security guard at the Watergate Complex, noticed tape covering the locks on several doors in the complex. He took the tape off, and thought nothing of it. An hour later, he discovered that someone had retaped the locks. He called the police and five men were arrested inside the Democratic National Committee's (DNC) office.[10] The five men were Virgilio González, Bernard Barker, James W. McCord, Jr., Eugenio Martínez, and Frank Sturgis. The five were charged with attempted burglary and attempted interception of telephone and other communications. On September 15, a grand jury indicted them and two other men (E. Howard Hunt, Jr. and G. Gordon Liddy[1]) for conspiracy, burglary and violation of federal wiretapping laws. The Watergate burglaries, which took place on May 28 and June 17, 1972, have been cited in testimony, media accounts, and popular works on Watergate as the pivotal event that led ultimately to the Watergate Scandal. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Frank Wills (February 4, 1948 – September 27, 2000) was the security guard who uncovered the break-in that led to the Watergate scandal. ... Virgilio R. Gonzalez was a contract CIA operative and one of the five men recruited by E. Howard Hunt and G. Gordon Liddy in 1972 for a break-in at the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee (DNC) in the Watergate building in Washington, D.C. Gonzalez was arrested in... Bernard Barker Bernard L. Barker (b. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Eugenio Martinez was one of the five men recruited by G. Gordon Liddy and E. Howard Hunt in 1972 for the Memorial Day weekend Watergate first break-in at the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters in Washington, D.C. Weeks later, on June 17, 1972, the men were arrested by... Frank Anthony Sturgis , born as Frank Angelo Fiorini, (December 9, 1924 - December 4, 1993) was one of the Watergate burglars. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In the American common law legal system, a grand jury is a type of jury which determines if there is enough evidence for a trial. ... Edward Howard Hunt (born October 9, 1918) worked for the White House under President Richard Nixon, figured in the Watergate Scandal, and was convicted of burglary, conspiracy, and wiretapping, eventually serving 33 months in prison. ... George Gordon Battle Liddy (born November 30, 1930) was the chief operative for U.S. President Richard Nixons White House Plumbers unit. ...


The men who broke into the office were tried and convicted in January 1973. All seven men were either directly or indirectly employees of President Nixon's Committee to Re-elect the President, CREEP, and many people, including the trial judge, John J. Sirica, suspected a conspiracy involving higher-echelon government officials.[11] In March 1973, James McCord wrote a letter to Judge John J. Sirica charging a cover up of the burglary. His letter transformed the affair into a political scandal of unprecedented magnitude.[12] Look up creep in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Judge John Joseph Sirica (March 19, 1904 – August 14, 1992) was the Chief Judge for the United States District Court for the District of Columbia. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ...


Significance

The scandal revealed the existence of a White House dirty tricks squad, which was behind an orchestrated campaign of political sabotage, an enemies list, a "plumbers" unit to plug political leaks and a secret campaign slush fund associated with CREEP, all with high-level administration involvement. It brought into the open the involvement of Attorney General John N. Mitchell in the dirty tricks, funds and cover-up, as well as key White House advisers, all of whom went to prison for these crimes, for sentences of one to four years. The jail terms had been shortened on the basis of the high level of the convicted, and their cooperation in the hearings.[citation needed] For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Nixons enemies list was compiled by Charles Colson and sent to John Dean Nixons Enemies List is the informal name of what started as a list of President Richard Nixons major political opponents compiled by Charles Colson, written by George T. Bell [1] (assistant to Colson, special... The White House Plumbers or simply The Plumbers is the popular name given to the covert Nixon White House Special Investigations Unit established July 24, 1971. ... A leak in political and news circles is a release to the public of secret or confidential information without official authorisation, and without acknowledgement of the source of the leak. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Committee to Re-elect the President, often abbreviated to CRP or CREEP, was a Nixon White House fundraising organization. ... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... John Newton Mitchell (September 15, 1913 – November 9, 1988) was the first United States Attorney General ever to be convicted of illegal activities and imprisoned. ...


Investigation

See also: United States Senate Watergate Committee

The threads which would form the basis of the unraveling of the cover-up began in the immediate aftermath of the arrests in the Watergate complex, the search of the burglars' hotel rooms (the keys to which the burglars still had in their pockets when they were arrested); and a background investigation of the evidence that was initially found. The Senate Watergate Committee was a special committee convened by the United States Senate to investigate the Watergate first break-in and the ensuing Watergate scandal after it was learned that the Watergate burglars had been directed to break into and wiretap the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee by...


The single most crucial piece of evidence obtained from the burglars themselves was the currency they had in their possession and the amounts of it that they had. The burglars were ordinary men of working class and lower middle class means and income. Yet they had thousands of dollars in cash in their possession when arrested; investigation of their accounts showed that they had had still more thousands pass through their bank and credit card accounts, supporting their travel, living expenses, and purchases, in the months leading up to their arrests. The amounts were far in excess of any visible sources of income from the jobs that they officially had.


Examination of the burglars' accounts immediately showed the direct link to the institution that both hired and funded their enterprise, the 1972 Committee to Re-Elect the President (Richard Nixon), through its subordinate finance committee. Nixon redirects here. ...


Several individual donations (totaling $89,000) were legally made to the committee by individuals who thought they were making (and in fact intended to make) private donations to the President's re-election committee. The donations were made in the form of cashier's, certified, and personal checks, and all were made payable only to the Committee to Re-Elect the President. Investigative examination of the bank records of a Miami company run by Watergate burglar Bernard Barker revealed that an account controlled by him personally had deposited, and had transferred to it (through the Federal Reserve Check Clearing System) the funds from these financial instruments. Bernard Barker Bernard L. Barker (b. ...


