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Encyclopedia > Water supply
Water Portal

Water supply is the process of self-provision or provision by third parties of water of various qualities to different users. This article is so far limited to public water supply. It is expected to also cover industrial self-supply of water. Irrigation is covered separately. Image File history File links Portal. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Water supply. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil. ...

Clean drinking water
Clean drinking water

Contents

Image File history File links Drinking_water. ... Image File history File links Drinking_water. ...

Global access to water supply

In 2004 about 3.5 billion people worldwide (54% of the global population) had access to piped water supply through house connections. Another 1.3 billion (20%) had access to safe water through other means than house connections, including standpipes, "water kiosks", protected springs and protected wells. Finally, more than 1 billion people (16%) did not have access to safe water, meaning that they have to revert to unprotected wells or springs, canals, lakes or rivers to fetch water. Billion may mean: 1,000,000,000 (one thousand million; ), used by most English-speaking countries (American and usual modern British meaning) 1,000,000,000,000 (one million million; ), used by most other countries outside Asia (older British meaning). ... A standpipe is a freestanding pipe fitted with a tap which is installed outdoors to dispense water in areas which do not have a running water supply to the buildings. ...


Water and public health

A cast-iron City of Birmingham stop-cock cover, from the time when the City Council was responsible for the supply of drinking water.
A cast-iron City of Birmingham stop-cock cover, from the time when the City Council was responsible for the supply of drinking water.

Both an adequate amount of water and adequate water quality are essential for public health and hygiene. Waterborne diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries, frequently called developing countries. For example, an estimated 900 million people suffer (and approximately 2 million die) from water-related diarrhoeal illnesses each year. At least 17 percent of the total burden of human diseases in many developing countries can be attributed to diarrhea and infestations by intestinal worms. The most common waterborne or waterwashed diseases are diarrhea, typhoid and cholera. Another example is trachoma, an infectious disease of the eye, which results in many cases of blindness in developing countries, which is associated with poor water supply, poor sanitation and failure to adequately process human excrement. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 516 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (777 × 903 pixel, file size: 200 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A cast-iron City of Birmingham Water Department stop-cock cover, embedded in the pavement in Great Barr, Birmingham, England. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 516 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (777 × 903 pixel, file size: 200 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A cast-iron City of Birmingham Water Department stop-cock cover, embedded in the pavement in Great Barr, Birmingham, England. ... Water quality is the chemical and physical characterization of water. ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ... Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness. ... Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause... This is about the disease typhoid fever. ... Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... It has been suggested that Underdevelopment be merged into this article or section. ... E. Coli bacteria under magnification Sanitation is the hygienic disposal or recycling of waste, as well as the policy and practice of protecting health through hygienic measures. ...


Sometimes, due to actual or suspected contamination by pathogens a boil water advisory, known as as a Boiling water order in the UK, may be invoked. A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... A boil water advisory is a public health advisory given by government or health authorities to communities when a communitys drinking water is, or could be, contaminated by pathogens. ...


The World Health Organization has defined around 20 liter per capita per day as basic access, which implies high health concerns, and 100 liter per capita per day as optimal access, associated with low health concerns. [6] The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. ...


Technical overview of water supply

For more details on this topic, see water supply network.

Water supply systems get water from a variety of locations, including groundwater (aquifers), surface water (lakes and rivers), conservation and the sea through desalination. The water is then, in most cases, purified, disinfected through chlorination and sometimes fluoridated. Treated water then either flows by gravity or is pumped to reservoirs, which can be elevated such as water towers or on the ground (for indicators related to the efficiency of drinking water distribution see non-revenue water). Once water is used, wastewater is typically discharged in a sewer system and treated in a wastewater treatment plant before being discharged into a river, lake or the sea or reused for landscaping, irrigation or industrial use (see also sanitation). A water supply network is a system of engineered hydrologic and hydraulic components, including: the watershed or geographic area that collects the water, see water purification - sources of drinking water; a raw (untreated) water reservoir (above or below ground) where the water gathers, such as a lake, a river, or... An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well. ... A man-made lake in Keukenhof, Netherlands A lake (from Latin lacus) is a body of water or other liquid of considerable size contained on a body of land. ... This bridge across the Danube River links Hungary with Slovakia. ... Water conservation refers to reducing use of fresh water, through technological or social methods. ... Shevchenko BN350 desalination unit situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ... Control room and schematics of the water purification plant to Bret lake. ... Chlorination is the process of adding the element chlorine to water as a method of water purification to make it fit for human consumption as drinking water. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Ashokan Reservoir, located in Ulster County, New York, USA. It is one of 19 that supplies New York City with drinking water. ... The mushroom-shaped concrete water tower of Roihuvuori in Helsinki, Finland was built in the 1970s. ... Non revenue water (NRW) is water that has been produced and is “lost” before it reaches the customer. ... A sewer is an artificial conduit or system of conduits used to remove sewage (human liquid waste) and to provide drainage. ... Also called Wastewater treatment works Sewage treatment – treatment and disposal of human waste. ... Landscaping refers to any activity that modifies the visible features of an area of land, including but not limited to: living elements, such as flora or fauna; or what is commonly referred to as Gardening efforts in the gestalt, the art and craft of growing plants with a goal of... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil. ... E. Coli bacteria under magnification Sanitation is the hygienic disposal or recycling of waste, as well as the policy and practice of protecting health through hygienic measures. ...


