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Encyclopedia > Water well
Village pump redirects here, for information on Wikipedia project-related discussions, see Wikipedia:Village pump.

A water well is an artificial excavation or structure put down by any method such as digging, driving, boring, or drilling for the purposes of withdrawing water from underground aquifers. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well. ...

A hand-drawn water well in Chennai, India
A hand-drawn water well in Chennai, India

Well water may be drawn via mechanical pump (such as an electric submersible pump) from a source below the surface of the earth, or drawn using containers, such as buckets, that are raised mechanically, or by hand. Wells can vary greatly in depth, water volume and water quality. Well water typically contains more minerals in solution than surface water and may require treatment to soften the water by removing minerals such as arsenic, iron and manganese. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 1098 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Water well Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 1098 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Water well Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... , “Madras” redirects here. ... A submersible pump is a pump which has a hermetically sealed motor close-coupled to the pump body. ... A water softener reduces the calcium or magnesium ion concentration in hard water. ...

Contents

Ground Water

Water being lifted from a traditional well; Location:Taliparamba, Kannur, Kerala, India
Water use, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV century)
Water well at the German monastery "Kloster Wald"
Water well at the German monastery "Kloster Wald"

A well is made by reaching ground water in the water table. Ground water is stored naturally below the earth's surface. Most ground water originates as rain or snow that seeps into the ground and collects. Ground water provides about 20 percent of the fresh water used in the United States. Most rural areas, and some cities depend on ground water as their source for water. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 151 KB) Summary TV Manoj; Water being lifted with a buckert from a traditional well; location: Taliparamba, Kannur, Kerala, India Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 151 KB) Summary TV Manoj; Water being lifted with a buckert from a traditional well; location: Taliparamba, Kannur, Kerala, India Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under... Taliparamba Taliparamba (Perimchellur) is an area that is part of Kannur district of Kerala state, south India. ... , For the city with the same name, see Kannur. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 544 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 1101 pixel, file size: 356 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tacuina sanitatis (XIV century) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 544 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 1101 pixel, file size: 356 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tacuina sanitatis (XIV century) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library... The Tacuinum (sometimes Taccuinum) Sanitatis is a medieval handbook on wellness, based on the Taqwin al‑sihha (Tables of Health), an Arab medical treatise by Ibn Butlan; it exists in several variant Latin versions, the manuscripts of which are profusely illustrated. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1920 × 2560 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1920 × 2560 pixel, file size: 2. ... Monastery of St. ... The monastery Wald Wald is a municipality and village in the district of Sigmaringen in Baden-Württemberg in Germany. ... Groundwater is any water found below the land surface. ... Cross section showing the water table varying with surface topography as well as a perched water table The water table or phreatic surface is the surface where the water pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure. ...


Most rainwater is absorbed by the ground and fills the tiny spaces between soil particles. However, excess water runs over the top of the soil until it reaches a river, stream, or reservoir. Runoff water brings pollutants it encounters along the way to the reservoir. Rain falling For other uses see Rain (disambiguation). ... Run-off, composed of a mixture of water and soil along with any other organic or inorganic substances that may exist in the land, is the product of precipitation, snowmelt, over-irrigation, or other water coming in contact with the earth and carrying matter to streams, rivers, lakes, and other... It has been suggested that Pollutant be merged into this article or section. ...


As water seeps into the ground, it settles in the pores and cracks of underground rocks and into the spaces between grains of sand and pieces of gravel. In time, the water trickles down into a layer of rock or other material that is water tight. This water tight zone collects the ground water, creating a saturated zone known as an aquifer. Aquifers in the United States are usually made from gravel, sandstone, limestone, or basalt (volcanic rock). An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well. ...


The water in the earth that these wells obtain is at a place in the ground known as the water table. The water table is the level of the ground water below the earth's surface. This table is measured by the depth of the upper limit of the Aquifer. The water table can be lowered by lack of precipitation or overdraft. Cross section showing the water table varying with surface topography as well as a perched water table The water table or phreatic surface is the surface where the water pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure. ...


Overdraft occurs when water is removed from the aquifer at a faster rate than can be naturally replaced by rain or snow. The lowering of the water table causes problems such as land subsidence, surface cracking, sinkholes on the surface, damage to the aquifer's water producing character due to compaction. For instance, in the Chinese city of Shanghai, the earth was generally soft. People used to pump out ground water from wells, leading to the eventual sinking of the surrounding strata. Shanghai's city government was forced to seal all wells in the city in the 1960s. In coastal areas, overdraft can lead to salt water intrusion. Salt water intrusion occurs in low water tables where drops in water pressure can lead to the ocean backing up into the ground water. For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ...