The banks which had originated the checks (especially the certified and cashiers checks), were keen to ensure that the depository institution used by Bernard Barker had acted properly to protect their (the correspondent banks’) fiduciary interest in ensuring that the checks had been properly received and endorsed by the check’s payee, prior to its acceptance for deposit in Bernard Barker's account. Only in this way would the correspondent banks, (which had issued the checks on behalf of the individual donors) not be held liable for the un-authorized and improper release of funds from their customer’s accounts into the account of Bernard Barker.


The investigative finding which cleared Bernard Barker’s bank of fiduciary malfeasance led to the direct implication of members of the Committee to Re-Elect the President, to whom the checks had been delivered. Those individuals were the Committee Bookkeeper and its Treasurer, Hugh Sloan. Hugh W. Sloan, Jr. ...


The checks which Bernard Barker had deposited into his account which had been prepared stating that they were payable to the Committee would not have been accepted for deposit, nor would they have been processed for collection of their funds (for deposit into Barker’s account) unless they had been properly endorsed by the payee or its duly designated representative.


The Committee, as an organization, followed normal business accounting standards in allowing only duly authorized individual(s) (whose name(s) and proper identifications were known to their bank) to accept and endorse on behalf of the Committee any financial instrument created on the Committee’s behalf by itself, or by others. Therefore, no financial institution would accept or process an instrument (check) on behalf of the Committee unless it had been endorsed and verified as endorsed by a duly authorized individual(s). On the checks themselves deposited into Bernard Barker’s bank account was the endorsement of Committee Treasurer Hugh Sloan who was duly authorized and designated to endorse such instruments that were prepared (by others) on behalf of the Committee. Hugh W. Sloan, Jr. ...


But Hugh Sloan had a fiduciary responsibility of his own too. Once he had endorsed a check made payable to the Committee, he had a legal and fiduciary responsibility to see that the instrument was deposited into (and only into) the account(s) which were named on the instrument, and for which he had been delegated fiduciary responsibility. Sloan had broken the law by endorsing an instrument and then knowingly not ensuring that the instrument was deposited into the account(s) over which he had been delegated fiduciary responsibility. Sloan was confronted with this crime immediately (through the investigation of Barker’s bank account), and faced the potential charge of federal bank fraud (not to mention with charges of conspiracy in the burglary); he revealed precisely who he had given the checks to (G. Gordon Liddy); and who had directed him (Committee Deputy Director Jeb Magruder and Finance Director Maurice Stans) to do so. Hugh W. Sloan, Jr. ... George Gordon Battle Liddy (born November 30, 1930) was the chief operative for U.S. President Richard Nixons White House Plumbers unit. ... Jeb Stuart Magruder (b. ...


Barker had been given the checks by Liddy in a clumsy and ignorant attempt to avoid direct proof that Barker, a Watergate burglar, ever had received funds from the organization that actually hired him to commit wiretapping, burglary and political espionage. But any hope of concealing the true source of money that Barker and the burglars received would have required a far more sophisticated scheme than that which was employed.


As a nominally lawful enterprise, the 1972 Nixon re-election committee had to maintain a lawful set of accounting records and bank accounts, into which lawful campaign contributions could be deposited, and from which monies for lawful campaign expenditures could be drawn. Any attempt to create an “off-the-books”, unaccounted-for stash that could receive contributions in the amounts that Watergate dirty tricks teams actually used was never possible. This was because the sources of the funds were in fact legitimate. The funds were provided by wealthy, conservative campaign contributors[citation needed] that had chosen to give large sums of money to the re-election committee. These contributors were not generally in the habit of giving tens of millions of dollars unaccountably to anyone, for any purpose, no matter how much they may have politically agreed with it. These men and women lived in a world where there might have been unpublicized transactions, but there were never unaccountable transactions.


The case of the campaign contribution check is instructive of this. The $25,000.00 cashier's check made out to the committee that Barker actually deposited into his account was drawn upon the account of, and authorized by, a Kenneth H. Dahlberg of Minnesota. Mr. Dahlberg had received this amount from a prominent Minnesota Democratic fund raiser named Dwayne Andreas, who was an executive of the Archer Daniels Midland Corporation. Mr. Andreas gave Dahlberg the funds specifically to make a contribution anonymously, but not unaccountably, to the Nixon reelection campaign. The record of the transfer of funds to Mr. Dahlberg existed; the record of the transfer of funds to the committee (by Mr. Dahlberg) existed. When pressed, Mr. Dahlberg and Mr. Andreas both were able and willing to discuss how a prominent Democratic supporter of Democratic campaigns came to support Nixon’s reelection in 1972. Kenneth H. Dahlberg (1917- ) is an American businessman and World War II fighter ace who became a figure involved in the Watergate scandal. ... Dwayne Orville Andreas (born c. ... The Archer Daniels Midland Company (NYSE: ADM), based in Decatur, Illinois, operates more than 270 plants worldwide, where cereal grains and oilseeds are processed into numerous products used in food, beverage, nutraceutical, industrial and animal feed markets worldwide. ...


It was never the intent of either Mr. Andreas or Mr. Dahlberg to create, or participate in the creation of, a fund which would be unaccountable, untraceable, and available for use in a conspiracy to support a criminal enterprise, whether they knew about the criminal enterprise or not. In addition, most of the other donors were wealthy registered Republicans who had no interest whatsoever in “hiding” or concealing their support of President Nixon or their desire to help in his reelection campaign.