Service quality

Many of the 3.5 billion people having access to piped water receive a poor or very poor quality of service, especially in developing countries where about 80% of the world population lives. Water supply service quality has many dimensions: continuity; water quality; pressure; and the degree of responsiveness of service providers to customer complaints. Water quality is the chemical and physical characterization of water. ...


Continuity of supply

Continuity of water supply is taken for granted in most developed countries, but is a severe problem in many developing countries, where sometimes water is only provided for a few hours every day or a few days a week. It is estimated that about half of the population of developing countries receives water on an intermittent basis.


Water quality

Drinking water quality has a micro-biological and a physico-chemical dimension. There are thousands of parameters of water quality. In public water supply systems water should, at a minimum, be disinfected - previously through chlorination, now using ultra violet light - or it may need to undergo treatment, especially in the case of surface water. For more details please see the separate entries on water quality, water treatment and drinking water. Water quality is the chemical and physical characterization of water. ... Chlorination is the process of adding the element chlorine to water as a method of water purification to make it fit for human consumption as drinking water. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... Surface water is water on the ground or in a stream, river, lake, sea or ocean; as opposed to groundwater. ... Water quality is the chemical and physical characterization of water. ... Water treatment in a general sense reffers to the treatement of water to make it more acceptable for what will be done with it (either usage or discharge into the environment). ... Drinking water Mineral Water Drinking water is water that is intended to be ingested by humans. ...


Water pressure

Water pressures vary in different locations of a distribution system. Water mains below the street may operate at higher pressures, with a pressure reducer located at each point where the water enters a building or a house. In poorly managed systems, water pressure can be so low as to result only in a trickle of water or so high that it leads to damage to plumbing fixtures and waste of water. Pressure in an urban water system is typically maintained either by a pressurized water tank serving an urban area, by pumping the water up into a tower and relying on gravity to maintain a constant pressure in the system or solely by pumps at the water treatment plant and repeater pumping stations. In automatic control, a regulator is a device which has the function of maintaining a designated characteristic. ... Water treatment in a general sense reffers to the treatement of water to make it more acceptable for what will be done with it (either usage or discharge into the environment). ...


Comparing the performance of water and sanitation service providers

Comparing the performance of water and sanitation service providers (utilities) is needed, because the sector offers limited scope for direct competition (natural monopoly). Firms operating in competitive markets are under constant pressure to out perform each other. Water utilities are often sheltered from this pressure, and it frequently shows: some utilities are on a sustained improvement track, but many others keep falling further behind best practice. Benchmarking the performance of utilities allows to simulate competition, establish realistic targets for improvement and create pressure to catch up with better utilities. Information on benchmarks for water and sanitation utilities is provided by the International Benchmarking Network for Water and Sanitation Utilities.[1] A public utility is a company that maintains the infrastructure for a public service. ... In economics, the term natural monopoly is used to refer to two different things. ... Benchmarking (also best practice benchmarking or process benchmarking) is a process used in management and particularly strategic management, in which organizations evaluate various aspects of their processes in relation to best practice, usually within their own sector. ...


Institutional responsibility and governance

A great variety of institutions have responsibilities in water supply. A basic distinction is between institutions responsible for policy and regulation on the one hand; and institutions in charge of providing services on the other hand. An institution is a group, tenet, maxim, or organization created by a group of humans. ...