In a damp area, the water table can be reached simply by digging. In this case the well walls are usually lined with brick, stone, or concrete in order to keep the sides from caving in on the well. A dug well can be up to 50 feet deep, and has the greatest diameter of any of the well types. Well water that contains a high number of dissolved minerals is called a mineral well. Except for areas containing Karst formations, underground water is considered fairly clean because soils create a filter that remove large toxins. For other uses, see Brick (disambiguation). ... Karst topography occurs when a landscape is marked by underground drainage patterns. ...


Aquifer classification

Main article: Aquifer

Two broad classes of drilled-well types may be distinguished, based on the type of aquifer which the well is completed in: An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well. ... An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well. ...

  • shallow or unconfined wells are completed in the uppermost saturated aquifer at that location (the upper unconfined aquifer); or
  • deep or confined wells, which are sunk through an impermeable stratum down into an aquifer which is sandwiched between two impermeable strata (aquitards or aquicludes). The majority of confined aquifers are classified as artesian because the hydraulic head in a confined well is higher than the level of the top of the aquifer. If the hydraulic head in a confined well is higher than the land surface it is a "flowing" artesian well (named after Artois in France).

There clearly are many cases that fall in between these two endmembers; often unconfined wells may be very deep (what is often called a shallow well can be over 150 m deep) and many times wells are completed across all aquifers from their top to their bottom (especially agricultural or industrial wells), being open to both unconfined and confined aquifers. Geological strata giving rise to an Artesian well. ... Artois is a former province of northern France. ...


Types of water wells

Dug wells

100 year old, brick lined water well. Location: province of Buenos Aires, Argentina
100 year old, brick lined water well. Location: province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

Until recent centuries, all artificial wells were pumpless dug wells of varying degrees of formality. Their indispensability has produced numerous literary references, literal and figurative, to them, including the Christian Bible story of Jesus meeting a woman at Jacob's well (John 4:6) and the "Ding Dong Bell" nursery rhyme about a cat in a well. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 572 KB) 100 year old water well lined by hand with bricks in Argentina. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 572 KB) 100 year old water well lined by hand with bricks in Argentina. ... Categories: Argentine provinces | Buenos Aires province | Argentina geography stubs ... This article is about a mechanical device. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Jacob Wrestling with the Angel – Gustave Doré, 1855 Jacob or Yaakov, (Hebrew: יַעֲקֹב, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: يعقوب, ; holds the heel), also known as Israel (Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: اسرائيل, ; Struggled with God), is the third Biblical patriarch. ... For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... Ding Dong Bell is a popular English nursery rhyme. ... A nursery rhyme is a traditional song or poem taught to young children, originally in the nursery. ...


Such primitive dug wells were excavations with diameters large enough to accommodate muscle-powered digging to below the water table. Relatively formal versions tended to be lined with laid stones or brick; extending this lining into a wall around the well presumably served to reduce both contamination and injuries by falling into the well. The iconic American farm well features a peaked roof above the wall, reducing airborne contamination, and a cranked windlass, mounted between the two roof-supporting members, for raising and lowering a bucket to obtain water. Cross section showing the water table varying with surface topography as well as a perched water table The water table or phreatic surface is the surface where the water pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure. ... City wall in Worms, Germany City wall in Worms, Germany City wall in Valence, France 1. ... For other uses, see Farm (disambiguation). ... Look up crank in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A windlass is an apparatus for moving a heavy weight. ... This article is about the physical container. ...


More modern dug wells may be hand pumped, especially in undeveloped and third-world countries. A child drawing water from a handpump. ...


Note that the term "shallow well" is not a synonym for dug well, and may actually be quite deep - see Aquifer type, below.


Driven Wells

Driven wells consist of a series of pipes with a point and a perforated pipe at the end. The point is driven into the ground, thus the name driven, to a depth of up to 75 feet[1].


Drilled wells

Cable tool water well drilling rig in Kimball, West Virginia. These slow rigs have mostly been replaced by rotary drilling rigs in the US.
Cable tool water well drilling rig in Kimball, West Virginia. These slow rigs have mostly been replaced by rotary drilling rigs in the US.