The connection between the break-in and the President's re-election campaign fund-raising committee was highlighted by its media coverage. In particular, investigative coverage by Time Magazine, The New York Times , and especially The Washington Post, fueled focus on the event. The coverage dramatically increased the profile of the crime and consequent political repercussions. Relying heavily upon anonymous sources, Post reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein uncovered information suggesting that knowledge of the break-in, and attempts to cover it up, led deep into the Justice Department, the FBI, the CIA, and even the White House. Chief among the Post's anonymous sources was an individual they had nicknamed Deep Throat, who was later revealed in 2005 to be former Deputy Director of the FBI William Mark Felt, Sr. Rather than ending with the trial and conviction of the burglars, the investigations grew broader; a Senate committee chaired by Senator Sam Ervin was set up to examine Watergate and began issuing subpoenas to White House staff. (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... Bob Woodward signs his book State of Denial after a talk in March 2007. ... Carl Bernstein (left) and Bob Woodward (right)This image is pending deletion. ... CIA redirects here. ... For other uses, see Deep Throat (disambiguation). ... The Deputy Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (or Associate Director) is a senior United States Government position in the Federal Bureau of Investigation. ... W. Mark Felt on the set of CBSs Face the Nation in 1976. ... Samuel James Ervin Jr. ... A subpoena is a command to appear at a certain time and place to give testimony upon a certain matter. ...


On April 30, 1973, Nixon was forced to ask for the resignation of two of his most influential aides, H. R. Haldeman and John Ehrlichman, both of whom were indicted and ultimately went to prison. He also fired White House Counsel John Dean, who had just testified before the Senate and went on to become the key witness against the President. is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Harry Robbins Haldeman (publicly known as H. R. Haldeman, and informally as Bob Haldeman) (October 27, 1926 – November 12, 1993) was a U.S. political aide and businessman, best known for his service as White House Chief of Staff to President Richard Nixon and for his role in events leading... John D. Ehrlichman as Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs, May 13, 1969. ... The White House Counsel is a staff appointee of the President of the United States. ... For other uses, see John Dean (disambiguation). ...


On the same day, Nixon appointed a new Attorney General, Elliot Richardson, and gave him authority to designate, for the growing Watergate inquiry, a special counsel who would be independent of the regular Justice Department hierarchy, to preserve his independence. On May 19, 1973, Richardson named Archibald Cox to the position. Televised hearings had begun two days before. In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... Elliot Lee Richardson (July 20, 1920 – December 31, 1999) was an American lawyer and politician who was a member of the cabinet of Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. ... Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building, Washington, D.C. For animal rights group, see Justice Department (JD) The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Archibald Cox, Jr. ...


Tapes

Main article: Watergate tapes
President Nixon giving a televised address explaining release of edited transcripts of the tapes on April 29, 1974
President Nixon giving a televised address explaining release of edited transcripts of the tapes on April 29, 1974

The hearings held by the Senate Committee, in which Dean was the star witness and in which many other former key administration officials gave dramatic testimony, were broadcast from May 17 to August 7, 1973, causing devastating political damage to Nixon. Each network maintained coverage of the hearings every third day, starting with ABC on May 17 and ending with NBC on August 7. An estimated 85% of Americans with television sets tuned in to at least one portion of the hearings.[13] The Watergate tapes, also known as the Nixon tapes, are a collection of conversations between President Nixon and various White House staff members, recorded on the White House taping system and White House dictabelts. ... WHPO E2679c-09A - April 29, 1974 From Nixon Presidential Archives moocow spring File links The following pages link to this file: Watergate scandal Categories: Executive Office of the President images ... WHPO E2679c-09A - April 29, 1974 From Nixon Presidential Archives moocow spring File links The following pages link to this file: Watergate scandal Categories: Executive Office of the President images ... Nixon redirects here. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American television network. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the television network. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Television set may refer to: Television, a device to display television programs Television studio, an installation in which television or video productions take place Set construction, theatrical scenery This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Perhaps the most memorable question of the hearings came when Republican Senator Howard Baker of Tennessee asked "What did the President know, and when did he know it?", which focused attention for the first time on Nixon's personal role in the scandal. Howard Henry Baker, Jr. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ...


On July 13, 1973, Donald Sanders, the Deputy Minority Counsel, asked Alexander Butterfield in discovery if there were any type of recording systems in the White House. Butterfield answered that, though he was reluctant to say so, there was a system in the White House that automatically recorded everything in the Oval Office. It was also determined that other rooms were bugged, including Nixon's private office in the Old Executive Office Building, where most of his work and meetings were actually conducted. Later, Chief Minority Counsel Fred Thompson put the question to Butterfield directly in televised hearings: "Mr. Butterfield, are you aware of the installation of any listening devices in the Oval Office of the president?" The shocking revelation radically transformed the Watergate investigation. The tapes were soon subpoenaed by Cox and then by the Senate, since they might prove whether Nixon or Dean was telling the truth about key meetings. Nixon refused, citing the principle of executive privilege, and ordered Cox, via Attorney General Richardson, to drop his subpoena. is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Alexander Porter Butterfield (born April 6, 1926) was the deputy assistant to Richard Nixon from 1969 until 1973. ... The Oval Office from above in 2003, during the administration of George W. Bush. ... President William Howard Tafts prized Holstein cow, Pauline Wayne, poses in front of the Navy Building, which is known today as the Eisenhower Executive Office Building. ... This article is about the actor/politician. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Saturday Night Massacre

