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A waterfall is usually a geological formation resulting from water, often in the form of a stream, flowing over an erosion-resistant rock formation that forms a sudden break in elevation or nickpoint. Waterfall can refer to Waterfall, a hydrological formation. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1388x2126, 3702 KB) Description = Iguaçu, Brasilien/Argentinien Source = selbst fotografiert Date = created March 1984 Author = Reinhard Jahn, Mannheim nanosmile Wikipedia account please use this discussion page File links The following pages link to this file: Iguassu Falls Metadata This file... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1388x2126, 3702 KB) Description = Iguaçu, Brasilien/Argentinien Source = selbst fotografiert Date = created March 1984 Author = Reinhard Jahn, Mannheim nanosmile Wikipedia account please use this discussion page File links The following pages link to this file: Iguassu Falls Metadata This file... Devils throat from the Brazilian side. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... A geologic formation is a formally named rock stratum or geological unit. ... Butchers Creek, Omeo, Victoria A stream, brook, beck, burn or creek, is a body of water with a detectable current, confined within a bed and banks. ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... Nickpoint, in surface hydrology, is the location along the profile of a stream at which a sudden gradient change occurs. ...


Some waterfalls form in mountain environments where the erosive water force is high and stream courses may be subject to sudden and catastrophic change. In such cases, the waterfall may not be the end product of many years of water action over a region, but rather the result of relatively sudden geological processes such as landslides, faults or volcanic action. For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... This article is about geological phenomenon. ... Geologic faults, fault lines or simply faults are planar rock fractures, which show evidence of relative movement. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ...


Waterfalls may also be artificial, and they are sometimes created as garden and landscape ornaments. For other uses, see Garden (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

Formation

Formation of a waterfall
Formation of a waterfall

Typically, a river flows over a large step in the rocks which may have been formed by a fault line. Over a period of years, the edges of this shelf will gradually break away and the waterfall will steadily retreat upstream, creating a gorge of recession. Often, the rock stratum just below the more resistant shelf will be of a softer type, meaning undercutting, due to splashback, will occur here to form a shallow cave-like formation known as a rock shelter or plunge pool under and behind the waterfall. Eventually, the outcropping, more resistant cap rock will collapse under pressure to add blocks of rock to the base of the waterfall. These blocks of rock are then broken down into smaller boulders by attrition as they collide with each other, and they also erode the base of the waterfall by abrasion, creating a deep plunge pool. Image File history File links Created by Jerry Crimson Mann . ... Image File history File links Created by Jerry Crimson Mann . ... A gorge is a narrow passage between steep mountains or hills. ... For other uses, see strata (novel) and strata title. ... A rock shelter is a shallow cave-like opening at the base of a bluff or cliff. ... Outcrop is a geological term referring to the appearance of bedrock exposed at the surface of the Earth. ... Attrition means wearing down by friction or grinding and may refer to the following. ... Abrasion on the palm of a right hand, shortly after falling Abrasions on elbow and lower arm, still healing. ... A plunge pool is a pool, lake, or pond that is small in diameter, but deep. ...


Streams become wider and more shallow just above waterfalls due to flowing over the rock shelf, and there is usually a deep pool just below the waterfall because of the kinetic energy of the water hitting the bottom. The cars of a roller coaster reach their maximum kinetic energy when at the bottom of their path. ...


Waterfalls can occur along the edge of glacial trough, whereby a stream or river flowing into a glacier continues to flow into a valley after the glacier has receded or melted. The large waterfalls in Yosemite Valley are examples of this phenomenon. The rivers are flowing from hanging valleys. Perito Moreno Glacier Patagonia Argentina Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland Icebergs breaking off glaciers at Cape York, Greenland This article is about the geological formation. ... Perito Moreno Glacier Patagonia Argentina Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland Icebergs breaking off glaciers at Cape York, Greenland This article is about the geological formation. ... Yosemite Valley with Half Dome in the distance. ... Bridal Veil Falls in Yosemite National Park flowing from a hanging valley. ...


Classifying Waterfalls

The International Waterfall Classification System is the generally accepted scientific method of classifying the world's waterfalls. Waterfalls are grouped into 10 broad classes based on the average volume of water present on the fall using a logarithmic scale. Class 10 waterfalls include Niagara Falls, Paulo Alfonso Falls and Khone Falls. Class was so colldesignations of other well known waterfalls include Victoria Falls and Kaieteur Falls (Class 9); Rhine Falls, Gullfoss and Sutherland Falls (Class 8); Angel Falls and Dettifoss (Class 7); Yosemite Falls and Lower Yellowstone Falls (Class 6). Source: International Waterfall Classification System (Outskirts Press 2006) Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 2400 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 2400 pixel, file size: 2. ... The Fulmer Falls is a waterfall located in the George W. Childs Recreation Site in Dingmans Ferry, Pennsylvania. ...