Drilled wells can access water from a much deeper level by mechanical drilling. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1800x2471, 987 KB)Water well spudder drilling rig in Kimball, West Virginia Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL, Pollinator 06:23, 23 February 2006 (UTC) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1800x2471, 987 KB)Water well spudder drilling rig in Kimball, West Virginia Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL, Pollinator 06:23, 23 February 2006 (UTC) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the... Kimball is a town in McDowell County, West Virginia, USA. The population was 411 at the 2000 census. ...


Drilled wells with electric pumps are currently used throughout the world, mainly in developing and developed countries, typically in rural or sparsely populated areas, though many urban areas are supplied partly by Municipal wells.


Drilled wells are typically created using either top-head rotary style, table rotary, or cable tool drilling machines, all of which use drilling stems that are turned to create a cutting action in the formation, hence the term 'drilling'. Most shallow well drilling machines are mounted on large trucks, trailers, or tracked vehicle carriages. Water wells typically range from 20 to 600 feet, but in some areas can go deeper than 3,000 feet.


Rotary drilling machines use a segmented steel drilling string, typically made up of 20 foot sections of steel tubing that is threaded together, with a bit or other drilling device at the bottom end. Some rotary drilling machines are designed to install (by driving or drilling) a steel casing into the well in conjunction with the drilling of the actual bore hole. Air and/or water is used as a circulation fluid to displace cuttings & cool bits during the drilling. Another form of rotary style drilling, termed 'mud rotary', makes use of a specially made mud, or drilling fluid, which is constantly being altered during the drill so that it can consistently create enough hydraulic pressure to hold the side walls of the bore hole open, regardless of the presence of a casing in the well. Typically, boreholes drilled into solid rock are not cased until after the drilling process is completed, regardless of the machinery used.


The oldest form of drilling machinery is the Cable Tool, still used today. Specifically designed to raise & lower a bit into the bore hole, the 'spudding' of the drill cause the bit to be raised & dropped onto the bottom of the hole, and the design of the cable causes the bit to twist at approximately 1/4 revolution per drop, thereby creating a drilling action. Unlike rotary drilling, cable tool drilling requires the drilling action to be stopped so that the bore hole can be bailed or emptied of drilled cuttings.


Drilled wells are typically cased with a factory made pipe, typically steel (in air rotary or cable tool drilling) or plastic/PVC (in mud rotary wells, also present in wells drilled into solid rock). The casing is constructed by welding, either chemically or thermodynamically, segments of casing together. If the casing is installed during the drilling, most drills will drive the casing into the ground as the bore hole advances, while some newer machines will actually allow for the casing to be rotated & drilled into the formation in a similar manner as the bit advancing just below. PVC or plastic is typically welded & then lowered the drilled well, vertically stacked with their ends nested & either glued or splined together. The sections of casing are usually 20' or more in length, and 6" - 12" in diameter, depending on the intended use of the well and local ground water conditions.


Surface contamination of wells in the United States is typically controlled by the use of a 'surface seal'. A large hole is drilled to a predetermined depth or to a confining formation (clay or bedrock, for example), and then a smaller hole for the well is completed from that point forward. The well is typically cased from the surface down into the smaller hole with a casing that is the same diameter as that hole. The annular space between the large bore hole & the smaller casing is filled with bentonite clay, concrete, or other sealant material. This creates an impermeable seal from the surface to the next confining layer that keeps contaminants from traveling down the outer sidewalls of the casing or borehole & into the aquifer. In addition, wells are typically capped with either an engineered well cap or seal that vents air through a screen into the well, but keeps insects, small animals, and unauthorized individuals from accessing the well.


At the bottom of wells, based on formation, a screening device, filter pack, slotted casing, or open bore hole is left to allow the flow of water into the well. Constructed screens are typically used in unconsolidated formations (sands, gravels, etc.), allowing water & a percentage of the formation to pass through the screen. Allowing some material to pass through creates a large area filter out of the rest of the formation, as the amount of material present to pass into the well slowly decreases & is removed from the well. Rock wells are typically cased with a PVC liner/casing & screen or slotted casing at the bottom, this is mostly present just to keep rocks from entering the pump assembly. Some wells utilize a 'filter pack' method, where an undersized screen or slotted casing is placed inside the well & a filter media is packed around the screen, between the screen & the borehole or casing. This allows the water to be filtered of unwanted materials before entering the well & pumping zone.