Cox's refusal to drop his subpoena led to the "Saturday Night Massacre" on October 20, 1973, when Nixon compelled the resignations of Richardson and deputy William Ruckelshaus, in a search for someone in the Justice Department willing to fire Cox. This search ended with Solicitor General Robert Bork (years later a failed nominee for U.S. Supreme Court Justice). At first, Bork planned to resign as well, but both Richardson and Ruckelshaus persuaded him not to in order to prevent any further damage to the Justice Department. As the new acting department head, Bork carried out the presidential order and dismissed the special prosecutor. Public reaction was immediate and intense, with protesters standing along the sidewalks outside the White House holding signs saying "HONK TO IMPEACH," and hundreds of cars driving by honking their horns. Allegations of wrongdoing prompted Nixon to famously state "I am not a crook" in front of 400 startled Associated Press managing editors on the grounds of Disney's Contemporary Resort at Walt Disney World Resort in Florida on November 17, 1973.[14] The Saturday night massacre (October 20, 1973) was the term given by political commentators to U.S. President Richard Nixons executive dismissal of independent special prosecutor Archibald Cox, and the forced resignations of Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus during the controversial and drawn-out... The Saturday night massacre (October 20, 1973) was the term given by political commentators to U.S. President Richard Nixons executive dismissal of independent special prosecutor Archibald Cox, and the forced resignations of Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus during the controversial and drawn-out... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... William Doyle Ruckelshaus (born July 24, 1932) is an attorney and civil servant in the United States. ... The United States Solicitor General is the individual appointed to argue for the Government of the United States in front of the Supreme Court of the United States, when the government is party to a case. ... Robert Heron Bork (born March 1, 1927) is a conservative American legal scholar who advocates the judicial philosophy of originalism. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... Deluxe Resort Magic Kingdom Resort Area Opened - October 1, 1971 Theme - Modern Areas - Contemporary Tower, South Garden Rooms Rooms - 1053 Suites - Vice Presidential Suite, Presidential Suite Address - 4600 North World Drive Lake Buena Vista, Florida 32830 Phone - (407) 824-1000 Fax - (407) 824-3539 Disneys Contemporary Resort is located... Cinderella Castle is the symbol of the Magic Kingdom. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ...


Nixon was forced, however, to allow the appointment of a new special prosecutor, Leon Jaworski, who continued the investigation. While Nixon continued to refuse to turn over actual tapes, he did agree to release edited transcripts of a large number of them; Nixon cited the fact that any sensitive national security information could be edited out of the tapes; it was also speculated that the tapes may have contained foul language and racial slurs, which would have worsened Nixon's image. A special prosecutor is a lawyer from outside the government appointed by the attorney general or Congress to investigate a federal official for misconduct while in office. ... Special Prosecutor Leon Jaworski on the cover of Time magazine. ...


The tapes largely confirmed Dean's account and caused further embarrassment when a crucial, 18½ minute portion of one tape, which had never been out of White House custody, was found to have been erased. The White House blamed this on Nixon's secretary, Rose Mary Woods, who said she had accidentally erased the tape by pushing the wrong foot pedal on her tape player while answering the phone. However, as photos splashed all over the press showed, it was unlikely for Woods to answer the phone and keep her foot on the pedal. Later forensic analysis determined that the gap had been erased in several segments — at least five, and perhaps as many as nine[15]—refuting the "accidental erasure" explanation. During the Watergate scandal, it was discovered that President Nixon had tape recorded several key meetings and conversations. ... Woods, on the cover of Time Magazine (December 10, 1973) Rose Mary Woods (December 26, 1917 – January 22, 2005) was Richard Nixons secretary from 1951, through the Watergate scandal and until the end of his political career. ...


Supreme Court

The issue of access to the tapes went to the Supreme Court. On July 24, 1974, in United States v. Nixon, the Court (which did not include the recused Justice Rehnquist) ruled unanimously that claims of executive privilege over the tapes were void, and they further ordered him to surrender them to Jaworski. On July 30, 1974, he complied with the order and released the subpoenaed tapes. Their contents were revealed, and Nixon resigned 10 days later. is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Holding The Supreme Court does have the final voice in determining constitutional questions; no person, not even the President of the United States, is completely above law; and the president cannot use executive privilege as an excuse to withhold evidence that is demonstrably relevant in a criminal trial. ... William Hubbs Rehnquist (October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer, jurist, and a political figure who served as an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States and later as the Chief Justice of the United States. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...


Articles of impeachment, resignation, and convictions

Nixon's resignation letter, August 9, 1974.
Nixon's resignation letter, August 9, 1974.

On January 28, 1974, Nixon campaign aide Herbert Porter pleaded guilty to the charge of lying to the FBI during the early stages of the Watergate investigation. On February 25, 1974, Nixon's personal lawyer Herbert Kalmbach pleaded guilty to two charges of illegal election-campaign activities. Other charges were dropped in return for Kalmbach's cooperation in the forthcoming Watergate trials. Download high resolution version (496x648, 52 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Watergate scandal ... Download high resolution version (496x648, 52 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Watergate scandal ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Herbert Porter was a campaign aide to United States President Richard M. Nixon. ... This statute generally prohibits lying to or concealing information from a federal official. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Herbert W. Kalmbach was Personal Attorney to the President for United States President Richard Nixon. ...


On March 1, 1974, former aides of the President, known as the Watergate Seven — Haldeman, Ehrlichman, Mitchell, Charles Colson, Gordon C. Strachan, Robert Mardian and Kenneth Parkinson — were indicted for conspiring to hinder the Watergate investigation. The grand jury also secretly named Nixon as an unindicted co-conspirator. Dean, Magruder and other figures in the scandal had already pleaded guilty. Charles Colson stated in his book Born Again that he was given a report by a White House aide that clearly implicated the CIA in the whole Watergate scandal and showed an attempt to implicate him as the one responsible.[citation needed] is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... The Watergate Seven were advisors and aides to United States President Richard M. Nixon who were indicted by a grand jury on March 1, 1974. ... Charles (Chuck) Wendell Colson (born October 16, 1931, in Boston, Massachusetts) was the chief counsel for President Richard Nixon from 1969 to 1973 and while he was commonly named as one of the Watergate Seven, he was never charged with, or prosecuted, for any crime related to the Watergate break... Gordon C. Strachan (born July 24, 1943 in Berkeley, California) was an aide to H.R. Haldeman, Chief of Staff for U.S. President Richard Nixon and a figure in the Watergate scandal. ... Robert Charles Mardian (born October 23, 1923) is a former United States Republican party official who served in the administration of Richard Nixon, but was embroiled in the Watergate scandal as one of the Watergate Seven who were indicted by a Grand Jury for campaign violations. ... counsel for the Committee to Re-elect the President; faced 10 years in prison and $10,000 in fines. ... Jeb Magruder, January 31, 1970. ...