Types of waterfalls

Havasu Falls, near Supai, Arizona, is an example of a plunge waterfall
Havasu Falls, near Supai, Arizona, is an example of a plunge waterfall
Dark Hollow Falls, near Skyline Drive, Virginia, is an example of cascade waterfall
Dark Hollow Falls, near Skyline Drive, Virginia, is an example of cascade waterfall
Powerscourt Waterfall, near Enniskerry, Wicklow County, Ireland, is an example of a horsetail waterfall
Powerscourt Waterfall, near Enniskerry, Wicklow County, Ireland, is an example of a horsetail waterfall
  • Block: Water descends from a relatively wide stream or river.
  • Cascade: Water descends a series of rock steps.
  • Cataract: A large waterfall.
  • Fan: Water spreads horizontally as it descends while remaining in contact with bedrock.
  • Horsetail: Descending water maintains some contact with bedrock.
  • Plunge: Water descends vertically, losing contact with the bedrock surface.
  • Punchbowl: Water descends in a constricted form, then spreads out in a wider pool.
  • Segmented: Distinctly separate flows of water form as it descends.
  • Tiered:Water drops in a series of distinct steps or falls.
  • Multi-step: A series of waterfalls one after another of roughly the same size each with its own sunken plunge pool.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (821x1231, 358 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Talk:Nature Water Waterfall Wikipedia:Featured pictures visible User talk:Ravedave Wikipedia:Wikipedia Signpost/Tools/Single... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (821x1231, 358 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Talk:Nature Water Waterfall Wikipedia:Featured pictures visible User talk:Ravedave Wikipedia:Wikipedia Signpost/Tools/Single... Havasu Falls Havasu Falls (Havasupai Falls) are waterfalls located in Grand Canyon, Arizona. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Shenandoah National Park encompasses part of the Blue Ridge Mountains in the Piedmont region of Virginia. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Valley surrounding Powerscourt Waterfall The River Dargle flows over the Powerscourt Waterfall, falling 109 metres. ... Enniskerry town centre Enniskerry (Áth na Scairbhe in Irish) is a picturesque small town in County Wicklow, Republic of Ireland, with a population of approximately 1,800, although this measurement is subject to difficulties, depending on to what degree the increasingly populated surrounding areas are included. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Wicklow Code: WW Area: 2,024 km² Population (2007) 114,676 Website: www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (468x700, 151 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kakadu National Park Alligator Rivers ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (468x700, 151 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kakadu National Park Alligator Rivers ... Kakadu National Park is in the Northern Territory of Australia, 171 km east of Darwin. ... Bedrock is the native consolidated rock underlying the Earths surface. ...

Examples of large waterfalls

Main article: List of waterfalls

Significant waterfalls include these alphabetically: Ouzoud Falls, Morocco Laja Falls, Chile Huangguoshu Falls, China Powerscourt Waterfall, Ireland This is a list of worldwide waterfalls. ...

Oluminrin Water Falls at Erin Ijesa, Oriade Local Government Area, Osun State, Nigeria: This is a seven steps waterfalls from the top of the mountain to the bottom. Although, the height of the fall is yet to be determined. It is a tourist attraction in Nigeria. Angel Falls (indigenous name: Kerepakupai merú) is the worlds highest free-falling waterfall at 979 m (3,212 ft), with a clear drop of 807 m (2,648 ft). ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about Bridalveil Fall in Yosemite. ... The Cascata delle Marmore (Marmores Falls) is a man-made waterfall created by the ancient Romans. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Eas a Chual Aluinn Eas a Chual Aluinn in the parish of Assynt, Sutherland, Highland, Scotland is Britains highest waterfall with a sheer drop of 658 ft. ... This article is about the country. ... The Gocta Waterfall (in Spanish: la catarata Gocta), a waterfall with 2 drops, has been known for centuries to the local residents in Perus province of Chachapoyas in Amazonas, which is approximately 700 kilometers to the north-east of Lima. ... Chachapoyas is a province of the Amazonas Region, Peru. ... Kaieteur Falls is a waterfall on the Potaro River in central Guyana. ... High Force falls High Force is a waterfall on the River Tees, near Middleton-in-Teesdale, County Durham, England. ... The Tees is a river in Northern England. ... Devils throat from the Brazilian side. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Jog Falls (Kannada-ಜೋಗ ಜಲಪಾತ ) is the highest untiered waterfalls in India, located in Shimoga District of Karnataka state. ... This article is about the Indian region. ... Jurong Falls Jurong Falls is the tallest man-made waterfall in the world, at 30 metres tall (100 feet). ... Multnomah Falls is a waterfall on the Oregon side of the Columbia River Gorge, located east of Troutdale, between Corbett and Dodson, along the Columbia River Highway. ... For other uses, see Niagara Falls (disambiguation). ... Ramnefjellsfossen (also known as Utigardfossen) is the third highest free-leaping waterfalls in the world, at a total fall of 808 m (2,685 feet), tallest leap at 600 m (1,968 feet). ... County Sogn og Fjordane District Nordfjord Municipality NO-1449 Administrative centre Stryn Mayor (2003) Nils P. Støyva (Ap) Official language form Nynorsk Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 63 1,381 km² 1,326 km² 0. ... Rhine falls with castle Laufen The Rhine Falls (Rheinfall in German) are the largest waterfalls of Europe. ... Tugela Falls are the worlds second highest waterfall. ... KwaZulu-Natal (often referred to as KZN) is a province of South Africa. ... The Victoria Falls or Mosi-oa-Tunya (the Smoke that thunders) is a waterfall situated in southern Africa between the countries of Zambia and Zimbabwe. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Yosemite Falls is the highest measured waterfall in North America. ... North American redirects here. ... Yosemite redirects here. ... Krimmler Wasserfälle. ... Krimml is a municipality in the federal state of Salzburg, Austria, in the Pinzgau region. ... This article is about the capital of the Austrian state of Salzburg. ... Gonbad-e Qabus, built in 1007, is a reminder of the blossoming of art and architecture in medieval Persia. ...


See also

A stream pool, in hydrology, is a stretch of a river or creek in which the water depth is above average and the stream velocity is quite low. ... Water feature is a term used by landscape architects and garden designers to include the full range of fountains, pools, ponds, cascades, waterfalls, and streams. ... Look up tributary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
waterfall
  • World Waterfall Database
  • WorldWaterfalls.com - Waterfall images and info, detailed waterfall types page
  • Classification of waterfalls (Polish)
  • GPS locations to waterfalls (mainly in Southeastern United States)

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