Driven wells may be created in unconsolidated material with a "well point", which consists of a hardened drive point and a screen. The point is simply driven into the ground, usually with a tripod and "driver", with pipe sections added as needed. A driver is a weighted pipe that slides over the pipe being driven and is repeatedly dropped on it. When groundwater is encountered, the well is washed of sediment and a pump installed. This is the cheapest and simplest type of water well known today, however it is only useful at relatively shallow depths and for small capacity wells.[citation needed] Missing main definition------ someone add if you know it please. ...


Use classification

Two additional broad classes of well types may be distinguished, based on the use of the well:

  • production or pumping wells, are large diameter (> 15 cm in diameter) cased (metal, plastic, or concrete) water wells, constructed for extracting water from the aquifer by a pump (if the well is not artesian).
  • monitoring wells or piezometers, are often smaller diameter wells used to monitor the hydraulic head or sample the groundwater for chemical constituents. Piezometers are monitoring wells completed over a very short section of aquifer. Monitoring wells can also be completed at multiple levels, allowing discrete samples or measurements to be made at different vertical elevations at the same map location.

Obviously, a well constructed for pumping groundwater can be used passively as a monitoring well and a small diameter well can be pumped, but this distinction by use is common. This article is about a mechanical device. ... Geological strata giving rise to an Artesian well An artesian aquifer is an aquifer whose water is overpressurized. ... A piezometer is a device used for the measurement of hydraulic head of groundwater in aquifers. ...


Contamination

Man cleaning a well in Yaoundé, Cameroon
Man cleaning a well in Yaoundé, Cameroon

Shallow pumping wells can often supply drinking water at a very low cost, but because impurities from the surface easily reach shallow sources, a greater risk of contamination occurs for these wells when they are compared to deeper wells. In shallow and deep wells, the water requires pumping to the surface; in artesian wells, conversely, water usually rises to a greater level than the land surface when extracted from a deep source. Image File history File linksMetadata Cleaning_a_well_in_Yaounde. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Cleaning_a_well_in_Yaounde. ... View of Yaoundé Yaoundé, «yah oon DAY», estimated population 1,430,000 (2004), is the capital city of Cameroon and second largest city in the country after Douala. ... Drinking water Mineral Water Drinking water is water that is intended to be ingested by humans. ...


Well water for personal use is often filtered with reverse osmosis water processors; this process can remove very small particles. A simple, effective way of killing microorganisms is to boil the water (although, unless in contact with surface water or near areas where treated wastewater is being recharged, groundwater tends to be free of microorganisms). Alternately the addition of 1 teaspoon of bleach to a gallon of water will disinfect it after a half hour [2]. Reverse osmosis is a separation process that uses pressure to force a solvent through a membrane that retains the solute on one side and allows the pure solvent to pass to the other side. ...


Contamination of groundwater from surface and subsurface sources can usually be dramatically reduced by correctly centering the casing during construction and filling the casing annulus with an appropriate sealing material. The sealing material (grout) should be placed from immediately above the production zone back to surface. This is because, in the absence of a correctly constructed casing seal, contaminated fluid can travel into the well via the casing annulus. Centering devices are important (usually 1 per length of casing or at maximum intervals of 30 feet) to ensure that the grouted annular space is of even thickness.


Anthropogenic Contamination

Contamination related to human activity is a common problem with groundwater. For example, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylenes (BTEX), which come from gasoline refining, and methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE), which is a fuel additive, are common contaminants in urbanized areas, often as the result of leaking underground storage tanks. Many industrial solvents also are common groundwater contaminants, which may enter groundwater through leaks, accidental spills or intentional dumping. Military facilities also produce generous amounts of groundwater contamination, often in the form of solvents like TCE [3]. Cleanup of contaminated groundwater tends to be very costly. Effective remediation of groundwater is generally very difficult. BTEX is an acronym that stands for Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylenes. ... MTBE is highly flammable and is widely used as an oxygenate. ... TCE may mean: Trichloroethylene, the most commonly found contamination in groundwater. ...