On April 7, 1974, the Watergate grand jury indicted Ed Reinecke, Republican lieutenant governor of California, on three charges of perjury before the Senate committee. On April 5, 1974, former Nixon appointments secretary Dwight Chapin was convicted of lying to the grand jury. April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Happy Day Dont Erase this. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Dwight L. Chapin (born December 2, 1940) was Deputy Assistant to the President Richard M. Nixon. ...


Nixon's position was becoming increasingly precarious, and the House of Representatives began formal investigations into the possible impeachment of the President. The committee's opening speeches included one by Texas Representative Barbara Jordan that catapulted her to instant nationwide fame. The House Judiciary Committee voted 27 to 11 on July 27, 1974 to recommend the first article of impeachment against the President: obstruction of justice. The second (abuse of power) and third (contempt of Congress) articles were passed on July 29, 1974 and July 30, 1974, respectively. Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Barbara Charline Jordan (February 21, 1936 – January 17, 1996) was an American politician from Texas. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Modern Obstruction of Justice, in a common law state, refers to the crime of offering interference of any sort to the work of police, investigators, regulatory agencies, prosecutors, or other (usually government) officials. ... ‹The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Contempt of Congress is the act of obstructing the work of the United States Congress or one of its committees. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...

Nixon leaving the White House shortly before his resignation became effective, August 9, 1974. The helicopter took him from the White House to Andrews Air Force base in Maryland. Nixon later wrote that he remembered thinking "As the helicopter moved on to Andrews, I found myself thinking not of the past, but of the future. What could I do now?...". At Andrews base, he boarded Air Force One to El Toro Marine Corps Air Station in California and then to his new home in San Clemente.
Nixon leaving the White House shortly before his resignation became effective, August 9, 1974. The helicopter took him from the White House to Andrews Air Force base in Maryland. Nixon later wrote that he remembered thinking "As the helicopter moved on to Andrews, I found myself thinking not of the past, but of the future. What could I do now?...". At Andrews base, he boarded Air Force One to El Toro Marine Corps Air Station in California and then to his new home in San Clemente.[16]

In August, the previously unknown tape from June 23, 1972, was released. Recorded only a few days after the break-in, it documented Nixon and Haldeman formulating a plan to block investigations by having the CIA falsely claim to the FBI that national security was involved. The tape was referred to as a "smoking gun." With few exceptions, Nixon's remaining supporters deserted him. The ten congressmen who had voted against all three articles of impeachment in the committee announced that they would all support impeachment when the vote was taken in the full House. It was almost certain that Nixon would be impeached by the House and removed from office by the Senate. Download high resolution version (1063x1206, 534 KB)Description: Richard Nixon departing the White House after resigning. ... Download high resolution version (1063x1206, 534 KB)Description: Richard Nixon departing the White House after resigning. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Location of San Clemente within Orange County, California. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Throughout this time, Nixon still denied any involvement in the ordeal. After being told by key Republican Senators that enough votes existed to convict and remove him, Nixon decided to resign. In a nationally televised address on the evening of August 8, 1974, he announced he would resign, effective at noon Eastern Time on Friday, August 9, 1974. Though Nixon's resignation prompted Congress to drop the impeachment proceedings, criminal prosecution was still a possibility. He was immediately succeeded by Gerald Ford, who on September 8, 1974, issued a pardon for Nixon, immunizing him from prosecution for any crimes he may have committed as President. Nixon proclaimed his innocence until his death, although his acceptance of the pardon was construed by many as an admission of guilt. He did state in his official response to the pardon that he "was wrong in not acting more decisively and more forthrightly in dealing with Watergate, particularly when it reached the stage of judicial proceedings and grew from a political scandal into a national tragedy." The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Eastern Standard Time redirects here. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... For the Breton religious festivals, see Pardon (ceremony). ...


Charles Colson pleaded guilty to charges concerning the Ellsberg case; in exchange, the indictment against him for covering up the activities of CRP was dropped, as it was against Strachan. The remaining five members of the Watergate Seven indicted in March went on trial in October 1974, and on January 1, 1975, all but Parkinson were found guilty. In 1976, the U.S. Court of Appeals ordered a new trial for Mardian; subsequently, all charges against him were dropped. Haldeman, Ehrlichman, and Mitchell exhausted their appeals in 1977. Ehrlichman entered prison in 1976, followed by the other two in 1977. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Pardon and controversy

Further information: Gerald Ford's Pardon of Richard Nixon
Wikisource has original text related to this article:

On September 8, 1974, President Gerald Ford granted Nixon a full and unconditional pardon for any crimes he may have committed while President. Highly controversial, this pardon has been argued to be a factor in Ford's loss of the presidential election of 1976.[17] In an editorial at the time, The New York Times stated that the Nixon pardon was "a profoundly unwise, divisive and unjust act" that in a stroke had destroyed the new president's "credibility as a man of judgment, candor and competence."[18] Accusations of a secret "deal" made with Ford, promising a pardon in return for Nixon's resignation, led Ford to testify before the House Judiciary Committee on October 17, 1974.[19][20] For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Three deals cut in connection with the Presidency of the United States, two in contested United States presidential elections and one involving a Presidential appointment of a Vice President, have been described as Corrupt Bargains. ... U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary, or (more commonly) the House Judiciary Committee, is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...


In his autobiography A Time to Heal, Ford wrote about a meeting he had with Nixon's Chief of Staff, Alexander Haig. Haig was explaining what he and Nixon's staff thought were Nixon's only options. He could try to ride out the impeachment and fight against conviction in the Senate all the way, or he could resign. His options for resigning were to delay his resignation until further along in the impeachment process to try and settle for a censure vote in Congress, or pardon himself then resign. Haig then told Ford that some of Nixon's staff suggested that Nixon could agree to resign in return for an agreement that Ford would pardon him. For other persons named Alexander Haig, see Alexander Haig (disambiguation). ...