Policy and regulation

Water supply policies and regulation are usually defined by one or several Ministries, in consultation with the legislative branch. In the United States the EPA, whose administrator reports directly to the President, is responsible for water and sanitation policy and standard setting within the executive branch. In other countries responsibility for sector policy is entrusted to a Ministry of Environment (such as in Mexico and Colombia), to a Ministry of Health (such as in Panama, Honduras and Uruguay), a Ministry of Public Works (such as in Ecuador and Haiti), a Ministry of Economy (such as in German states) or a Ministry of Energy (such as in Iran). A few countries, such as Jordan and Bolivia, even have a Ministry of Water. Often several Ministries share responsibilities for water supply. In the European Union, important policy functions have been entrusted to the supranational level. Policy and regulatory functions include the setting of tariff rules and the approval of tariff increases; setting, monitoring and enforcing norms for quality of service and environmental protection; benchmarking the performance of service providers; and reforms in the structure of institutions responsible for service provision. The distinction between policy functions and regulatory functions is not always clear-cut. In some countries they are both entrusted to Ministries, but in others regulatory functions are entrusted to agencies that are separate from Ministries. EPA redirects here. ... Supranationalism is a method of decision-making in international organizations, where power is held by independent appointed officials or by representatives elected by the legislatures or people of the member states. ... Benchmarking (also best practice benchmarking or process benchmarking) is a process used in management and particularly strategic management, in which organizations evaluate various aspects of their processes in relation to best practice, usually within their own sector. ...


Regulatory agencies

Dozens of countries around the world have established regulatory agencies for infrastructure services, including often water supply and sanitation, in order to better protect consumers and to improve efficiency. Regulatory agencies can be entrusted with a variety of responsibilities, including in particular the approval of tariff increases and the management of sector information systems, including benchmarking systems. Sometimes they also have a mandate to settle complaints by consumers that have not been dealt with satisfactorily by service providers. These specialized entities are expected to be more competent and objective in regulating service providers than departments of government Ministries. Regulatory agencies are supposed to be autonomous from the executive branch of government, but in many countries have often not been able to exercise a great degree of autonomy. In the United States regulatory agencies for utilities have existed for almost a century at the level of states, and in Canada at the level of provinces. In both countries they cover several infrastructure sectors. In many US states they are called Public Utility Commissions. For England and Wales, a regulatory agency for water (OFWAT) was created as part of the privatization of the water industry in 1989. In many developing countries, water regulatory agencies were created during the 1990s in parallel with efforts at increasing private sector participation. (for more details on regulatory agencies in Latin America, for example, please see Water and sanitation in Latin America and the regional association of water regulatory agencies ADERASA [http:/www.aderasa.org]) Benchmarking (also best practice benchmarking or process benchmarking) is a process used in management and particularly strategic management, in which organizations evaluate various aspects of their processes in relation to best practice, usually within their own sector. ... A Utilities commission, Utility Regulatory Commission (URC), or Public Utilities Commission (PUC) is a governing body that regulates the rates and services of a utility. ... The Office of Water Services (Ofwat) is the body which is responsible for economic regulation of the privatised water industry in England and Wales. ... Water supply and sanitation in Latin America is characterized by insufficient access and in many cases by poor service quality, with detrimental impacts on public health. ...


Many countries do not have regulatory agencies for water. In these countries service providers are regulated directly by local government, or the national government. This is, for example, the case in the countries of continental Europe, in China and India.


For more information on utility regulation in the water sector see the body of knowledge on utility regulation [7] and the World Bank's knowledge base on the same topic at [8]


Service provision

Water supply service providers, which are often utilities, differ from each other in terms of their geographical coverage relative to administrative boundaries; their sectoral coverage; their ownership structure; and their governance arrangements. A public utility is a company that maintains the infrastructure for a public service. ...