Natural Contaminants

Some very common constituents of well water are natural contaminants created by subsurface mineral concentrations. The most common of these are iron, manganese and arsenic, all of which are considered carcinogenic [4] and therefore chronic contaminants. Other natural constituents of concern are nitrates and Coliform bacteria, both of which are considered acute contaminants and may seriously sicken persons considered to be "at-risk", mainly the elderly, infirm and infants. Also of consequence can be radionuclides such as radium, uranium and other elements. Upon the constructon of a new test well, it is considered best practice to invest in a complete battery of chemical tests on the well water in question. Point-of-use treatment is available for individual properties and treatment plants are often constructed for municipal water supplies that suffer from contamination. Most of these treatment methods involve the filtration of the contaminants of concern, and additional protection may be garnered by installing well-casing screens only at depths where contamination is not present. For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... In pathology, a carcinogen is any substance or agent that promotes cancer. ... Nitrates are the salts of nitric acid. ... Binomial name Escherichia coli T. Escherich, 1885 Escherichia coli (usually abbreviated to E. coli) is one of the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of warm_blooded animals (including birds and mammals) and are necessary for the proper digestion of food. ... General Name, Symbol, Number radium, Ra, 88 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 7, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight (226) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, symbol, number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, period, block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... Look up filtration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Ancient well technologies

Photo from a museum dedicated to karez wells at Turfan, Xinjiang, China
Photo from a museum dedicated to karez wells at Turfan, Xinjiang, China

The earliest wells are known from the Neolithic. In the submerged Pre-Pottery Neolithic B settlement of Atlit Yam in Israel, dated to 8100-7500 BC, a well has been found, which so far is the oldest known. Other PPNB wells (7-8 m deep) are known from Kissonerga-Mylouthkia on Cyprus and maybe shallower examples from Shillourokambos as well. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 758 KB) Turpan 02/10/2005 es: Karez: es el nombre usado en Asia Central para el sistema de riego también conocido como Qanat. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 758 KB) Turpan 02/10/2005 es: Karez: es el nombre usado en Asia Central para el sistema de riego también conocido como Qanat. ... Map showing location of Turfan (upper right) on the Silk Route The Turfan water system (locally called karez water system) in Turfan, located in the Turfan Depression, Xinjiang, China, is a well water collection system that has been listed as one of the three greatest water projects of ancient China... position in China Street of Turfan View of the Flaming mountains Emin minaret, Turfan Turfan (Uyghur: تۇرپان; Uyghur latin: Turpan; Modern Chinese 吐魯番, Pinyin: Tǔlǔfán; ) is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) is a division of the Neolithic developed by Dame Kathleen Kenyon during her archaeological excavations at Jericho in the southern Levant region. ... The final Pre-pottery Neolithic B site of Atlit Yam in Israel dates between 6900 and 6300 BC cal. ... Shillourokambos is an aceramic Neolithic site (PPN B) near Parekklisha, 6 km east of Limassol in southern Cyprus. ...


Wood-lined wells are known from the early Neolithic Linearbandkeramic culture, for example in Kückhoven, dated 5090BC and Eythra), dated 5200BC in Germany and Schletz in Austria. The early Mesolithic site of Friesack in Germany has yielded a shallow pit with the remains of a birch-bark container that may have been a shallow artificial well as well. Sherds of the late Linearbandkeramik, Rhine-Main area The Linearbandkeramic (abbreviated LBK) is the earliest neolithic culture of Central Europe. ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... Friesack is a town in the Havelland district, in Brandenburg, Germany. ...


Australian Aborigines relied on wells to survive the harsh Australian desert. They would dig down, scooping out sand and mud to reach clean water, then cover the source with spinifex to prevent spoilation. White people call these native wells, soaks or soakages. Aboriginal Flag Australian Aborigines is a name used to collectively describe most of the indigenous peoples of the Australian continent and its nearby islands. ... Location of deserts in Australia Deserts of Australia cover a large portion of the land in Australia. ... Species See text Triodia is a large genus of tussock forming grass endemic to Australia, the are commonly known as spinifex, although they are not a part of the coastal genus Spinifex. ... A soakage, or soak, is a source of water in Australian deserts. ...


In India, stepwells were created at times, sometimes used both for water and for cooling. Stepwells are in essence wells in which the water can be reached by descending a set of steps. ...


From the Iron Age onwards, wells are common archaeological features, both with wooden shafts and shaft-linings made from wickerwork. Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ...