Haig emphasized that these weren't his suggestions. He didn't identify the staff members and he made it very clear that he wasn't recommending any one option over another. What he wanted to know was whether or not my overall assessment of the situation agreed with his.[emphasis in original]. . . Next he asked if I had any suggestions as to courses of actions for the President. I didn't think it would be proper for me to make any recommendations at all, and I told him so.[21]

In a televised broadcast to the nation, Ford explained that he felt the pardon was in the best interests of the country and that the Nixon family's situation "is an American tragedy in which we all have played a part. It could go on and on and on, or someone must write the end to it. I have concluded that only I can do that, and if I can, I must."[22]


Aftermath

Main article: Watergate babies

The effects of the Watergate scandal did not end with the resignation of President Nixon and the imprisonment of some of his aides. The effect on the upcoming Senate election and House race only three months later, was enormous. Voters, disgusted by Nixon's actions, became thoroughly disillusioned with the Republican Party. In that election, the Democrats gained five seats in the Senate and a remarkable forty-nine in the House. The term Watergate Babies refers to the Democrats elected to the United States Congress in 1974 following president Richard Nixons resignation over the Watergate scandal. ...  Republican holds  Republican pickups  Democratic holds  Democratic pickups The U.S. Senate election, 1974 was an election for the United States Senate held in the wake of the Watergate scandal, Richard M. Nixons resignation from the presidency, and Gerald Fords subsequent pardon of Nixon. ... The U.S. House election, 1974 was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1974 which occurred in the wake of the Watergate scandal which forced President Richard M. Nixon to resign in favor of Gerald Ford. ...


The Watergate Scandal also indirectly caused many changes in campaign financing. The scandal became a driving factor in amending the Freedom of Information Act in 1976, as well as laws requiring new financial disclosures by key government officials. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with freedom of information legislation. ...


While not legally required, other types of personal disclosure, such as releasing recent income tax forms, became expected. Presidents since Franklin D. Roosevelt had recorded many of their conversations, but after Watergate this practice purportedly ended. FDR redirects here. ...


Since Nixon and many senior officials involved in Watergate were lawyers, the scandal severely tarnished the public image of the legal profession.[23] In order to defuse public demand for direct federal regulation of lawyers (as opposed to leaving it in the hands of state bar associations or courts), the American Bar Association (ABA) launched two major reforms. First, the ABA decided that its existing Model Code of Professional Responsibility (promulgated 1969) was a failure and replaced it with the Model Rules of Professional Conduct in 1983. The MRPC has been adopted in part or in whole by 44 states. Its preamble contains an emphatic reminder to young lawyers that the legal profession can remain self-governing only if lawyers behave properly. Second, the ABA promulgated a requirement that law students at ABA-approved law schools take a course in professional responsibility (which means they must study the MRPC). The requirement remains in effect. A bar association is a body of lawyers who, in some jurisdictions, are responsible for the regulation of the legal profession. ... American Bar Associations Washington, DC office The American Bar Association (ABA) is a voluntary bar association of lawyers and law students, which is not specific to any jurisdiction in the United States. ... American Bar Association Model Code of Professional Responsibility, created by the American Bar Association (ABA) in 1969, is a set of professional standards to guarantee the minimum legal ethics and professional responsibility of lawyers in the United States. ... ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct, created by the American Bar Association (ABA), is a set of professional standards to guarantee the minimum legal ethics and professional responsibility of lawyers in the United States. ... // A law school is an institution where future lawyers obtain legal degrees. ... Professional responsibility is the area of legal practice that encompasses the duties of attorneys to act in a professional manner, obey the law, avoid conflicts of interest, and put the interests of clients ahead of their own interests. ...


The Watergate scandal left such an impression on the national and international consciousness that many scandals since then have been labeled with the suffix "-gate". The suffix -gate derives from the Watergate scandal of the United States in the early 1970s, which resulted in the resignation of U.S. President Richard Nixon. ...


According to Thomas J. Johnson, professor of journalism at Southern Illinois University, "During Nixon's final days, Secretary of State Henry Kissinger boldly predicted that history would remember him as a great president and that Watergate would be relegated to a minor footnote." [24] Southern Illinois University is a university in southern Illinois with two institutions and multiple campuses. ...


Alternate theories

Further information: Kennedy assassination theories

Although the purpose of the break-in of the DNC offices has never been established, some theories suggest that the burglars were after specific information. The likeliest of these theories suggests that the target of the break-in was the offices of Larry O'Brien, the Chairman of the DNC [25]. In 1968, O'Brien was appointed by Vice President Hubert Humphrey to serve nationally as the director of his presidential campaign and by Howard Hughes to serve in Washington as his public-policy lobbyist. O'Brien was elected in 1968 and 1970 by the DNC to serve nationally as its chairman. With the upcoming Presidential election, former Howard Hughes business associate John H. Meier, working with Hubert Humphrey and others, wanted to feed misinformation to Richard Nixon. In late 1971, the President’s brother Donald Nixon, was collecting intelligence for his brother at the time and was asking Meier about Larry O'Brien. President Kennedy, Jackie Kennedy, Nellie Connally and Governor John Connally, shortly before the assassination. ... OBrien, c. ... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... For the Welsh murderer, see Howard Hughes (murderer). ... Francis Donald Nixon (23 November 1914 – 27 June 1987) was a brother of United States President Richard Nixon. ...


Meier told Donald that he was sure the Democrats would win the election because they had considerable information on Richard Nixon’s illicit dealings with Howard Hughes that had never been released, and that Larry O’Brien had the information, [26] (O’Brien didn’t actually have any documents but Meier claims to have wanted Richard Nixon to think he did). Donald then called his brother and told him that Meier gave the Democrats all the Hughes information that could destroy him (Richard Nixon) and that O’Brien had it.[citation needed] This theory has been proposed as a motivation for the break-in.