Geographical coverage

Many water utilities provide services in a single city, town or municipality. However, in many countries municipalities have associated in regional or inter-municipal or multi-jurisdictional utilities to benefit from economies of scale. In the United States these can take the form of special-purpose districts which may have independent taxing authority. An example of a multi-jurisdictional water utility in the United States is WASA, a utility serving Washington, DC and various localities in the state of Maryland. Multi-jurisdictional utilities are also common in Germany, where they are known as "Zweckverbaende", in France and in Italy. In some federal countries there are water service providers covering most or all cities and towns in an entire state, such as in all states of Brazil and some states in Mexico (see Water supply and sanitation in Mexico). In England and Wales water supply and sewerage is supplied almost entirely through ten regional companies. Some smaller countries, especially developed countries, have established service providers that cover the entire country or at least most of its cities and major towns. Such national service providers are especially prevalent in West Africa and Central America, but also exist, for example, in Tunisia, Jordan and Uruguay (see also water supply and sanitation in Uruguay). In rural areas, where about half the world population lives, water services are often not provided by utilities, but by community-based organizations which usually cover one or sometimes several villages. A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ... The increase in output from Q to Q1 causes a decrease in the average cost of each unit from C to C1. ... Generally a special-purpose district, also known as a special district, is a type of district differing from general-purpose districts like municipalities, counties, etc. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N  - Longitude 75° 03′ W to 79° 29... While many Mexican water supply and sewer service providers rank among the best in Latin America, in general, the Mexican water and sanitation sector is characterized by the following issues (i) poor technical and commercial efficiency of service provision; (ii) inadequate water service quality; and (iii) inadequate sanitation service quality... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... This article is about the country. ... // Uruguay is the only country in in Latin America that has achieved quasi universal coverage of access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation (for water access see [1] and for sanitation access see [2]). In addition, Water service quality is considered good, with practically all localities in Uruguay receiving...


Sector coverage

Some water utilities provide only water supply services, while sewerage is under the responsibility of a different entity. This is for example the case in Tunisia. However, in most cases water utilities also provide sewer and wastewater treatment services. In some cities or countries utilities also distribute electricity. In a few cases such multi-utilities also collect solid waste and provide local telephone services. An example of such an integrated utility can be found in the Colombian city of MedellĂ­n. Utilities that provide water, sanitation and electricity can be found in Frankfurt, Germany (Mainova), in Casablanca, Morocco and in Gabon in West Africa. Multi-utilities provide certain benefits such as common billing and the option to cross-subsidize water services with revenues from electricity sales, if permitted by law. The word sewerage means the provision of pipes etc to collect and dispose of sewage. ... A sewer is an artificial conduit or system of conduits used to remove sewage (human liquid waste) and to provide drainage. ... Sewage treatment is the process that removes the majority of the contaminants from waste-water or sewage and produces both a liquid effluent suitable for disposal to the natural environment and a sludge. ... Nickname: Location of the city (urban in red) and municipality (dark gray) of Medellín in Antioquia Department. ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Casablanca (disambiguation). ...


Ownership and governance arrangements

Water supply providers can be either public, private, mixed or cooperative. Most urban water supply services around the world are provided by public entities.


Private sector participation

An estimated 10 percent of urban water supply is provided by private or mixed public-private companies, usually under concessions, leases or management contracts. Under these arrangements the public entity that is legally responsible for service provision delegates certain or all aspects of service provision to the private service provider for a period typically ranging from 4 to 30 years. The public entity continues to own the assets. These arrangements are common in France and in Spain. Only in few parts of the world water supply systems have been completely sold to the private sector (privatization), such as in England and Wales as well as in Chile. The largest private water companies in the world are SUEZ and Veolia Environnement from France; Aguas de Barcelona from Spain; and Thames Water from the UK, all of which are engaged internationally (see links to website of these companies below). In politics, a concession is the act of a candidate yielding to the other condidate. ... This article or section should include material from Tenancy agreement A lease is a contract conveying from one person (the lessor) to another person (the lessee) the right to use and control some article of property for a specified period of time (the term), without conveying ownership, in exchange for... A management contract is an arrangement under which operational control of an enterprise is vested by contract in a separate enterprise which performs the necessary managerial functions in return for a fee. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... This article is about the country. ... Northermost part of Gulf of Suez with town Suez on map of 1856. ... Veolia Environnement SA is a leading French-based company with activities in four main areas - water, waste management, energy and transport services. ... Thames Water, known originally as the Thames Water Authority and after privatization as Thames Water Utilities Limited, is the utility responsible for water supply and waste water treatment in parts of Greater London, Surrey, Wiltshire, and the Thames Valley in the United Kingdom. ...