A karez well system is a model of an ancient water collection system made up of a series of wells and linked underground water channels that collects flowing water from a source usually a distance away, store it, and then brings the water to the surface using gravity. This system of wells was most fully developed in Turfan, China, an important trading center on the ancient Silk Route, that owed its prosperity to the water provided by its karez well system.[1] Map showing location of Turfan (upper right) on the Silk Route The Turfan water system (locally called karez water system) in Turfan, located in the Turfan Depression, Xinjiang, China, is a well water collection system that has been listed as one of the three greatest water projects of ancient China... position in China Street of Turfan View of the Flaming mountains Emin minaret, Turfan Turfan (Uyghur: تۇرپان; Uyghur latin: Turpan; Modern Chinese 吐魯番, Pinyin: TÇ”lÇ”fán; ) is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Silk Road (Traditional Chinese: 絲綢之路; Simplified Chinese: 丝绸之路; pinyin: sī chóu zhī lù) was an interconnected series of routes through Southern Asia traversed by caravan and ocean vessel, and connecting Changan, China with Antioch, Syria, as well as other...


Cultural references

In Ukraine water wells, called Krynycia were along with the church the center of social life.

Springs and wells have had cultural significance since prehistoric times, leading to the foundation of towns such as Wells and Bath in Somerset. Interest in health benefits led to the growth of spa towns including many with wells in their name, examples being Llandrindod Wells and Royal Tunbridge Wells. Image File history File links Krynycia. ... Image File history File links Krynycia. ... For other uses, see Wells (disambiguation). ... Bath is a city in Somerset, England most famous for its baths fed by three hot springs. ... This article is about the county of Somerset in England. ... Taking the waters at Bath became a fashionable means of leisure Lucy, A spa town is a town frequented many Lucys, mainly for health reasons, to take the waters. The often historical term derives from the Belgian town Spa. ... Llandrindod Wells (Welsh: Llandrindod), known locally as Llandod, is a town in mid Wales. ... , Royal Tunbridge Wells (often called simply Tunbridge Wells) is a Wealden town in west Kent in England, just north of the border with East Sussex. ...


Empty wells are a prominent element in some of the work of Japanese author Haruki Murakami, especially The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle. Haruki Murakami , born January 12, 1949) is a popular contemporary Japanese writer and translator. ... The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle (ねじまき鳥クロニクル, Nejimaki-dori kuronikuru) (ISBN 0679775439) is a novel by Haruki Murakami. ...


There is much folklore in Wales surrounding wells, particularly in relation to their healing properties. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the country. ...


There is a belief that a wish can be made in a well; see wishing well. Look up Wishing well in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Eratosthenes first calculated the radius of the Earth in about 230 BC by comparing shadows in wells during the summer solstice.[5]


In Western Ukraine, water wells were traditionally centers of social life, and the community came together to build them using a traditional process. Local stories often emphasize the social and cultural values of wells. The wells were decorated and had a wooden wheel attached to raise the bucket. Wells are still used in many Ukrainian towns and cities. Western Ukraine (Західно-українська Народна Республіка, West-Ukrainian Peoples Republic) was a short-lived republic that existed in late...


See also

Water Portal

Image File history File links Drinking_water. ... Missing main definition------ someone add if you know it please. ... A child drawing water from a handpump. ... Hydrogeology (hydro- meaning water, and -geology meaning the study of the Earth) is the part of hydrology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earths crust, (commonly in aquifers). ... Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... This article is about a mechanical device. ... Water resources are sources of water that are useful or potentially useful to humans. ... Cross section showing the water table varying with surface topography as well as a perched water table The water table or phreatic surface is the surface where the water pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure. ... Well drainage means drainage of agricultural lands by wells. ... A Persian well is a type of water well found in the Middle East, often used in conjunction with a Qanat. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Boulnois, Luce (2005). Silk Road: Monks, Warriors & Merchants. Hong Kong: Odessey Books & Guides, pp 148–149, 201. ISBN 962-217-721-2. 

References

Driscoll, F. (1986). Groundwater and Wells. St. Paul, MN: Johnson Filtration Systems, second edition. ISBN 978-0961645601


External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Water wells

  Results from FactBites:
 
Drinking Water: Well Water Testing FAQ's- Parasitic Pathways - Division of Parasitic Diseases (1011 words)
Check your well every spring to make sure there are no mechanical problems; test it once each year for germs and once every two to three years for harmful chemicals.
However, as a well owner, it is up to you to maintain your well and have it tested regularly.
The presence of nitrate in well water also depends on the geology of the land around your well.
Boulder/GNC Water Well: How to chlorinate your water system (966 words)
Water, especially well water, should be tested for potability on a yearly basis.
Well drillers and pump installers are required to use 100 parts per million (ppm)as a minimum, to disinfect the well after their work.
To remove the chlorine and have your water chlorine free, the well and/or cistern must be emptied of the chlorinated water.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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