Numerous theories have persisted in claiming deeper significance to the Watergate scandal than that commonly acknowledged by media and historians. On the "Smoking Gun" tape, Nixon mentions E. Howard Hunt's ties to "the whole Bay of Pigs thing" as the reason the CIA should put a stop to the Watergate investigations. In the book The Ends of Power, President Richard Nixon's chief of staff H.R. Haldeman claimed that the term "Bay of Pigs," as used in a tape-recorded White House conversation,[4] was used by Nixon as a coded reference to a CIA plot to assassinate Fidel Castro during the John F. Kennedy administration. The CIA had not disclosed this plot to the Warren Commission, the commission investigating the Kennedy assassination, despite the fact that it would attribute a motive to Castro in the assassination.[27] A theoretical connection between the Kennedy assassination and the Watergate Tapes was later referred to in the biopic, Nixon, directed by Oliver Stone. The term smoking gun was originally, and still primarily is, a reference to an object or fact that serves as conclusive evidence of a crime or similar act. ... Harry Robbins (Bob) Haldeman (October 27, 1926 - November 12, 1993) was a U.S. political aide and businessman, best known for his service in the Nixon White House, and for his role in the Watergate scandal, for which he was convicted and imprisoned. ... Map showing the location of the Bay of Pigs. ... CIA redirects here. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Warren Commission report cover page The Presidents Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as The Warren Commission, was established on November 29, 1963, by Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. ... John F. Kennedy The assassination of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 PM Central Standard Time (18:30 UTC). ... John F. Kennedy The assassination of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 PM Central Standard Time (18:30 UTC). ... Nixon is a 1995 film directed by Oliver Stone for Cinergi Pictures that tells the story of the political and personal life of former President Richard Nixon. ... William Oliver Stone (born September 15, 1946), known as Oliver Stone, is a three-time Academy Award winning film director and screenwriter. ...


An alternate theory to the mainstream media account of the Watergate scandal can be found in Silent Coup, a 1991 book by Len Colodny and Robert Gettlin. The two authors believe that it was Nixon's silent war with the Pentagon that ultimately led to his removal from office.[28] The book was criticized for apparent leaps of logic and the citation of weak evidence and its theories are not widely supported by either professional historians or the general public.[29][30] Silent Coup is a 1992 book by Len Colodny and Robert Gettlin in which they contend that former Nixon White House counsel John Dean orchestrated the 1972 Watergate burglary at Democratic National Committee headquarters to protect his future wife, then named Maureen Biner, by removing information linking her to a... This article is about the United States military building. ...


Stone and Freed's theory in Secret Honor implies that Nixon purposively took a dive to save democracy from a plan to implement martial law. The theory uses the construct of the Yankees vs. Cowboys to suggest that since the postwar era, the US has been dominated by Yankees competing with Cowboys. Nixon, who hailed from the Southwest, was initially backed by the military industrial defense contractor power-brokers (the Cowboys); however, he later wanted to jump ship and return government to the east-coast establishment of Yankees. His resignation accomplished this because Nelson Rockefeller, the epitome of the eastern economic elite, assumed the vice presidency after Nixon's resignation. Peter Beter's Conspiracy Against the Dollar further explains how Nixon was possibly a rogue liberal with a conservative mask. Andreas Killen's 1973 Nervous Breakdown mentions this obscure theory behind Watergate.[citation needed] Secret Honor is a 1984 film written by Donald Freed and Arnold M. Stone, and directed by Robert Altman and starring Philip Baker Hall as former president Richard M. Nixon, a fictional account attempting to gain insight into Nixons personality, life, attitudes and behavior. ...