Governance arrangements

Governance arrangements for both public and private utilities can take many forms. Governance arrangements define the relationship between the service provider, its owners, its customers and regulatory entities. They determine the financial autonomy of the service provider and thus its ability to maintain its assets, expand services, attract and retain qualified staff, and ulitmately to provide high-quality services. Key aspects of governance arrangements are the extent to which the entity in charge of providing services is insulated from arbitrary political intervention; and whether there is an explicit mandate and political will to allow the service provider to recover all or at least most of its costs through tariffs and retain these revenues. If water supply is the responsibility of a department that is integrated in the administration of a city, town or municipality, there is a risk that tariff revenues are diverted for other purposes. In some cases, there is also a risk that staff are appointed mainly on political grounds rather than based on their professional credentials. These risks are particularly high in developing countries. Municipal or inter-municipal utilities with a separate legal personality and budget as well as a certain extent of managerial autonomy can mitigate these risks.


Tariffs

Almost all service providers in the world charge tariffs to recover part of their costs. According to estimates by the World Bank the average (mean) global water tariff is US$ 0.53 per cubic meter. In developed countries the average tariff is US$ 1.04, while it is only U$ 0.11 in the poorest developing countries. The lowest tariffs in developing countries are found in South Asia (mean of US$ 0.09/m3), while the highest are found in Latin America (US$ 0.41/m3).[2] Few utilities do recover all their costs. According to the same World Bank study only 30% of utilities globally, and only 50% of utilities in developed countries, generate sufficient revenue to cover operation, maintenance and partial capital costs. ... In statistics, mean has two related meanings: Look up mean in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


According to another study undertaken in 2006 by NUS Consulting, the average water and sewerage tariff in 14 mainly OECD countries excluding VAT varied between US$ 0.66 per cubic meter in the United States and the equivalent of US$ 2.25 per cubic meter in Denmark.[3] However, it should be noted that water consumption in the US is much higher than in Europe. Therefore, residential water bills may be very similar, even if the tariff per unit of consumption tends to be higher in Europe than in the US. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... vat can be a type of barrel used for storage. ...


A typical family on the US East Coast paid between US$30 and US$70 per month for water and sewer services in 2005.[4]


In developing countries tariffs are usually much further from covering costs. Residential water bills for a typical consumption of 15 cubic meters per month vary between less than US$ 1 and US$ 12 per month.[5]


Water and sanitation tariffs, which are almost always billed together, can take many different forms. Where meters are installed, tariffs are typically volumetric (per usage), sometimes combined with a small monthly fixed charge. In the absence of meters, flat or fixed rates - which are independent of actual consumption - are being charged. In developed countries, tariffs are usually the same for different categories of users and for different levels of consumption.


In developing countries, are often characterized by cross-subsidies with the intent to make water more affordable for residential low-volume users that are assumed to be poor. For example, industrial and commercial users are often charged higher tariffs than public or residential users. Also, metered users are often charged higher tariffs for higher levels of consumption (increasing-block tariffs). However, cross-subsidies between residential users do not always reach their objective. Given the overall low level of water tariffs in developing countries even at higher levels of consumption, most consumption subsidies benefit the wealthier segments of society.[6] Also, high industrial and commercial tariffs can provide an incentive for these users to supply water from other sources than the utility (own wells, water tankers) and thus actually erode the utility's revenue base.


Metering

A typical residential water meter
A typical residential water meter

Metering of water supply is usually motivated by one or several of four objectives: First, it provides an incentive to conserve water which protects water resources (environmental objective). Second, it can postpone costly system expansion and saves energy and chemical costs (economic objective). Third, it allows a utility to better locate distribution losses (technical objective). Fourth, it allows to charge for water based on use, which is perceived by many as the fairest way to allocate the costs of water supply to users. Metering is considered good practice in water supply and is widespread in developed countries, except for the United Kingdom. In developed countries it is estimated that half of all urban water supply systems are metered and the tendency is increasing. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ...


Water meters are read by one of several methods: A typical residential water meter A water meter is a device used to measure water usage. ...

  • the water customer writes down the meter reading and mails in a postcard with this info to the water department;
  • the water customer writes down the meter reading and uses a phone dial-in system to transfer this info to the water department;
  • the water customer logs in to the website of the water supply company, enters the address, meter ID and meter readings [9]
  • a meter reader comes to the premise and enters the meter reading into a handheld computer;
  • the meter reading is echoed on a display unit mounted to the outside of the premise, where a meter reader records them;
  • a small radio is hooked up to the meter to automatically transmit readings to corresponding receivers in handheld computers, utility vehicles or distributed collectors
  • a small computer is hooked up to the meter that can either dial out or receive automated phone calls that give the reading to a central computer system.

Most cities are increasingly installing Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) systems to prevent fraud, to lower ever-increasing labor and liability costs and to improve customer service and satisfaction. A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... Automatic meter reading, or AMR, is the technology of automatically collecting data from water meter or energy metering devices (water, gas, electric) and transferring that data to a central database for billing and/or analyzing. ...


Costs and Financing

The cost of supplying water consists to a very large extent of fixed costs (capital costs and personnel costs) and only to a small extent of variable costs that depend on the amount of water consumed (mainly energy and chemicals). The full cost of supplying water in urban areas in developed countries is about US$1-2 per cubic meter depending on local costs and local water consumption levels. The cost of sanitation (sewerage and wastewater treatment) is another US$1-2 per cubic meter. These costs are somewhat lower in developing countries. Throughout the world, only part of these costs is usually billed to consumers, the remainder being financed through direct or indirect subsidies from local, regional or national governments (see section on tariffs). In economics, business, and accounting, a cost is the value of inputs that have been used up to produce something, and hence are not available for use anymore. ... A subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by government in support of an activity regarded as being in the public interest. ...


Besides subsidies water supply investments are financed through internally generated revenues as well as through debt. Debt financing can take the form of credits from commercial Banks, credits from international financial institutions such as the World Bank and regional development banks (in the case of developing countries), and bonds (in the case of some developed countries and some upper middle-income countries). In finance, a bond is a debt security, in which the authorized issuer owes the holders a debt and is obliged to repay the principal and interest (the coupon) at a later date, termed maturity. ...


History of water supply

Throughout history people have devised systems to make getting and using water more convenient. Early Rome had indoor plumbing, meaning a system of aqueducts and pipes that terminated in homes and at public wells and fountains for people to use. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Pont du Gard, France, a Roman aqueduct built circa 19 BC. It is one of Frances top tourist attractions and a World Heritage Site. ...


The technique of purification of drinking water by use of compressed liquefied chlorine gas was developed in 1910 by U.S. Army Major (later Brig. Gen.) Carl Rogers Darnall (1867-1941), Professor of Chemistry at the Army Medical School. Shortly thereafter, Major (later Col.) William J. L. Lyster (1869-1947) of the Army Medical Department used a solution of calcium hypochlorite in a linen bag to treat water. For many decades, Lyster's method remained the standard for U.S. ground forces in the field and in camps, implemented in the form of the familiar Lyster Bag (also spelled Lister Bag). Darnall's work became the basis for present day systems of municipal water purification. The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Brigadier General Carl Rogers Darnall, MD (25 December 1867, Weston, Texas, USA -18 January 1941, Walter Reed General Hospital, Washington, DC, USA) was a U.S. Army chemist and surgeon credited with originating the technique of liquid chlorination of drinking water. ... Founded by U.S. Army Brigadier General George Miller Sternberg, MD in 1893, the Army Medical School (AMS) was by some reckonings the worlds first school of public health and preventive medicine. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... The Army Medical Department (AMEDD) of the U.S. Army comprises the six medical Special Branches of the Army. ... Calcium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with formula Ca(ClO)2. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ IBNET [1]
  2. ^ World Bank 2006: Water, Electricity and the Poor. Who Benefits from Utility Subsidies?, p. 21 [2] Data for 132 cities were assessed. The tariff is estimate for a consumption level of 15 cubic meters per month
  3. ^ NUS Consulting 2005-2006 International Water Report & Cost Survey [3] The study covered Denmark, Germany, the UK, Belgium, France, The Netherlands, Italy, Finland, Australia, Spain, South Africa, Sweden, Canada and the US. The methodology for assessing tariffs may be different from the methodology of the World Bank study cited above. It should be noted that the report means by "costs" average tariffs and not the costs of the utility, which can be lower or higher than average tariffs
  4. ^ quoted from a comparison of 24 utilities on the US East Coast in the 2005 Annual Report of DC WASA, p. 38 [4] The comparison refers to a consumption level of 25 cubic feet per quarter
  5. ^ World Bank, op.cit., calculated from Table 2.3 on p. 21
  6. ^ World Bank 2006: Water, Electricity and the Poor. Who Benefits from Utility Subsidies? [5]