See also

The suffix -gate derives from the Watergate scandal of the United States in the early 1970s, which resulted in the resignation of U.S. President Richard Nixon. ... W. Mark Felt, on the set of CBSs Face the Nation in 1976. ... The term Watergate Babies refers to the Democrats elected to the United States Congress in 1974 following president Richard Nixons resignation over the Watergate scandal. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Dickinson, William B.; Mercer Cross, Barry Polsky (1973). Watergate: chronology of a crisis 1. Washington D. C.: Congressional Quarterly Inc., 8 133 140 180 188. ISBN 0871870592. OCLC 20974031.  This book is volume 1 of a two volume set. Both volumes share the same ISBN and Library of Congress call number, E859 .C62 1973
  2. ^ Dean, John Aurie (1976). Blind ambition: the White House years. New York: Simon and Schuster, 203-210. ISBN 0-671-22438-7. 
  3. ^ (1973) The Watergate hearings: break-in and cover-up; proceedings. New York: Viking Press, 279. ISBN 0670751529. 
  4. ^ a b c The Smoking Gun Tape (Transcript of the recording of a meeting between President Nixon and H. R. Haldeman). Watergate.info website (June 23, 1972). Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  5. ^ (1973) The Watergate hearings: break-in and cover-up; proceedings. New York: Viking Press. ISBN 0670751529. 
  6. ^ Nixon, Richard (1974). The White House Transcripts. New York: Viking Press. ISBN 0670763241. OCLC 1095702. 
  7. ^ The evidence was quite simple: there was the voice of the President on June 23, 1972, directing the CIA to halt an FBI investigation which would be politically embarrassing to his re-election, which was an obstruction of justice. White, Theodore Harold (1975). Breach of faith: the fall of Richard Nixon. New York: Atheneum Publishers, 7. ISBN 0689106580. 
  8. ^ "And the most punishing blow of all was yet to come in late afternoon when the President received, in his Oval Office, the Congressional leaders of his party — Barry Goldwater, Hugh Scott, John Rhodes. The accounts of all three coincide... Goldwater averred that there were not more than fifteen votes left in his support in the Senate...." White, Theodore Harold (1975). Breach of faith: the fall of Richard Nixon. New York: Atheneum Publishers, 28. ISBN 0689106580. 
  9. ^ "Soon Alexander Haig and James St. Clair learned of the existence of this tape and they were convinced that it would guarantee Nixon's impeachment in the House of Representatives and conviction in the Senate." Dash, Samuel (1976). Chief counsel: inside the Ervin Committee — the untold story of Watergate. New York: Random House, 259-260. ISBN 0-394-40853-5. 
  10. ^ Sirica, John J. (1979). To set the record straight: the break-in, the tapes, the conspirators, the pardon. New York: Norton, 44. ISBN 0-393-01234-4. 
  11. ^ "There were still simply too many unanswered questions in the case. By that time, thinking about the break-in and reading about it, I'd have had to be some kind of moron to believe that no other people were involved. No political campaign committee would turn over so much money to a man like Gordon Liddy without someone higher up in the organization approving the transaction. How could I not see that? These questions about the case were on my mind during a pretrial session in my courtroom December 4." Sirica, John J. (1979). To set the record straight: the break-in, the tapes, the conspirators, the pardon. New York: Norton, 56. ISBN 0-393-01234-4. 
  12. ^ "When Judge Sirica finished reading the letter, the courtroom exploded with excitement and reporters ran to the rear entrance to phone their newspapers. The bailiff kept banging for silence. It was a stunning development, exactly what I had been waiting for. Perjury at the trial. The involvement of others. It looked as if Watergate was about to break wide open." Dash, Samuel (1976). Chief counsel: inside the Ervin Committee--the untold story of Watergate. New York: Random House, 30. ISBN 0-394-40853-5. 
  13. ^ Garay, Ronald. Watergate. The Museum of Broadcast Communication. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  14. ^ Richard Nixon: Question-and-Answer Session at the Annual Convention of the Associated Press Managing Editors Association, Orlando, Florida. The American Presidency Project.
  15. ^ Clymer, Adam. "National Archives Has Given Up on Filling the Nixon Tape Gap", The New York Times, May 9, 2003. Retrieved on 2007-01-17. 
  16. ^ Lucas, Dean. Famous Pictures Magazine - Nixon's V sign. Retrieved on 2007-06-01.
  17. ^ Shane, Scott. "For Ford, Pardon Decision Was Always Clear-Cut", The New York Times, p. A1. Retrieved on 2006-12-29. 
  18. ^ Gerald R. Ford. Editorial. The New York Times (2006-12-28). Retrieved on 2006-12-29.
  19. ^ Gettlin, Robert; Colodny, Len (1991). Silent coup: the removal of a president. New York: St. Martin's Press, 420. ISBN 0312051565. OCLC 22493143. 
  20. ^ Ford, Gerald R. (1979). A time to heal: the autobiography of Gerald R. Ford. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 196-199. ISBN 0060112972. 
  21. ^ Ford (1979), 4.
  22. ^ Ford, Gerald (1974-09-08). Gerald R. Ford Pardoning Richard Nixon. Great Speeches Collection. The History Place. Retrieved on 2006-12-30.
  23. ^ Jerold Auerbach, Unequal Justice: Lawyers and Social Change in Modern America, New York: Oxford University Press, 1976, p. 301.
  24. ^ Thomas J. Johnson, Watergate and the Resignation of Richard Nixon: Impact of a Constitutional Crisis, "The Rehabilitation of Richard Nixon", eds. P. Jeffrey and Thomas Maxwell-Long: Washington, D.C., CQ Press, 2004, pp. 148-149.
  25. ^ Greenberg, David (2005-06-05), “The Unsolved Mysteries of Watergate”, The New York Times, <http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/05/weekinreview/05green.html> 
  26. ^ DuBois, Larry, and Laurence Gonzales (September 1976). Hughes Nixon and the C.I.A.: The Watergate Conspiracy Woodward and Bernstein Missed. Playboy.
  27. ^ DiMona, Joseph; Haldeman, H. R. (1978). The ends of power. New York: Times Books. ISBN 0812907248. Retrieved on 2007-07-23. 
  28. ^ Gettlin, Robert; Colodny, Len (1991). Silent coup: the removal of a president. New York: St. Martin's Press, 420. ISBN 0312051565. OCLC 22493143. 
  29. ^ Who is Deep Throat? Does It Matter?. Retrieved on 2007-11-01.
  30. ^ Was Nixon duped? Did Woodward lie?. Retrieved on 2007-11-01.

The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Harry Robbins Haldeman (publicly known as H. R. Haldeman, and informally as Bob Haldeman) (October 27, 1926 – November 12, 1993) was a U.S. political aide and businessman, best known for his service as White House Chief of Staff to President Richard Nixon and for his role in events leading... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the state. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Michael Schudson is an American academic sociologist working in the fields of journalism and its history, and public culture. ... Bob Woodward signs his book State of Denial after a talk in March 2007. ... Carl Bernstein (left) and Bob Woodward (right)This image is pending deletion. ... ... All the Presidents Men is a 1974 non-fiction book by Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, the two journalists investigating the Watergate first break-in and ensuing Watergate scandal for the Washington Post. ... Robert Redford (born August 18, 1936)[1] is an Academy Award-winning American motion picture director, actor, producer, businessman, model, environmentalist and philanthropist. ... Dustin Lee Hoffman (born August 8, 1937) is a two-time Academy Award-winning, BAFTA-winning, and five-time Golden Globe-winning American method actor. ... Theodore Harold White (May 6, 1915 – May 9, 1986) was an American political journalist, historian, and novelist, best known for his accounts of the 1960, 1964, 1968, and 1972 presidential elections. ... Theodore Harold White (May 6, 1915 – May 9, 1986) was an American political journalist, historian, and novelist, best known for his accounts of the 1960, 1964, 1968, and 1972 presidential elections. ...

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