See also

Brigadier General Carl Rogers Darnall, MD (25 December 1867, Weston, Texas, USA -18 January 1941, Walter Reed General Hospital, Washington, DC, USA) was a U.S. Army chemist and surgeon credited with originating the technique of liquid chlorination of drinking water. ... Drinking water Mineral Water Drinking water is water that is intended to be ingested by humans. ... A water tap In most developed nations drinking water is piped to homes and is available on tap. ... Safe water is water that will not harm you if you come in contact with it. ... E. Coli bacteria under magnification Sanitation is the hygienic disposal or recycling of waste, as well as the policy and practice of protecting health through hygienic measures. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Non revenue water (NRW) is water that has been produced and is “lost” before it reaches the customer. ... Deforestation of the Madagascar Highland Plateau has led to extensive siltation and unstable flows of western rivers. ... // Key issues in the water and sanitation sector in Colombia include: (i) insufficient service coverage, in particular in rural areas; (ii) inadequate quality of water and sanitation services. ... Ecuador’s water and sanitation sector is characterized by (i) low coverage levels, particularly in rural areas; (ii) low service quality and efficiency; and (iii) limited cost recovery and a high level of dependence on financial transfers from national and sub-national governments. ... // Water supply and sanitation in El Salvador are the responsibility of a large number of diverse service providers. ... Water supply and sanitation in France is universal and of good quality. ... Public water supply and sanitation in Germany is universal and of good quality. ... Water supply and sanitation in Latin America is characterized by insufficient access and in many cases by poor service quality, with detrimental impacts on public health. ... While many Mexican water supply and sewer service providers rank among the best in Latin America, in general, the Mexican water and sanitation sector is characterized by the following issues (i) poor technical and commercial efficiency of service provision; (ii) inadequate water service quality; and (iii) inadequate sanitation service quality... Water supply and sanitation in the United States is provided by towns and cities, public utilities that span several jurisdictions and rural cooperatives. ... // For more details on this topic, see United Kingdom water companies. ... // Uruguay is the only country in in Latin America that has achieved quasi universal coverage of access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation (for water access see [1] and for sanitation access see [2]). In addition, Water service quality is considered good, with practically all localities in Uruguay receiving...

External links

Global water supply issues

  • Appropedia:Water supply - a wiki focusing on sustainability and developing world issues.

Professional associations

  • The International Water Association (IWA), an association of water professionals [10]
  • The American Waterworks Association (AWWA) [11]

Organizations and programs affiliated with the UN

  • The UN Secretary-General’s Advisory Board on Water and Sanitation
  • [12]
  • The Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) for water and sanitation of UNICEF and the WHO [13]
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) [14]

International financial institutions supporting water supply and sanitation

  • The World Bank, the largest international financial institution providing finance and knowledge for water supply and sanitation in developing countries [15]
  • The African Development Bank [16]
  • The Asian Development Bank [17]
  • The Inter-American Development Bank [18]

Other international bodies, programs, organizations and units

  • The Water and Sanitation Program, an international partnership affiliated with the World Bank to help the poor gain sustained access to improved water supply and sanitation services [19]
  • The International Benchmarking Network for Water and Sanitation Utilities (IBNET) [20]
  • The World Water Council, an international body that organizes the World Water Fora [21]
  • The water and sanitation site of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) [22]
  • The Utility Regulation site of the IFC's and World Bank's Knowledge Services for the Financial and Private Sector Development, with a focus on water supply [23]
  • Water Aid, an international NGO dedicated exclusively to the provision of safe domestic water, sanitation and hygiene education [24]
  • The Public Services International Research Unit (PSIRU), the research unit of the global confederation of public service trade unions Public Services International. PSIRU has done extensive research on private sector participation in water supply and sanitation [25]
  • The Solar Water Disinfection Process, a simple low cost method for purifying water, developed by the Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology. [26]

International private water companies Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... NGO is an abbreviation or code for: Non-governmental organization Nagoya Airport (IATA code) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... SODIS is the name of a method to disinfect water using UV light and PET bottles. ...

  • Veolia Water, an international water company based in France (ex-Compagnie Generale des Eaux) [27]
  • Suez Environnement, an international water company based in France (ex-Compagnie Lyonnaise des Eaux) [28]
  • Aguas de Barcelona, an international water company based in Spain [29]
  • Thames Water, an international water company based in the UK [30]

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